Abstract

We report on the upgrade at 40 Gb/s and 100 Gb/s of deployed legacy optical networks originally designed for 10-Gb/s nonreturn to zero (NRZ) on–off keying (OOK) data. These networks operate on a 50 GHz grid and incorporate periodically modules to compensate for chromatic dispersion. We discuss here the insertion of coherent polarization-division-multiplexed (PDM)-quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) and PDM-binary PSK (BPSK) channels in legacy optical systems based on low chromatic dispersion fibers. We first assess the nonlinear tolerance of PDM-QPSK paired with coherent detection as a function of the bit rate. We also investigate the effect of optimizing the power of the PDM-QPSK channels independently of the power of copropagating OOK channels as well as introducing guard bands in the multiplex. We particularly show that 40 Gb/s PDM-QPSK data suffer larger performance penalties from copropagating 10 Gb/s OOK channels than 100 Gb/s data. Finally, we demonstrate that PDM-BPSK is a more attractive solution than PDM-QPSK at the bit rate of 40 Gb/s. Our experiments reveal that the BPSK-based solution is about 7.5 dB more robust to cross nonlinearities than the QPSK-based solution when inserted in one wavelength slot with 50 GHz spacing, originally designed for NRZ-OOK channels at 10 Gb/s.

© 2012 IEEE

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  37. G. Charlet, M. Salsi, H. Mardoyan, P. Tran, J. Renaudier, S. Bigo, M. Astruc, P. Sillard, L. Provost, F. Cérou, "Transmission of 81 channels at 40 Gbit/s over a transpacific-distance erbium-only link, using PDM-BPSK modulation, coherent detection, and a new large effective area fibre," Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. BrusselsBelgium Paper Th3E3.
  38. M. Salsi, G. Charlet, O. Bertran-Pardo, J. Renaudier, H. Mardoyan, P. Tran, S. Bigo, "Experimental comparison between binary and quadrature phase shift keying at 40 Gbit/s in a transmission system using coherent detection," Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. TorinoItaly (2010) Paper Mo.2.C.5.
  39. V. Sleiffer, M. Alfiad, D. van den Borne, S. Jansen, M. Kuschnerov, S. Adhikari, H. de Waardt, "A comparison of 43-Gb/s POLMUX-RZ-DPSK and POLMUX-RZ-DQPSK modulation for long-haul transmission systems," Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. TorinoItaly Paper Mo.2.C.4.
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  42. A. J. Viterbi, A. M. Viterbi, "Nonlinear estimation of PSK-modulated carrier phase with application to burst digital transmission," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory IT-29, 543-551 (1983).
  43. A. Leven, N. Kaneda, U.-V. Koc, Y.-K. Chen, "Frequency estimation in intradyne reception," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 366-368 (2007).

2011 (2)

C. Xie, "Impact of nonlinear and polarization effects on coherent systems," Opt. Exp. 19, B915-B930 (2011).

M. Birk, P. Gerard, R. Curto, L. E. Nelson, X. Zhou, P. Magill, T. J. Schmidt, C. Malouin, B. Zhang, E. Ibragimov, S. Khatana, M. Glavanovic, R. Lofland, R. Marcoccia, R. Saunders, G. Nicholl, M. Nowell, F. Forghieri, "Real-Time single-carrier coherent 100 Gb/s PM-QPSK field trial," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 417-425 (2011).

2009 (3)

J. Renaudier, O. Bertran-Pardo, H. Mardoyan, P. Tran, M. Salsi, G. Charlet, S. Bigo, "Investigation on WDM nonlinear impairments arising from the insertion of 100-Gb/s coherent PDM-QPSK over legacy optical networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1816-1818 (2009).

O. Bertran-Pardo, J. Renaudier, G. Charlet, P. Tran, H. Mardoyan, M. Salsi, S. Bigo, "Experimental assessment of interactions between nonlinear impairments and polarization-mode dispersion in 100-Gb/s coherent systems versus receiver complexity," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 51-53 (2009).

