Abstract

This study investigates the effect of temperature on CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) in GaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) using the phosphor conversion efficiency (PCE) and LED junction temperature. In our simulation, the blue chip and CdSe/ZnS QDs temperature are similar because of their minimal thickness. Furthermore, to verify the effect of temperature on CdSe/ZnS QDs, we use continuous wave and pulsed current sources to measure the relationship between the temperature and relative PCE. Higher junction temperatures are observed with greater CdSe/ZnS QD volume in LEDs. This is attributed to the thermal conduction and nonradiative energy between CdSe/ZnS QDs and blue chip. Therefore, if thermal management is improved, CdSe/ZnS QDs are expected to be used as color converting material in LEDs.

© 2012 IEEE

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  1. E. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, "Solid-state light sources getting smart," Science 308, 1274-1278 (2005).
  2. T. Nishida, T. Ban, N. Kobayashi, "High-color-rendering light sources consisting of a 350-nm ultraviolet light-emitting diode and three-basal-color phosphors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3817-3819 (2003).
  3. H. Zhao, G. Liu, N. Tansu, "Analysis of InGaN-delta-InN quantum wells for light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 131114-1-131114-3 (2010).
  4. H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, N. Tansu, "Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells," Opt. Exp. 19, A991-A1007 (2011).
  5. J. Zhang, N. Tansu, "Improvement in spontaneous emission rates for InGaN quantum wells on ternary InGaN substrate for light-emitting diodes," J. Appl. Phys. 110, 113110-1-113110-5 (2011).
  6. S. H. Park, D. Ahn, J. Park, Y. T. Lee, "Optical properties of staggered InGaN/InGaN/GaN quantum-well structures with Ga- and N-Faces," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 072101-1-072101-4 (2011).
  7. C. T. Liao, M. C. Tsai, B. T. Liou, S. H. Yen, Y. K. Kuo, "Improvement in output power of a 460 nm InGaN light-emitting diode using staggered quantum well," J. Appl. Phys. 108, 063107-1-063107-6 (2010).
  8. C. H. Lu, C. C. Lan, Y. L. Lai, Y. L. Li, C. P. Liu, "Enhancement of green emission from InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells via coupling to surface plasmons in a two-dimensional silver array," Adv. Funct. Mater. 21, 4719-4723 (2011).
  9. H. Zhao, J. Zhang, G. Liu, N. Tansu, "Surface plasmon dispersion engineering via double-metallic Au/Ag layers for III-nitride based light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 151115-1-151115-3 (2011).
  10. M. Funato, T. Kondou, K. Hayashi, S. Nishiura, M. Ueda, Y. Kawakami, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, "Monolithic polychromatic light-emitting diodes based on InGaN microfacet quantum wells toward tailor-made solid-state lighting," Appl. Phys. Lett. 1, 011106-1-011106-3 (2008).
  11. I. K. Park, J. Y. Kim, M. K. Kwon, C. Y. Cho, J. H. Lim, S. J. Park, "Phosphor-free white light-emitting diode with laterally distributed multiple quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 091110-1-091110-3 (2008).
  12. A. H. Reading, J. J. Richardson, C. C. Pan, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, "High efficiency white LEDs with single-crystal ZnO current spreading layers deposited by aqueous solution epitaxy," Opt. Exp. 20, A13-A19 (2012).
  13. H. C. Kuo, C. W. Hung, H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, C. H. Wang, C. W. Sher, C. C. Yeh, C. C. Lin, C. H. Chen, Y. J. Cheng, "Patterned structure of remote phosphor for phosphor-converted white LEDs," Opt. Exp. 19, A930-A936 (2011).
  14. Y. Zhang, L. Wu, M. Ji, B. Wang, Y. Kong, J. Xu, "Structure and photoluminescence properties of KSr4(BO3)3:Eu3+ red-emitting phosphor," Opt. Mater. Exp. 2, 92-102 (2012).
