Abstract

The planar and channel waveguides were fabricated by C ion implantation on Nd:SrGdGa<sub>3</sub>O<sub>7</sub> crystal respectively. The guided modes and optical propagation properties were investigated by waveguide coupling method, and the simulation of the light propagation process was performed simultaneously for comparison. The propagation losses of planar and channel waveguides were 0.84 dB/cm and 0.5 dB/cm, respectively, which were measured by end-face coupling equipment. The confocal microfluorescence investigation was used to observe the influence of the C ion implantation process on the Nd ions properties. It shows that there are merits about the relative low loss and the good reservation of Nd ions fluorescence properties in the C-ion-implanted waveguide. Thus, this waveguide could be a very promising candidate for integrated optical device.

© 2012 IEEE

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  27. M. Domenech, G. V. Vázquez, E. Flores-Romero, E. Cantelar, G. Lifante, "Continuous-wave laser oscillation at 1.3. µm in Nd:YAG proton-implanted planar waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151108-1-151108-3 (2005).
  28. Y. Tan, F. Chen, J. R. V. de Aldana, G. A. Torchia, A. Benayas, D. Jaque, "Continuous wave laser generation at 1064 nm in femtosecond laser inscribed Nd:YVO4 channel waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 031119-1-031119-3 (2010).
  29. N. N. Dong, A. Benayas, D. Jaque, Y. Tan, F. Chen, "Fluorescence-quenching free channel waveguides in Yb:YAG ceramics by carbon ion implantation," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 1460-1464 (2011).

2011 (2)

S. Nishiura, S. Tanabe, K. Fujioka, Y. Fujimoto, "Properties of transparent Ce:YAG ceramic phosphors for white LED," Opt. Mater. 33, 688-691 (2011).

N. N. Dong, A. Benayas, D. Jaque, Y. Tan, F. Chen, "Fluorescence-quenching free channel waveguides in Yb:YAG ceramics by carbon ion implantation," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 1460-1464 (2011).

2010 (4)

J. H. Zhao, X. L. Wang, F. Chen, "1/4-branch waveguide power splitters in lithium niobate by means of multi-energy O ion implantation," Opt. Mater. 32, 1441-1445 (2010).

Y. Tan, F. Chen, J. R. V. de Aldana, G. A. Torchia, A. Benayas, D. Jaque, "Continuous wave laser generation at 1064 nm in femtosecond laser inscribed Nd:YVO4 channel waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 031119-1-031119-3 (2010).

S. S. Guo, T. Liu, J. H. Zhao, J. Guan, X. L. Wang, "Planar waveguides in Nd:SGG crystal formed by He ion implantation," Appl. Opt. 49, 6039-6042 (2010).

A. A. Kaminskii, L. Bohati, P. Becker, J. Liebertz, H. J. Eichler, H. Rhee, J. Hanuza, "Cascaded nonlinear-laser interactions in melilite-type crystals of Sr2MgGe2O7 and Ba2ZnGe2O7," Laser Phys. Lett. 7, 528-543 (2010).

2009 (1)

2008 (2)

D. Jaque, F. Chen, Y. Tan, "Scanning confocal fluorescence imaging and micro-Raman investigations of oxygen implanted channel waveguides in Nd:MgO:LiNbO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 161908-161903 (2008).

F. Chen, "Construction of two-dimensional waveguides in insulating optical materials by means of ion beam implantation for photonic applications: Fabrication methods and research progress," Crit. Rev. Solid State Mater. Sci. 33, 165-182 (2008).

2007 (3)

L. Wang, F. Chen, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, Y. Jiao, L. L. Wang, X. S. Li, Q. M. Lu, H. J. Ma, R. Nie, "Low-loss planar and stripe waveguides in Nd3+-doped silicate glass produced by oxygen-ion implantation," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 053112-1-053112-4 (2007).

J. I. Mackenzie, "Dielectric solid-state planar waveguide lasers: A review," IEEE J, Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 13, 626-637 (2007).

J. Olivares, A. García-Navarro, G. García, A. Méndez, F. Agulló-López, A. García-Cabañes, M. Carrascosa, O. Caballero, "Nonlinear optical waveguides generated in lithium niobate by swift-ion irradiation at ultralow fluences," Opt. Lett. 32, 2587-2589 (2007).