J. Renaudier, G. Charlet, O. Bertran-Pardo, H. Mardoyan, P. Tran, M. Salsi, S. Bigo, "Transmission of 100 Gb/s coherent PDM-QPSK over 16×100 km of standard fiber with all-erbium amplifiers," Opt. Exp. 17, 5112-5119 (2009).

2008 (5)

O. Bertran-Pardo, J. Renaudier, G. Charlet, H. Mardoyan, P. Tran, S. Bigo, "Nonlinearity limitations when mixing 40 Gb/s coherent PDM-QPSK channels with preexisting 10 Gb/s NRZ channels," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1314-1316 (2008).

S. J. Savory, "Digital filters for coherent optical receivers," Opt. Exp. 16, 804-817 (2008).

J. Renaudier, G. Charlet, M. Salsi, O. Bertran-Pardo, H. Mardoyan, P. Tran, S. Bigo, "Linear fiber impairments mitigation of 40 Gbit/s polarization-multiplexed QPSK by digital processing in a coherent receiver," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 36-42 (2008).

C. R. S. Fludger, T. Duthel, D. van den Borne, C. Schulien, E.-D. Schmidt, T. Wuth, J. Geyer, E. De Man, G.-D. Khoe, H. de Waardt, "Coherent equalization and POLMUX-RZ-DQPSK for robust 100-GE transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 64-72 (2008).

J. Renaudier, O. Bertran-Pardo, H. Mardoyan, P. Tran, M. Salsi, G. Charlet, S. Bigo, "Impact of temporal interleaving of polarization tributaries onto 100 Gb/s coherent transmission systems with RZ pulse carving," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 2036-2038 (2008).

2007 (1)

A. Leven, N. Kaneda, U.-V. Koc, Y.-K. Chen, "Frequency estimation in intradyne reception," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 366-368 (2007).

2006 (1)

D.-S. Ly-Gagnon, S. Tsukamoto, K. Katoh, K. Kikuchi, "Coherent detection of optical quadrature phase shift keying signals with carrier phase estimation," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 12-21 (2006).

2005 (1)

M. R. Phillips, S. L. Woodward, "Cross-polarization modulation: Theory and measurement of a two-channel WDM system," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2086-2088 (2005).

2004 (1)

M. G. Taylor, "Coherent detection method using DSP for demodulation of signal and subsequent equalization of propagation impairments," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 674-676 (2004).

2000 (1)

B. C. Collings, L. Boivin, "Nonlinear polarization evolution induced by cross-phase modulation and its impact on optical transmission systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1582-1584 (2000).

1998 (1)

G. Bellotti, M. Varani, C. Francia, A. Bononi, "Intensity distortion induced by cross-phase modulation and chromatic dispersion in optical- fiber transmissions with dispersion compensation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 733-736 (1998).

1983 (1)

A. J. Viterbi, A. M. Viterbi, "Nonlinear estimation of PSK-modulated carrier phase with application to burst digital transmission," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory IT-29, 543-551 (1983).

1980 (1)

D. N. Godard, "Self-recovering equalization and carrier tracking in two-dimensional data communication systems," IEEE Trans. Commun. COM-28, 1867-1875 (1980).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (9)

M. G. Taylor, "Coherent detection method using DSP for demodulation of signal and subsequent equalization of propagation impairments," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 674-676 (2004).

J. Renaudier, O. Bertran-Pardo, H. Mardoyan, P. Tran, M. Salsi, G. Charlet, S. Bigo, "Impact of temporal interleaving of polarization tributaries onto 100 Gb/s coherent transmission systems with RZ pulse carving," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 2036-2038 (2008).

O. Bertran-Pardo, J. Renaudier, G. Charlet, P. Tran, H. Mardoyan, M. Salsi, S. Bigo, "Experimental assessment of interactions between nonlinear impairments and polarization-mode dispersion in 100-Gb/s coherent systems versus receiver complexity," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 51-53 (2009).

O. Bertran-Pardo, J. Renaudier, G. Charlet, H. Mardoyan, P. Tran, S. Bigo, "Nonlinearity limitations when mixing 40 Gb/s coherent PDM-QPSK channels with preexisting 10 Gb/s NRZ channels," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1314-1316 (2008).