  15. T. Higuchi, Y. Hotta, Y. Hikita, S. Maruyama, Y. Hayamizu, H. Akiyama, H. Wadati, D. G. Hawthorn, T. Z. Regier, R. I. R. Blyth, G. A. Sawatzky, H. Y. Hwang, "LaVO(4):Eu phosphor films with enhanced Eu solubility," Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 071902-1-071902-3 (2011).
  16. S. E. Brinkley, N. Pfaff, K. A. Denault, Z. Zhang, H. T. Hintzen, R. Seshadri, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, "Robust thermal performance of Sr(2)Si(5)N(8):Eu(2+): An efficient red emitting phosphor for light emitting diode based white lighting," Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 241106-1-241106-3 (2011).
  17. J. P. You, N. T. Tran, F. G. Shi, "Light extraction enhanced white light-emitting diodes with multi-layered phosphor configuration," Opt. Exp. 18, 5055-5060 (2010).
  18. P. Reiss, J. Bleuse, A. Pron, "Highly luminescent CdSe/ZnSe core/shell nanocrystals of low size dispersion," Nano Lett. 2, 781-784 (2002).
  19. I. L. Medintz, H. T. Uyeda, E. R. Goldman, H. Mattoussi, "Quantum dot bioconjugates for imaging, labelling and sensing," Nature Mater. 4, 435-446 (2005).
  20. J. Lee, V. C. Sundar, J. R. Heine, M. G. Bawendi, K. F. Jensen, "Full color emission from II–VI semiconductor quantum dot-polymer composites," Adv. Mater. 12, 1102-1104 (2000).
  21. R. Xie, D. Battaglia, X. Peng, "Colloidal InP nanocrystals as efficient emitters covering blue to near-infrared," J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 129, 15432-15433 (2007).
  22. X. Wang, W. Li, K. Sun, "Stable efficient CdSe/CdS/ZnS core/multi-shell nanophosphors fabricated through a phosphine-free route for white light-emitting-diodes with high color rendering properties," J. Mater. Chem. 21, 8558-8565 (2011).
  23. E. Jang, S. Jun, H. Jang, J. Llim, B. Kim, Y. Kim, "White-light-emitting diodes with quantum dot color converters for display backlights," Adv. Mater. 22, 3076-3080 (2010).
  24. H. S. Jang, H. Yang, S. W. Kim, J. Y. Han, S. G. Lee, D. Y. Jeon, "White light-emitting diodes with excellent color rendering based on organically capped CdSe quantum dots and Sr3SiO$_{5}$: Ce3+, Li$^{+}$ phosphors," Adv. Mater. 20, 2696-2702 (2008).
  25. S. Nizamoglu, G. Zengin, H. V. Demir, "Color-converting combinations of nanocrystal emitters for warm-white light generation with high color rendering index," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 031102-1-031102-3 (2008).
  26. Y. J. Lee, C. J. Lee, C. M. Cheng, "Enhancing the conversion efficiency of red emission by spin-coating CdSe quantum dots on the green nanorod light-emitting diode," Opt. Exp. 18, A554-A561 (2010).
  27. J. Y. Woo, K. N. Kim, S. Jeong, C. S. Han, "Thermal behavior of a quantum dot nanocomposite as a color converting material and its application to white LED," Nanotechnology 21, 495704 (2010).
  28. C. C. Shen, W. L. Tseng, "One-step synthesis of white-light-emitting quantum dots at low temperature," Inorganic Chem. 48, 8689-8694 (2009).
  29. C. Y. Shen, K. Li, Q. L. Hou, H. J. Feng, X. Y. Dong, "White LED based on YAG: Ce, Gd phosphor and CdSe-ZnS core/shell quantum dots," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 884-886 (2010).
  30. C. Y. Huang, Y. K. Su, Y. C. Chen, P. C. Tsai, C. T. Wan, W. L. Li, "Hybrid CdSe-ZnS quantum dot-InGaN-GaN quantum well red light-emitting diodes," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29, 711-713 (2008).
  31. H. T. Huang, C. C. Tsai, Y. P. Huang, "Conformal phosphor coating using pulsed spray to reduce color deviation of white LEDs," Opt. Exp. 18, A201-A206 (2010).
  32. V. Biju, Y. Makita, A. Sonoda, H. Yokoyama, Y. Baba, M. Ishikawa, "Temperature-sensitive photoluminescence of CdSe quantum dot clusters," J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 13899-13905 (2005).
  33. R. J. Xie, N. Hirosaki, N. Kimura, K. Sakuma, M. Mitomo, "2-phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes using oxynitride/nitride phosphors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 191101-1-191101-3 (2007).

