Abstract

This paper, for the first time, experimentally presents direct comparisons of two 25 GHz spaced wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) systems using conventional dual-polarization (DP) 16-ary quadrature amplitude modulation and duobinary-shaped DP-quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) modulation. Both systems operate at the same bit rate per channel of 112 Gbit/s, yielding a spectral efficiency of 4.1 bit/s/Hz. The comparisons are conducted for three different cases, i.e., the back-to-back sensitivity, the nonlinear tolerance over a 640-km standard single-mode fiber link, and the phase-noise tolerance (by means of simulations). The results show that the duobinary-shaped DP-QPSK system not only provides a 3.4 dB superior back-to-back sensitivity, but also exhibits a 3 dB higher tolerance against nonlinear impairments after 640 km transmission with three WDM channels. In addition, the numerical results indicate that both investigated systems provide similar tolerances to the laser phase noise given that the block length used in the carrier phase estimation is optimized.

© 2012 IEEE

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  1. P. J. Winzer, A. H. Gnauck, C. R. Doerr, M. Magarini, L. L. Buhl, "Spectrally efficient long-haul optical networking using 112-Gb/s polarization-multiplexed 16-QAM," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 547-556 (2010).
  2. M. S. Alfiad, M. Kuschnerov, S. L. Jansen, T. Wuth, D. van den Borne, H. de Waardt, "11×224-Gb/s POLMUX-RZ-16QAM transmission over 670 km of SSMF with 50-GHz channel spacing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1150-1152 (2010).
  3. A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, S. Chandrasekhar, X. Liu, B. Zhu, D. W. Peckham, "Spectrally efficient long-haul WDM transmission using 224-Gb/s polarization-multiplexed 16-QAM," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 373-377 (2011).
  4. C. Behrens, S. Makovejs, R. I. Killey, S. J. Savory, M. Chen, P. Bayvel, "Pulse-shaping versus digital backpropagation in 224 Gbit/s PDM-16QAM transmission," Opt. Exp. 19, 12879-12884 (2011).
  5. A. Sano, T. Kobayashi, A. Matsuura, S. Yamamoto, S. Yamanaka, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, M. Matsui, M. Mizoguchi, T. Mizuno, "100×120-Gb/s PDM 64-QAM transmission over 160 km using linewidth-tolerant pilotless digital coherent detection," Proc. Eur. Conf. Exhib. Opt. Commun. (2010) pp. 1-3.
  6. A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, A. Konczykowska, F. Jorge, J.-Y. Dupuy, M. Riet, G. Charlet, B. Zhu, D. W. Peckham, "Generation and transmission of 21.4-Gbaud PDM 64-QAM using a high-power DAC driving a single I/Q modulator," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (2011) pp. 1-3.
  7. X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, B. Zhu, P. J. Winzer, A. H. Gnauck, D. W. Peckham, "448-Gb/s reduced-guard-interval CO-OFDM transmission over 2000 km of ultra-large-area fiber and five 80-GHz-grid ROADMs," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 483-490 (2011).
  8. A. Sano, H. Masuda, T. Kobayashi, M. Fujiwara, K. Horikoshi, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, M. Matsui, M. Mizoguchi, H. Yamazaki, Y. Sakamaki, H. Ishii, "69.1-Tb/s (432×171-Gb/s) C- and extended L-band transmission over 240 km using PDM-16-QAM modulation and digital coherent detection," presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. San DiegoCA (2010) Paper PDPB7.