J. Renaudier, O. Bertran-Pardo, H. Mardoyan, P. Tran, M. Salsi, G. Charlet, S. Bigo, "Investigation on WDM nonlinear impairments arising from the insertion of 100-Gb/s coherent PDM-QPSK over legacy optical networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1816-1818 (2009).

G. Bellotti, M. Varani, C. Francia, A. Bononi, "Intensity distortion induced by cross-phase modulation and chromatic dispersion in optical- fiber transmissions with dispersion compensation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 733-736 (1998).

M. R. Phillips, S. L. Woodward, "Cross-polarization modulation: Theory and measurement of a two-channel WDM system," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2086-2088 (2005).

B. C. Collings, L. Boivin, "Nonlinear polarization evolution induced by cross-phase modulation and its impact on optical transmission systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1582-1584 (2000).

A. Leven, N. Kaneda, U.-V. Koc, Y.-K. Chen, "Frequency estimation in intradyne reception," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 366-368 (2007).

IEEE Trans. Commun. (1)

D. N. Godard, "Self-recovering equalization and carrier tracking in two-dimensional data communication systems," IEEE Trans. Commun. COM-28, 1867-1875 (1980).

IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory (1)

A. J. Viterbi, A. M. Viterbi, "Nonlinear estimation of PSK-modulated carrier phase with application to burst digital transmission," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory IT-29, 543-551 (1983).

J. Lightw. Technol. (4)

M. Birk, P. Gerard, R. Curto, L. E. Nelson, X. Zhou, P. Magill, T. J. Schmidt, C. Malouin, B. Zhang, E. Ibragimov, S. Khatana, M. Glavanovic, R. Lofland, R. Marcoccia, R. Saunders, G. Nicholl, M. Nowell, F. Forghieri, "Real-Time single-carrier coherent 100 Gb/s PM-QPSK field trial," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 417-425 (2011).

D.-S. Ly-Gagnon, S. Tsukamoto, K. Katoh, K. Kikuchi, "Coherent detection of optical quadrature phase shift keying signals with carrier phase estimation," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 12-21 (2006).

C. R. S. Fludger, T. Duthel, D. van den Borne, C. Schulien, E.-D. Schmidt, T. Wuth, J. Geyer, E. De Man, G.-D. Khoe, H. de Waardt, "Coherent equalization and POLMUX-RZ-DQPSK for robust 100-GE transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 64-72 (2008).

J. Renaudier, G. Charlet, M. Salsi, O. Bertran-Pardo, H. Mardoyan, P. Tran, S. Bigo, "Linear fiber impairments mitigation of 40 Gbit/s polarization-multiplexed QPSK by digital processing in a coherent receiver," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 36-42 (2008).

Opt. Exp. (3)

C. Xie, "Impact of nonlinear and polarization effects on coherent systems," Opt. Exp. 19, B915-B930 (2011).

J. Renaudier, G. Charlet, O. Bertran-Pardo, H. Mardoyan, P. Tran, M. Salsi, S. Bigo, "Transmission of 100 Gb/s coherent PDM-QPSK over 16×100 km of standard fiber with all-erbium amplifiers," Opt. Exp. 17, 5112-5119 (2009).

S. J. Savory, "Digital filters for coherent optical receivers," Opt. Exp. 16, 804-817 (2008).

Other (25)

M. S. Alfiad, D. van den Borne, T. Wuth, M. Kuschnerov, B. Lankl, C. Weiske, E. de Man, A. Napoli, H. de Waardt, "111-Gb/s POLMUX-RZ-DQPSK transmission over 1140 km of SSMF with 10.7-Gb/s NRZ-OOK neighbours," Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. BrusselsBelgium (2008) Paper Mo.4.E.2.

M. S. Alfiad, D. van den Borne, S. L. Jansen, T. Wuth, M. Kuschnerov, G. Grosso, A. Napoli, H. de Waardt, "111-Gb/s POLMUX-RZ-DQPSK transmission over LEAF: Optical versus electrical dispersion compensation," Opt. Fiber. Commun. Conf. San DiegoCA (2009) Paper OThR4.