2006 (1)

D. Mishchuk, O. V'yunov, O. Ovchar, A. Belous, "Synthesis and dielectric properties of Sr0.6-xBa0.4Na2xNb2O6 solid solutions," Inorg. Mater. 42, 1110-1114 (2006).

2005 (3)

X. Zhang, J. Zhang, L. Liang, Q. Su, "Luminescence of SrGdGa3O7:RE3+ (RE: Eu, Tb) phosphors and energy transfer from Gd3+ to RE3+," Mater. Res. Bull. 40, 281-288 (2005).

M. Domenech, G. V. Vázquez, E. Flores-Romero, E. Cantelar, G. Lifante, "Continuous-wave laser oscillation at 1.3. µm in Nd:YAG proton-implanted planar waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151108-1-151108-3 (2005).

X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, F. Chen, G. Fu, S. L. Li, H. Liu, L. Gao, D. Y. Shen, H. J. Ma, R. Nie, "Optical properties of stoichiometric LiNbO3 waveguides formed by low-dose oxygen ion implantation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 041103-1-041103-3 (2005).

2003 (1)

J. K. Park, M. A. Lim, C. H. Kim, H. D. Park, J. T. Park, S. Y. Choi, "White light-emitting diodes of GaN-based Sr2SiO4:Eu and the luminescent properties," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 683-685 (2003).

2002 (2)

R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, M. Marangoni, "Two straightforward methods for the measurement of optical losses in planar waveguides," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1117-1120 (2002).

G. G. Bentini, M. Bianconi, M. Chiarini, L. Correra, C. Sada, P. Mazzoldi, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, R. Guzzi, "Effect of low dose high energy O3+ implantation on refractive index and linear electro-optic properties in X-cut LiNbO3: Planar optical waveguide formation and characterization," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 6477-6483 (2002).

1999 (1)

W. Ryba-Romanowski, S. Go?v?b, I. Sokólska, G. Dominiak-Dzik, J. Zawadzka, M. Berkowski, J. Fink-Finowicki, M. Baba, "Spectroscopic characterization of a Tm3+:SrGdGa3O7 crystal," Appl. Phys. B 68, 199-205 (1999).

1998 (1)

F. Caccavale, F. Segato, I. Mansour, M. Gianesin, "A finite differences method for the reconstruction of refractive index profiles from near-field measurements," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 1348-1352 (1998).

1986 (1)

P. J. Chandler, F. L. Lama, "A new approach to the determination of planar waveguide profiles by means of a non-stationary mode index calculation," Opt. Acta 33, 127-142 (1986).

1985 (1)

R. Regener, W. Sohler, "Loss in low-finesse Ti:LiNbO3 optical waveguide resonators," Appl. Phys. B 36, 143-147 (1985).

1969 (1)

S. E. Miller, "Integrated optics: An introduction," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 205969 (1969).

1968 (1)

E. R. Schineller, R. P. Flam, D. W. Wilmot, "Optical waveguides formed by proton irradiation of fused silica," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 58, 1171-1173 (1968).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (2)

W. Ryba-Romanowski, S. Go?v?b, I. Sokólska, G. Dominiak-Dzik, J. Zawadzka, M. Berkowski, J. Fink-Finowicki, M. Baba, "Spectroscopic characterization of a Tm3+:SrGdGa3O7 crystal," Appl. Phys. B 68, 199-205 (1999).

R. Regener, W. Sohler, "Loss in low-finesse Ti:LiNbO3 optical waveguide resonators," Appl. Phys. B 36, 143-147 (1985).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

J. K. Park, M. A. Lim, C. H. Kim, H. D. Park, J. T. Park, S. Y. Choi, "White light-emitting diodes of GaN-based Sr2SiO4:Eu and the luminescent properties," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 683-685 (2003).

D. Jaque, F. Chen, Y. Tan, "Scanning confocal fluorescence imaging and micro-Raman investigations of oxygen implanted channel waveguides in Nd:MgO:LiNbO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 161908-161903 (2008).

M. Domenech, G. V. Vázquez, E. Flores-Romero, E. Cantelar, G. Lifante, "Continuous-wave laser oscillation at 1.3. µm in Nd:YAG proton-implanted planar waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151108-1-151108-3 (2005).

Y. Tan, F. Chen, J. R. V. de Aldana, G. A. Torchia, A. Benayas, D. Jaque, "Continuous wave laser generation at 1064 nm in femtosecond laser inscribed Nd:YVO4 channel waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 031119-1-031119-3 (2010).