2012 (2)

A. H. Reading, J. J. Richardson, C. C. Pan, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, "High efficiency white LEDs with single-crystal ZnO current spreading layers deposited by aqueous solution epitaxy," Opt. Exp. 20, A13-A19 (2012).

Y. Zhang, L. Wu, M. Ji, B. Wang, Y. Kong, J. Xu, "Structure and photoluminescence properties of KSr4(BO3)3:Eu3+ red-emitting phosphor," Opt. Mater. Exp. 2, 92-102 (2012).

2011 (9)

T. Higuchi, Y. Hotta, Y. Hikita, S. Maruyama, Y. Hayamizu, H. Akiyama, H. Wadati, D. G. Hawthorn, T. Z. Regier, R. I. R. Blyth, G. A. Sawatzky, H. Y. Hwang, "LaVO(4):Eu phosphor films with enhanced Eu solubility," Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 071902-1-071902-3 (2011).

S. E. Brinkley, N. Pfaff, K. A. Denault, Z. Zhang, H. T. Hintzen, R. Seshadri, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, "Robust thermal performance of Sr(2)Si(5)N(8):Eu(2+): An efficient red emitting phosphor for light emitting diode based white lighting," Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 241106-1-241106-3 (2011).

H. C. Kuo, C. W. Hung, H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, C. H. Wang, C. W. Sher, C. C. Yeh, C. C. Lin, C. H. Chen, Y. J. Cheng, "Patterned structure of remote phosphor for phosphor-converted white LEDs," Opt. Exp. 19, A930-A936 (2011).

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, N. Tansu, "Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells," Opt. Exp. 19, A991-A1007 (2011).

J. Zhang, N. Tansu, "Improvement in spontaneous emission rates for InGaN quantum wells on ternary InGaN substrate for light-emitting diodes," J. Appl. Phys. 110, 113110-1-113110-5 (2011).

S. H. Park, D. Ahn, J. Park, Y. T. Lee, "Optical properties of staggered InGaN/InGaN/GaN quantum-well structures with Ga- and N-Faces," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 072101-1-072101-4 (2011).

C. H. Lu, C. C. Lan, Y. L. Lai, Y. L. Li, C. P. Liu, "Enhancement of green emission from InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells via coupling to surface plasmons in a two-dimensional silver array," Adv. Funct. Mater. 21, 4719-4723 (2011).

H. Zhao, J. Zhang, G. Liu, N. Tansu, "Surface plasmon dispersion engineering via double-metallic Au/Ag layers for III-nitride based light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 151115-1-151115-3 (2011).

X. Wang, W. Li, K. Sun, "Stable efficient CdSe/CdS/ZnS core/multi-shell nanophosphors fabricated through a phosphine-free route for white light-emitting-diodes with high color rendering properties," J. Mater. Chem. 21, 8558-8565 (2011).

2010 (8)

E. Jang, S. Jun, H. Jang, J. Llim, B. Kim, Y. Kim, "White-light-emitting diodes with quantum dot color converters for display backlights," Adv. Mater. 22, 3076-3080 (2010).

H. Zhao, G. Liu, N. Tansu, "Analysis of InGaN-delta-InN quantum wells for light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 131114-1-131114-3 (2010).

Y. J. Lee, C. J. Lee, C. M. Cheng, "Enhancing the conversion efficiency of red emission by spin-coating CdSe quantum dots on the green nanorod light-emitting diode," Opt. Exp. 18, A554-A561 (2010).

J. Y. Woo, K. N. Kim, S. Jeong, C. S. Han, "Thermal behavior of a quantum dot nanocomposite as a color converting material and its application to white LED," Nanotechnology 21, 495704 (2010).