  9. X. Zhou, L. Nelson, P. Magill, R. Isaac, B. Zhu, D. W. Peckham, P. Borel, K. Carlson, "8×450-Gb/s, 50-GHz-spaced, PDM-32QAM transmission over 400 km and one 50 GHz-grid ROADM," presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Los AngelesCA (2011) Paper PDPB3.
  10. X. Zhou, J. Yu, M.-F. Huang, Y. Shao, T. Wang, L. Nelson, P. Magill, M. Birk, P. I. Borel, D. W. Peckham, R. Lingle, Jr.B. Zhu, "64-Tb/s, 8 b/s/Hz, PDM-36QAM transmission over 320 km using both pre- and post-transmission digital signal processing," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 571-577 (2011).
  11. A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, C. R. Doerr, L. L. Buhl, "10×112-Gb/s PDM 16-QAM transmission over 630 km of fiber with 6.2-b/s/Hz spectral efficiency," presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. San DiegoCA (2009) Paper PDPB8.
  12. I. Fatadin, D. Ives, S. J. Savory, "Blind equalization and carrier phase recovery in a 16-QAM optical coherent system," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 3042-3049 (2009).
  13. J. Li, Z. Tao, H. Zhang, W. Yan, T. Hoshida, J. C. Rasmussen, "Spectrally efficient quadrature duobinary coherent systems with symbol-rate digital signal processing," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 1098-1104 (2011).
  14. J.-X. Cai, Y. Cai, C. R. Davidson, D. G. Foursa, A. J. Lucero, O. V. Sinkin, W. W. Patterson, A. N. Pilipetskii, G. Mohs, N. S. Bergano, "Transmission of 96×100-Gb/s bandwidth-constrained PDM-RZ-QPSK channels with 300% spectral efficiency over 10610 km and 400% spectral efficiency over 4370 km," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 491-498 (2011).
  15. J.-X. Cai, Y. Cai, C. R. Davidson, A. Lucero, H. Zhang, D. G. Foursa, O. V. Sinkin, W. W. Patterson, A. Pilipetskii, G. Mohs, N. S. Bergano, "20 Tbit/s capacity transmission cver 6 860 km," presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Los AngelesCA (2011) Paper PDPB4.
  16. J. Li, E. Tipsuwannakul, M. Karlsson, P. A. Andrekson, "Low-complexity duobinary signaling and detection for sensitivity improvement in Nyquist-WDM coherent system," presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Los AngelesCA (2012) Paper OM3H.2.
  17. T. Pfau, S. Hoffmann, R. Noe, "Hardware-efficient coherent digital receiver concept with feedforward carrier recovery for M-QAM constellations ," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 989-999 (2009).
  18. R. Noé, "Phase noise-tolerant synchronous QPSK/BPSK baseband-type intradyne receiver concept with feedforward carrier recovery," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 802-808 (2005).
  19. W. Weber III, "Differential encoding for multiple amplitude and phase shift keying systems," IEEE Trans. Commun. 26, 385-391 (1978).
  20. M. Seimetz, "Laser linewidth limitations for optical systems with high-order modulation employing feed forward digital carrier phase estimation," presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. San DiegoCA (2008) Paper OTuM2.
  21. J. Li, L. Li, Z. Tao, T. Hoshida, J. C. Rasmussen, "Laser-linewidth-tolerant feed-forward carrier phase estimator with reduced complexity for QAM," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 2358-2364 (2011).