X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, F. Chen, G. Fu, S. L. Li, H. Liu, L. Gao, D. Y. Shen, H. J. Ma, R. Nie, "Optical properties of stoichiometric LiNbO3 waveguides formed by low-dose oxygen ion implantation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 041103-1-041103-3 (2005).

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (1)

S. E. Miller, "Integrated optics: An introduction," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 205969 (1969).

Crit. Rev. Solid State Mater. Sci. (1)

F. Chen, "Construction of two-dimensional waveguides in insulating optical materials by means of ion beam implantation for photonic applications: Fabrication methods and research progress," Crit. Rev. Solid State Mater. Sci. 33, 165-182 (2008).

IEEE J, Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

J. I. Mackenzie, "Dielectric solid-state planar waveguide lasers: A review," IEEE J, Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 13, 626-637 (2007).

Inorg. Mater. (1)

D. Mishchuk, O. V'yunov, O. Ovchar, A. Belous, "Synthesis and dielectric properties of Sr0.6-xBa0.4Na2xNb2O6 solid solutions," Inorg. Mater. 42, 1110-1114 (2006).

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

G. G. Bentini, M. Bianconi, M. Chiarini, L. Correra, C. Sada, P. Mazzoldi, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, R. Guzzi, "Effect of low dose high energy O3+ implantation on refractive index and linear electro-optic properties in X-cut LiNbO3: Planar optical waveguide formation and characterization," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 6477-6483 (2002).

L. Wang, F. Chen, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, Y. Jiao, L. L. Wang, X. S. Li, Q. M. Lu, H. J. Ma, R. Nie, "Low-loss planar and stripe waveguides in Nd3+-doped silicate glass produced by oxygen-ion implantation," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 053112-1-053112-4 (2007).

J. Lightw. Technol. (2)

F. Caccavale, F. Segato, I. Mansour, M. Gianesin, "A finite differences method for the reconstruction of refractive index profiles from near-field measurements," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 1348-1352 (1998).

N. N. Dong, A. Benayas, D. Jaque, Y. Tan, F. Chen, "Fluorescence-quenching free channel waveguides in Yb:YAG ceramics by carbon ion implantation," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 1460-1464 (2011).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. (1)

E. R. Schineller, R. P. Flam, D. W. Wilmot, "Optical waveguides formed by proton irradiation of fused silica," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 58, 1171-1173 (1968).

Laser Phys. Lett. (1)

A. A. Kaminskii, L. Bohati, P. Becker, J. Liebertz, H. J. Eichler, H. Rhee, J. Hanuza, "Cascaded nonlinear-laser interactions in melilite-type crystals of Sr2MgGe2O7 and Ba2ZnGe2O7," Laser Phys. Lett. 7, 528-543 (2010).

Mater. Res. Bull. (1)

X. Zhang, J. Zhang, L. Liang, Q. Su, "Luminescence of SrGdGa3O7:RE3+ (RE: Eu, Tb) phosphors and energy transfer from Gd3+ to RE3+," Mater. Res. Bull. 40, 281-288 (2005).

Opt. Acta (1)

P. J. Chandler, F. L. Lama, "A new approach to the determination of planar waveguide profiles by means of a non-stationary mode index calculation," Opt. Acta 33, 127-142 (1986).

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opt. Mater. (2)

J. H. Zhao, X. L. Wang, F. Chen, "1/4-branch waveguide power splitters in lithium niobate by means of multi-energy O ion implantation," Opt. Mater. 32, 1441-1445 (2010).

S. Nishiura, S. Tanabe, K. Fujioka, Y. Fujimoto, "Properties of transparent Ce:YAG ceramic phosphors for white LED," Opt. Mater. 33, 688-691 (2011).

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, M. Marangoni, "Two straightforward methods for the measurement of optical losses in planar waveguides," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1117-1120 (2002).

Other (4)

V. Cyrille, L. Pascal, A. Gérard, "CW laser emission around 900 nm along the 4F3/24I9/2 channel with new Nd-doped crystals," Advanced Solid-State Photonics VancouverBCCanada (2007).

R. G. Hunsperger, Integrated Optics: Theory and Technology (Springer-Verlag, 2002).

E. J. Murphy, Integrated Optical Circuits and Components: Design and Applications (Marcel Dekker, 1999).

J. F. Ziegler, Computer code SRIM (2010) http://www.srim.org.

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