C. Y. Shen, K. Li, Q. L. Hou, H. J. Feng, X. Y. Dong, "White LED based on YAG: Ce, Gd phosphor and CdSe-ZnS core/shell quantum dots," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 884-886 (2010).

H. T. Huang, C. C. Tsai, Y. P. Huang, "Conformal phosphor coating using pulsed spray to reduce color deviation of white LEDs," Opt. Exp. 18, A201-A206 (2010).

C. T. Liao, M. C. Tsai, B. T. Liou, S. H. Yen, Y. K. Kuo, "Improvement in output power of a 460 nm InGaN light-emitting diode using staggered quantum well," J. Appl. Phys. 108, 063107-1-063107-6 (2010).

J. P. You, N. T. Tran, F. G. Shi, "Light extraction enhanced white light-emitting diodes with multi-layered phosphor configuration," Opt. Exp. 18, 5055-5060 (2010).

2009 (1)

C. C. Shen, W. L. Tseng, "One-step synthesis of white-light-emitting quantum dots at low temperature," Inorganic Chem. 48, 8689-8694 (2009).

2008 (5)

C. Y. Huang, Y. K. Su, Y. C. Chen, P. C. Tsai, C. T. Wan, W. L. Li, "Hybrid CdSe-ZnS quantum dot-InGaN-GaN quantum well red light-emitting diodes," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29, 711-713 (2008).

H. S. Jang, H. Yang, S. W. Kim, J. Y. Han, S. G. Lee, D. Y. Jeon, "White light-emitting diodes with excellent color rendering based on organically capped CdSe quantum dots and Sr3SiO$_{5}$: Ce3+, Li$^{+}$ phosphors," Adv. Mater. 20, 2696-2702 (2008).

S. Nizamoglu, G. Zengin, H. V. Demir, "Color-converting combinations of nanocrystal emitters for warm-white light generation with high color rendering index," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 031102-1-031102-3 (2008).

M. Funato, T. Kondou, K. Hayashi, S. Nishiura, M. Ueda, Y. Kawakami, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, "Monolithic polychromatic light-emitting diodes based on InGaN microfacet quantum wells toward tailor-made solid-state lighting," Appl. Phys. Lett. 1, 011106-1-011106-3 (2008).

I. K. Park, J. Y. Kim, M. K. Kwon, C. Y. Cho, J. H. Lim, S. J. Park, "Phosphor-free white light-emitting diode with laterally distributed multiple quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 091110-1-091110-3 (2008).

2007 (2)

R. Xie, D. Battaglia, X. Peng, "Colloidal InP nanocrystals as efficient emitters covering blue to near-infrared," J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 129, 15432-15433 (2007).

R. J. Xie, N. Hirosaki, N. Kimura, K. Sakuma, M. Mitomo, "2-phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes using oxynitride/nitride phosphors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 191101-1-191101-3 (2007).

2005 (3)

V. Biju, Y. Makita, A. Sonoda, H. Yokoyama, Y. Baba, M. Ishikawa, "Temperature-sensitive photoluminescence of CdSe quantum dot clusters," J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 13899-13905 (2005).

I. L. Medintz, H. T. Uyeda, E. R. Goldman, H. Mattoussi, "Quantum dot bioconjugates for imaging, labelling and sensing," Nature Mater. 4, 435-446 (2005).

E. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, "Solid-state light sources getting smart," Science 308, 1274-1278 (2005).

2003 (1)

T. Nishida, T. Ban, N. Kobayashi, "High-color-rendering light sources consisting of a 350-nm ultraviolet light-emitting diode and three-basal-color phosphors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3817-3819 (2003).

2002 (1)

P. Reiss, J. Bleuse, A. Pron, "Highly luminescent CdSe/ZnSe core/shell nanocrystals of low size dispersion," Nano Lett. 2, 781-784 (2002).