2011 (7)

A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, S. Chandrasekhar, X. Liu, B. Zhu, D. W. Peckham, "Spectrally efficient long-haul WDM transmission using 224-Gb/s polarization-multiplexed 16-QAM," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 373-377 (2011).

C. Behrens, S. Makovejs, R. I. Killey, S. J. Savory, M. Chen, P. Bayvel, "Pulse-shaping versus digital backpropagation in 224 Gbit/s PDM-16QAM transmission," Opt. Exp. 19, 12879-12884 (2011).

X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, B. Zhu, P. J. Winzer, A. H. Gnauck, D. W. Peckham, "448-Gb/s reduced-guard-interval CO-OFDM transmission over 2000 km of ultra-large-area fiber and five 80-GHz-grid ROADMs," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 483-490 (2011).

X. Zhou, J. Yu, M.-F. Huang, Y. Shao, T. Wang, L. Nelson, P. Magill, M. Birk, P. I. Borel, D. W. Peckham, R. Lingle, Jr.B. Zhu, "64-Tb/s, 8 b/s/Hz, PDM-36QAM transmission over 320 km using both pre- and post-transmission digital signal processing," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 571-577 (2011).

J. Li, Z. Tao, H. Zhang, W. Yan, T. Hoshida, J. C. Rasmussen, "Spectrally efficient quadrature duobinary coherent systems with symbol-rate digital signal processing," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 1098-1104 (2011).

J.-X. Cai, Y. Cai, C. R. Davidson, D. G. Foursa, A. J. Lucero, O. V. Sinkin, W. W. Patterson, A. N. Pilipetskii, G. Mohs, N. S. Bergano, "Transmission of 96×100-Gb/s bandwidth-constrained PDM-RZ-QPSK channels with 300% spectral efficiency over 10610 km and 400% spectral efficiency over 4370 km," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 491-498 (2011).

J. Li, L. Li, Z. Tao, T. Hoshida, J. C. Rasmussen, "Laser-linewidth-tolerant feed-forward carrier phase estimator with reduced complexity for QAM," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 2358-2364 (2011).

2010 (2)

P. J. Winzer, A. H. Gnauck, C. R. Doerr, M. Magarini, L. L. Buhl, "Spectrally efficient long-haul optical networking using 112-Gb/s polarization-multiplexed 16-QAM," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 547-556 (2010).

M. S. Alfiad, M. Kuschnerov, S. L. Jansen, T. Wuth, D. van den Borne, H. de Waardt, "11×224-Gb/s POLMUX-RZ-16QAM transmission over 670 km of SSMF with 50-GHz channel spacing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1150-1152 (2010).

2009 (2)

T. Pfau, S. Hoffmann, R. Noe, "Hardware-efficient coherent digital receiver concept with feedforward carrier recovery for M-QAM constellations ," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 989-999 (2009).

I. Fatadin, D. Ives, S. J. Savory, "Blind equalization and carrier phase recovery in a 16-QAM optical coherent system," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 3042-3049 (2009).

2005 (1)

R. Noé, "Phase noise-tolerant synchronous QPSK/BPSK baseband-type intradyne receiver concept with feedforward carrier recovery," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 802-808 (2005).

1978 (1)

W. Weber III, "Differential encoding for multiple amplitude and phase shift keying systems," IEEE Trans. Commun. 26, 385-391 (1978).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

M. S. Alfiad, M. Kuschnerov, S. L. Jansen, T. Wuth, D. van den Borne, H. de Waardt, "11×224-Gb/s POLMUX-RZ-16QAM transmission over 670 km of SSMF with 50-GHz channel spacing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1150-1152 (2010).

IEEE Trans. Commun. (1)

W. Weber III, "Differential encoding for multiple amplitude and phase shift keying systems," IEEE Trans. Commun. 26, 385-391 (1978).

J. Lightw. Technol. (10)

T. Pfau, S. Hoffmann, R. Noe, "Hardware-efficient coherent digital receiver concept with feedforward carrier recovery for M-QAM constellations ," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 989-999 (2009).

R. Noé, "Phase noise-tolerant synchronous QPSK/BPSK baseband-type intradyne receiver concept with feedforward carrier recovery," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 802-808 (2005).

I. Fatadin, D. Ives, S. J. Savory, "Blind equalization and carrier phase recovery in a 16-QAM optical coherent system," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 3042-3049 (2009).

J. Li, Z. Tao, H. Zhang, W. Yan, T. Hoshida, J. C. Rasmussen, "Spectrally efficient quadrature duobinary coherent systems with symbol-rate digital signal processing," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 1098-1104 (2011).

J.-X. Cai, Y. Cai, C. R. Davidson, D. G. Foursa, A. J. Lucero, O. V. Sinkin, W. W. Patterson, A. N. Pilipetskii, G. Mohs, N. S. Bergano, "Transmission of 96×100-Gb/s bandwidth-constrained PDM-RZ-QPSK channels with 300% spectral efficiency over 10610 km and 400% spectral efficiency over 4370 km," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 491-498 (2011).

A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, S. Chandrasekhar, X. Liu, B. Zhu, D. W. Peckham, "Spectrally efficient long-haul WDM transmission using 224-Gb/s polarization-multiplexed 16-QAM," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 373-377 (2011).