M. Birk, P. Gerard, R. Curto, L. Nelson, X. Zhou, P. Magill, "Field trial of a real-time, single wavelength, coherent 100 Gbit/s PM-QPSK channel upgrade of an installed 1800 km link," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. San DiegoCA (2010) Paper PDPD1.

J. Renaudier, O. Bertran-Pardo, M. Salsi, F. Vacondio, H. Mardoyan, P. Tran, G. Charlet, S. Bigo, "Tolerance to nonlinearity of 40 Gb/s BPSK-based coherent solution over legacy systems based on non-zero dispersion-shifted fibers," Opt. Fiber. Commun. Conf. Los AngelesCA (2011) Paper OThX3.

J.-C. Antona, M. Lefrançois, S. Bigo, G. Le Meur, "Investigation of advanced dispersion management techniques for ultra-long haul transmissions," Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. GlasgowU.K. (2005) Paper Mo.3.2.6.

M. Bertolini, P. Serena, G. Bellotti, A. Bononi, "On the XPM-induced distortion in DQPSK-OOK and coherent QPSK-OOK hybrid systems," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. San DiegoCA (2009) Paper OTuD4.

J. Renaudier, O. Bertran-Pardo, H. Mardoyan, P. Tran, M. Salsi, G. Charlet, S. Bigo, M. Lefrançois, B. Lavigne, J.-L. Auge, L. Piriou, O. Courtois, "Performance comparison of 40 G and 100 G coherent PDM-QPSK for upgrading dispersion managed legacy systems," Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf. San DiegoCA (2009) Paper NWD5.

C. Xia, J. F. Pina, A. Striegler, D. van den Borne, "On the nonlinear threshold of polarization-multiplexed QPSK transmission with different dispersion maps," Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. GenevaSwitzerland (2011) Paper We.10.P1.63.

C. Fürst, J.-P. Elbers, C. Scheerer, C. Glingener, "Limitations of dispersion-managed DWDM systems due to cross-phase modulation," Proc. 13th Annu. Meet. Laser Electro-Opt. Soc. (2000) pp. 23-24.

D. Van den Borne, N. E. Hecker-Denschlag, G.-D. Khoe, H. De Waardt, "Cross phase modulation induced depolarization penalties in 2×10 Gb/s polarization-multiplexed transmission," presented at the Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. StockholmSweden (2004) Paper Mo.4.5.5.

G. Charlet, M. Salsi, H. Mardoyan, P. Tran, J. Renaudier, S. Bigo, M. Astruc, P. Sillard, L. Provost, F. Cérou, "Transmission of 81 channels at 40 Gbit/s over a transpacific-distance erbium-only link, using PDM-BPSK modulation, coherent detection, and a new large effective area fibre," Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. BrusselsBelgium Paper Th3E3.

M. Salsi, G. Charlet, O. Bertran-Pardo, J. Renaudier, H. Mardoyan, P. Tran, S. Bigo, "Experimental comparison between binary and quadrature phase shift keying at 40 Gbit/s in a transmission system using coherent detection," Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. TorinoItaly (2010) Paper Mo.2.C.5.

V. Sleiffer, M. Alfiad, D. van den Borne, S. Jansen, M. Kuschnerov, S. Adhikari, H. de Waardt, "A comparison of 43-Gb/s POLMUX-RZ-DPSK and POLMUX-RZ-DQPSK modulation for long-haul transmission systems," Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. TorinoItaly Paper Mo.2.C.4.

M. Yan, H. Zhang, W. Yan, P. R. T. Hoshida, J. C. Rasmussen, "Adaptive blind equalization for coherent optical BPSK system," Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. TorinoItaly Paper Th.9.A.4.

A. Bononi, N. Rossi, P. Serena, "Transmission limitations due to fiber nonlinearity," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Los AngelesCA Paper OWO7.

D. Rafique, M. Forzati, J. Mårtensson, "Impact of nonlinear fibre impairments in 112 Gb/s PM-QPSK transmission with 43 Gb/s and 10.7 Gb/s neighbours," Proc. 12th Int. Conf. Transparent Opt. Netw. (2010) pp. 1-4.

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