2000 (1)

J. Lee, V. C. Sundar, J. R. Heine, M. G. Bawendi, K. F. Jensen, "Full color emission from II–VI semiconductor quantum dot-polymer composites," Adv. Mater. 12, 1102-1104 (2000).

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

C. H. Lu, C. C. Lan, Y. L. Lai, Y. L. Li, C. P. Liu, "Enhancement of green emission from InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells via coupling to surface plasmons in a two-dimensional silver array," Adv. Funct. Mater. 21, 4719-4723 (2011).

Adv. Mater. (3)

J. Lee, V. C. Sundar, J. R. Heine, M. G. Bawendi, K. F. Jensen, "Full color emission from II–VI semiconductor quantum dot-polymer composites," Adv. Mater. 12, 1102-1104 (2000).

E. Jang, S. Jun, H. Jang, J. Llim, B. Kim, Y. Kim, "White-light-emitting diodes with quantum dot color converters for display backlights," Adv. Mater. 22, 3076-3080 (2010).

H. S. Jang, H. Yang, S. W. Kim, J. Y. Han, S. G. Lee, D. Y. Jeon, "White light-emitting diodes with excellent color rendering based on organically capped CdSe quantum dots and Sr3SiO$_{5}$: Ce3+, Li$^{+}$ phosphors," Adv. Mater. 20, 2696-2702 (2008).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (9)

S. Nizamoglu, G. Zengin, H. V. Demir, "Color-converting combinations of nanocrystal emitters for warm-white light generation with high color rendering index," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 031102-1-031102-3 (2008).

R. J. Xie, N. Hirosaki, N. Kimura, K. Sakuma, M. Mitomo, "2-phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes using oxynitride/nitride phosphors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 191101-1-191101-3 (2007).

T. Higuchi, Y. Hotta, Y. Hikita, S. Maruyama, Y. Hayamizu, H. Akiyama, H. Wadati, D. G. Hawthorn, T. Z. Regier, R. I. R. Blyth, G. A. Sawatzky, H. Y. Hwang, "LaVO(4):Eu phosphor films with enhanced Eu solubility," Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 071902-1-071902-3 (2011).

S. E. Brinkley, N. Pfaff, K. A. Denault, Z. Zhang, H. T. Hintzen, R. Seshadri, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, "Robust thermal performance of Sr(2)Si(5)N(8):Eu(2+): An efficient red emitting phosphor for light emitting diode based white lighting," Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 241106-1-241106-3 (2011).

H. Zhao, J. Zhang, G. Liu, N. Tansu, "Surface plasmon dispersion engineering via double-metallic Au/Ag layers for III-nitride based light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 151115-1-151115-3 (2011).

M. Funato, T. Kondou, K. Hayashi, S. Nishiura, M. Ueda, Y. Kawakami, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, "Monolithic polychromatic light-emitting diodes based on InGaN microfacet quantum wells toward tailor-made solid-state lighting," Appl. Phys. Lett. 1, 011106-1-011106-3 (2008).

I. K. Park, J. Y. Kim, M. K. Kwon, C. Y. Cho, J. H. Lim, S. J. Park, "Phosphor-free white light-emitting diode with laterally distributed multiple quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 091110-1-091110-3 (2008).

T. Nishida, T. Ban, N. Kobayashi, "High-color-rendering light sources consisting of a 350-nm ultraviolet light-emitting diode and three-basal-color phosphors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3817-3819 (2003).

H. Zhao, G. Liu, N. Tansu, "Analysis of InGaN-delta-InN quantum wells for light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 131114-1-131114-3 (2010).

IEEE Electron Device Lett. (1)

C. Y. Huang, Y. K. Su, Y. C. Chen, P. C. Tsai, C. T. Wan, W. L. Li, "Hybrid CdSe-ZnS quantum dot-InGaN-GaN quantum well red light-emitting diodes," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29, 711-713 (2008).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

C. Y. Shen, K. Li, Q. L. Hou, H. J. Feng, X. Y. Dong, "White LED based on YAG: Ce, Gd phosphor and CdSe-ZnS core/shell quantum dots," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 884-886 (2010).