X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, B. Zhu, P. J. Winzer, A. H. Gnauck, D. W. Peckham, "448-Gb/s reduced-guard-interval CO-OFDM transmission over 2000 km of ultra-large-area fiber and five 80-GHz-grid ROADMs," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 483-490 (2011).

X. Zhou, J. Yu, M.-F. Huang, Y. Shao, T. Wang, L. Nelson, P. Magill, M. Birk, P. I. Borel, D. W. Peckham, R. Lingle, Jr.B. Zhu, "64-Tb/s, 8 b/s/Hz, PDM-36QAM transmission over 320 km using both pre- and post-transmission digital signal processing," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 571-577 (2011).

P. J. Winzer, A. H. Gnauck, C. R. Doerr, M. Magarini, L. L. Buhl, "Spectrally efficient long-haul optical networking using 112-Gb/s polarization-multiplexed 16-QAM," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 547-556 (2010).

J. Li, L. Li, Z. Tao, T. Hoshida, J. C. Rasmussen, "Laser-linewidth-tolerant feed-forward carrier phase estimator with reduced complexity for QAM," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 2358-2364 (2011).

Opt. Exp. (1)

C. Behrens, S. Makovejs, R. I. Killey, S. J. Savory, M. Chen, P. Bayvel, "Pulse-shaping versus digital backpropagation in 224 Gbit/s PDM-16QAM transmission," Opt. Exp. 19, 12879-12884 (2011).

Other (8)

A. Sano, T. Kobayashi, A. Matsuura, S. Yamamoto, S. Yamanaka, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, M. Matsui, M. Mizoguchi, T. Mizuno, "100×120-Gb/s PDM 64-QAM transmission over 160 km using linewidth-tolerant pilotless digital coherent detection," Proc. Eur. Conf. Exhib. Opt. Commun. (2010) pp. 1-3.

A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, A. Konczykowska, F. Jorge, J.-Y. Dupuy, M. Riet, G. Charlet, B. Zhu, D. W. Peckham, "Generation and transmission of 21.4-Gbaud PDM 64-QAM using a high-power DAC driving a single I/Q modulator," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (2011) pp. 1-3.

A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, C. R. Doerr, L. L. Buhl, "10×112-Gb/s PDM 16-QAM transmission over 630 km of fiber with 6.2-b/s/Hz spectral efficiency," presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. San DiegoCA (2009) Paper PDPB8.

A. Sano, H. Masuda, T. Kobayashi, M. Fujiwara, K. Horikoshi, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, M. Matsui, M. Mizoguchi, H. Yamazaki, Y. Sakamaki, H. Ishii, "69.1-Tb/s (432×171-Gb/s) C- and extended L-band transmission over 240 km using PDM-16-QAM modulation and digital coherent detection," presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. San DiegoCA (2010) Paper PDPB7.

X. Zhou, L. Nelson, P. Magill, R. Isaac, B. Zhu, D. W. Peckham, P. Borel, K. Carlson, "8×450-Gb/s, 50-GHz-spaced, PDM-32QAM transmission over 400 km and one 50 GHz-grid ROADM," presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Los AngelesCA (2011) Paper PDPB3.

J.-X. Cai, Y. Cai, C. R. Davidson, A. Lucero, H. Zhang, D. G. Foursa, O. V. Sinkin, W. W. Patterson, A. Pilipetskii, G. Mohs, N. S. Bergano, "20 Tbit/s capacity transmission cver 6 860 km," presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Los AngelesCA (2011) Paper PDPB4.

J. Li, E. Tipsuwannakul, M. Karlsson, P. A. Andrekson, "Low-complexity duobinary signaling and detection for sensitivity improvement in Nyquist-WDM coherent system," presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Los AngelesCA (2012) Paper OM3H.2.

M. Seimetz, "Laser linewidth limitations for optical systems with high-order modulation employing feed forward digital carrier phase estimation," presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. San DiegoCA (2008) Paper OTuM2.

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