Abstract

Interferometric fiber-optic gyroscopes exhibit time-dependent rate error patterns during operation due to environmental stress on the fiber coil. Short-term errors, equilibrating on the order of minutes to several hours, are attributed to nonreciprocity due to thermal gradients. Long-term rate errors, equilibrating on the order of days to weeks, have not been thoroughly addressed. In this study, we show that diffusion of moisture into or out of a sense coil can cause long-term rate errors. To calculate this effect, we measured the effect of moisture on the mechanical properties of the optical fiber coating. Using these data, we modeled diffusion in a sense coil with finite-element analysis. The rate error is calculated with an integral that is similar to that used by Shupe and others. A variation in water concentration in the coil due to diffusion causes changes in the properties of the fiber coating. This in turn produces nonreciprocal stresses on the waveguide and leads to a rate error.

© 2012 IEEE

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  1. D. M. Shupe, "Thermally induced nonreciprocity in the fiber-optic interferometer," Appl. Opt. 19, 654-655 (1980).
  2. D. M. Shupe, "Fiber resonator gyroscope: Sensitivity and thermal nonreciprocity," Appl. Opt. 20, 286-289 (1981).
  3. N. J. Frigo, "Compensation of linear sources of non-reciprocity in the Sagnac interferometer," Fiber Opt. Laser Sens. I 412, 268-271 (1983).
  4. F. Mohr, F. Schadt, "Bias error in fiber optic gyroscopes due to elasto-optic interactions in the sensor fiber," Proc. 2nd Eur. Workshop Opt. Fibre Sens. (2004) pp. 410-413.
  5. R. A. Bergh, H. C. Lefevre, H. J. Shaw, "All-single-mode fiber-optic gyroscope with long-term stability," Opt. Lett. 6, 502-504 (1981).
  6. F. Mohr, F. Schadt, "Rigorous treatment of fiber-environmental interactions in fiber gyroscopes," Proc. IEEE Region 8 Int. Conf. Comput. Technol. Electr. Electron. Eng. (2008) pp. 372-375.
  7. F. Mohr, "Thermooptically induced bias drift in fiber optical Sagnac interferometers," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 27-41 (1996).
  8. J. L. Mrotek, M. J. Matthewson, C. R. Kurkjian, "Diffusion of moisture through optical fiber coatings," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 988-993 (2001).
  9. J. L. Mrotek, M. J. Matthewson, C. R. Kurkjian, "Modeling of diffusion through optical fiber coatings," Proc. SPIE 4215, 144-149 (2001).
  10. J. L. Mrotek, M. J. Matthewson, "Combined effect of temperature and humidity on the fatigue parameters of optical fiber," Proc. SPIE 5465, 268-273 (2004).
  11. T. L. Yeo, T. Sun;, K. T. V. Grattan, D. Parry, R. Lade, B. D. Powell, "Polymer-coated fiber Bragg grating for relative humidity sensing," Sens. J., IEEE 5, 1082-1089 (2005).
  12. M. P. Zanni-Deffarges, M. E. R. Shanahan, "Diffusion of water into an epoxy adhesive: Comparison between bulk behaviour and adhesive joints," Int. J. Adhes. Adhes. 15, 137-142 (1995).
  13. T. C. Wong, L. J. Broutman, "Water in epoxy resins Part II. Diffusion mechanism," Polymer Eng. Sci. 25, 529-534 (1985).
  14. M. Al-Harthi, K. Loughlin, R. Kahraman, "Moisture diffusion into epoxy adhesive: Testing and modeling," Adsorption 13, 115-120 (2007).
  15. P. Moy, F. E. Karasz, "Epoxy-water interactions," Polymer Eng. Sci. 20, 315-319 (1980).
  16. M. R. Vanlandingham, R. F. Eduljee, J. W. Gillespie, "Moisture diffusion in epoxy systems," J. Appl. Polymer Sci. 71, 787-798 (1999).
  17. COMSOL Multiphysics® 3.4.0.248 ©, COMSOL AB (1994–2007).
  18. O. F. Tirat, J. M. F. Euverte, "Finite element model of thermal transient effect in fiber optic gyro," Proc. SPIE 2837, 230-238 (1996).
  19. M. Bass, Handbook of Optics, Volume II (McGraw-Hill, 1995).

2007 (1)

M. Al-Harthi, K. Loughlin, R. Kahraman, "Moisture diffusion into epoxy adhesive: Testing and modeling," Adsorption 13, 115-120 (2007).

2005 (1)

T. L. Yeo, T. Sun;, K. T. V. Grattan, D. Parry, R. Lade, B. D. Powell, "Polymer-coated fiber Bragg grating for relative humidity sensing," Sens. J., IEEE 5, 1082-1089 (2005).

2004 (1)

J. L. Mrotek, M. J. Matthewson, "Combined effect of temperature and humidity on the fatigue parameters of optical fiber," Proc. SPIE 5465, 268-273 (2004).

2001 (2)

J. L. Mrotek, M. J. Matthewson, C. R. Kurkjian, "Diffusion of moisture through optical fiber coatings," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 988-993 (2001).

J. L. Mrotek, M. J. Matthewson, C. R. Kurkjian, "Modeling of diffusion through optical fiber coatings," Proc. SPIE 4215, 144-149 (2001).