Inorganic Chem. (1)

C. C. Shen, W. L. Tseng, "One-step synthesis of white-light-emitting quantum dots at low temperature," Inorganic Chem. 48, 8689-8694 (2009).

J. Amer. Chem. Soc. (1)

R. Xie, D. Battaglia, X. Peng, "Colloidal InP nanocrystals as efficient emitters covering blue to near-infrared," J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 129, 15432-15433 (2007).

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

C. T. Liao, M. C. Tsai, B. T. Liou, S. H. Yen, Y. K. Kuo, "Improvement in output power of a 460 nm InGaN light-emitting diode using staggered quantum well," J. Appl. Phys. 108, 063107-1-063107-6 (2010).

J. Zhang, N. Tansu, "Improvement in spontaneous emission rates for InGaN quantum wells on ternary InGaN substrate for light-emitting diodes," J. Appl. Phys. 110, 113110-1-113110-5 (2011).

J. Mater. Chem. (1)

X. Wang, W. Li, K. Sun, "Stable efficient CdSe/CdS/ZnS core/multi-shell nanophosphors fabricated through a phosphine-free route for white light-emitting-diodes with high color rendering properties," J. Mater. Chem. 21, 8558-8565 (2011).

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

V. Biju, Y. Makita, A. Sonoda, H. Yokoyama, Y. Baba, M. Ishikawa, "Temperature-sensitive photoluminescence of CdSe quantum dot clusters," J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 13899-13905 (2005).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. H. Park, D. Ahn, J. Park, Y. T. Lee, "Optical properties of staggered InGaN/InGaN/GaN quantum-well structures with Ga- and N-Faces," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 072101-1-072101-4 (2011).

Nano Lett. (1)

P. Reiss, J. Bleuse, A. Pron, "Highly luminescent CdSe/ZnSe core/shell nanocrystals of low size dispersion," Nano Lett. 2, 781-784 (2002).

Nanotechnology (1)

J. Y. Woo, K. N. Kim, S. Jeong, C. S. Han, "Thermal behavior of a quantum dot nanocomposite as a color converting material and its application to white LED," Nanotechnology 21, 495704 (2010).

Nature Mater. (1)

I. L. Medintz, H. T. Uyeda, E. R. Goldman, H. Mattoussi, "Quantum dot bioconjugates for imaging, labelling and sensing," Nature Mater. 4, 435-446 (2005).

Opt. Exp. (6)

J. P. You, N. T. Tran, F. G. Shi, "Light extraction enhanced white light-emitting diodes with multi-layered phosphor configuration," Opt. Exp. 18, 5055-5060 (2010).

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, N. Tansu, "Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells," Opt. Exp. 19, A991-A1007 (2011).

A. H. Reading, J. J. Richardson, C. C. Pan, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, "High efficiency white LEDs with single-crystal ZnO current spreading layers deposited by aqueous solution epitaxy," Opt. Exp. 20, A13-A19 (2012).

H. C. Kuo, C. W. Hung, H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, C. H. Wang, C. W. Sher, C. C. Yeh, C. C. Lin, C. H. Chen, Y. J. Cheng, "Patterned structure of remote phosphor for phosphor-converted white LEDs," Opt. Exp. 19, A930-A936 (2011).

H. T. Huang, C. C. Tsai, Y. P. Huang, "Conformal phosphor coating using pulsed spray to reduce color deviation of white LEDs," Opt. Exp. 18, A201-A206 (2010).

Y. J. Lee, C. J. Lee, C. M. Cheng, "Enhancing the conversion efficiency of red emission by spin-coating CdSe quantum dots on the green nanorod light-emitting diode," Opt. Exp. 18, A554-A561 (2010).

Opt. Mater. Exp. (1)

Y. Zhang, L. Wu, M. Ji, B. Wang, Y. Kong, J. Xu, "Structure and photoluminescence properties of KSr4(BO3)3:Eu3+ red-emitting phosphor," Opt. Mater. Exp. 2, 92-102 (2012).

Science (1)

E. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, "Solid-state light sources getting smart," Science 308, 1274-1278 (2005).

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