1999 (1)

M. R. Vanlandingham, R. F. Eduljee, J. W. Gillespie, "Moisture diffusion in epoxy systems," J. Appl. Polymer Sci. 71, 787-798 (1999).

1996 (2)

O. F. Tirat, J. M. F. Euverte, "Finite element model of thermal transient effect in fiber optic gyro," Proc. SPIE 2837, 230-238 (1996).

F. Mohr, "Thermooptically induced bias drift in fiber optical Sagnac interferometers," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 27-41 (1996).

1995 (1)

M. P. Zanni-Deffarges, M. E. R. Shanahan, "Diffusion of water into an epoxy adhesive: Comparison between bulk behaviour and adhesive joints," Int. J. Adhes. Adhes. 15, 137-142 (1995).

1985 (1)

T. C. Wong, L. J. Broutman, "Water in epoxy resins Part II. Diffusion mechanism," Polymer Eng. Sci. 25, 529-534 (1985).

1983 (1)

N. J. Frigo, "Compensation of linear sources of non-reciprocity in the Sagnac interferometer," Fiber Opt. Laser Sens. I 412, 268-271 (1983).

1981 (2)

R. A. Bergh, H. C. Lefevre, H. J. Shaw, "All-single-mode fiber-optic gyroscope with long-term stability," Opt. Lett. 6, 502-504 (1981).

D. M. Shupe, "Fiber resonator gyroscope: Sensitivity and thermal nonreciprocity," Appl. Opt. 20, 286-289 (1981).

1980 (2)

D. M. Shupe, "Thermally induced nonreciprocity in the fiber-optic interferometer," Appl. Opt. 19, 654-655 (1980).

P. Moy, F. E. Karasz, "Epoxy-water interactions," Polymer Eng. Sci. 20, 315-319 (1980).

Adsorption (1)

M. Al-Harthi, K. Loughlin, R. Kahraman, "Moisture diffusion into epoxy adhesive: Testing and modeling," Adsorption 13, 115-120 (2007).

Appl. Opt. (1)

D. M. Shupe, "Fiber resonator gyroscope: Sensitivity and thermal nonreciprocity," Appl. Opt. 20, 286-289 (1981).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Fiber Opt. Laser Sens. I (1)

N. J. Frigo, "Compensation of linear sources of non-reciprocity in the Sagnac interferometer," Fiber Opt. Laser Sens. I 412, 268-271 (1983).

Int. J. Adhes. Adhes. (1)

M. P. Zanni-Deffarges, M. E. R. Shanahan, "Diffusion of water into an epoxy adhesive: Comparison between bulk behaviour and adhesive joints," Int. J. Adhes. Adhes. 15, 137-142 (1995).

J. Lightw. Technol. (2)

F. Mohr, "Thermooptically induced bias drift in fiber optical Sagnac interferometers," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 27-41 (1996).

J. L. Mrotek, M. J. Matthewson, C. R. Kurkjian, "Diffusion of moisture through optical fiber coatings," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 988-993 (2001).

J. Appl. Polymer Sci. (1)

M. R. Vanlandingham, R. F. Eduljee, J. W. Gillespie, "Moisture diffusion in epoxy systems," J. Appl. Polymer Sci. 71, 787-798 (1999).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Polymer Eng. Sci. (2)

T. C. Wong, L. J. Broutman, "Water in epoxy resins Part II. Diffusion mechanism," Polymer Eng. Sci. 25, 529-534 (1985).

P. Moy, F. E. Karasz, "Epoxy-water interactions," Polymer Eng. Sci. 20, 315-319 (1980).

Proc. SPIE (1)

O. F. Tirat, J. M. F. Euverte, "Finite element model of thermal transient effect in fiber optic gyro," Proc. SPIE 2837, 230-238 (1996).

Proc. SPIE (2)

J. L. Mrotek, M. J. Matthewson, C. R. Kurkjian, "Modeling of diffusion through optical fiber coatings," Proc. SPIE 4215, 144-149 (2001).

J. L. Mrotek, M. J. Matthewson, "Combined effect of temperature and humidity on the fatigue parameters of optical fiber," Proc. SPIE 5465, 268-273 (2004).

Sens. J., IEEE (1)

T. L. Yeo, T. Sun;, K. T. V. Grattan, D. Parry, R. Lade, B. D. Powell, "Polymer-coated fiber Bragg grating for relative humidity sensing," Sens. J., IEEE 5, 1082-1089 (2005).

Other (4)

M. Bass, Handbook of Optics, Volume II (McGraw-Hill, 1995).

COMSOL Multiphysics® 3.4.0.248 ©, COMSOL AB (1994–2007).

F. Mohr, F. Schadt, "Rigorous treatment of fiber-environmental interactions in fiber gyroscopes," Proc. IEEE Region 8 Int. Conf. Comput. Technol. Electr. Electron. Eng. (2008) pp. 372-375.

F. Mohr, F. Schadt, "Bias error in fiber optic gyroscopes due to elasto-optic interactions in the sensor fiber," Proc. 2nd Eur. Workshop Opt. Fibre Sens. (2004) pp. 410-413.

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