Abstract

Microstructured optical fiber inline cavity designs are presented with lengths less than 60 µm, mode volumes less than 3 (λ<sub>0</sub>/<i>n</i>)<sup>3</sup>, and <i>Q</i> factors exceeding 3000. The device geometries are consistent with the fiber postprocessing capabilities of focused ion beam or femtosecond micromachining. The devices are based on introducing a longitudinally periodic hole array into a microstructured optical fiber. The micromachined fiber dispersion is calculated using the 3-D finite-different time-domain method. Bandgap frequencies, confined cavity mode frequencies, and quality factors are presented. Application of the device as a fast-response-time refractometer is explored, and sensitivities of 150 nm per refractive index unit are predicted.

© 2012 IEEE

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  25. K. J. Vahala, "Optical microcavities," Nature 424, 839-846 (2003).
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  28. B.-S. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano, Y. Akahane, "Ultra-high-Q photonic double-heterostructure nanocavity," Nature Mater. 4, 207-210 (2005).
  29. W.-C. Du, X.-M. Tao, H.-Y. Tam, "Fiber Bragg grating cavity sensor for simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 105-107 (1999).
  30. Y. O. Barmenkov, D. Zalvidea, S. Torres-Peiró, J. L. Cruz, M. V. Andrés, "Effective length of short Fabry-Perot cavity formed by uniform fiber Bragg gratings," Opt. Exp. 14, 6394-6398 (2006).
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  32. A. Mock, J. D. O'Brien, "Strategies for reducing the out-of-plane radiation in photonic crystal heterostructure microcavities for continuous wave laser applications," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 1042-1050 (2010).
  33. K. Srinivasan, O. Painter, "Momentum space design of high-Q photonic crystal optical cavities," Opt. Exp. 10, 670-684 (2002).
  34. Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B.-S. Song, S. Noda, "Fine-tuned high-Q photonic-crystal nanocavity," Opt. Exp. 13, 1202-1214 (2005).
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  36. Y. Takahashi, H. Hagino, T. Yoshinori, B.-S. Song, T. Asano, S. Noda, "High-Q nanocavity with a 2-ns photon lifetime," Opt. Exp. 15, 17206-17213 (2007).
  37. M. C. P. Huy, G. Laffont, V. Dewynter, P. Ferdinand, P. Roy, J.-L. Augeste, D. Pagnoux, W. Blanc, B. Dussardier, "Three-hole microstructured optical fiber for efficient fiber bragg grating refractometer," Opt. Lett. 32, 2390-2392 (2007).
  38. L. Rindorf, J. B. Jensen, M. Dufva, L. H. Pedersen, P. E. Høiby, O. Bang, "Photonic crystal fiber long-period gratings for biochemical sensing," Opt. Exp. 13, 8224-8231 (2006).
  39. D. K. C. Wu, B. T. Kuhlmey, B. J. Eggleton, "Ultrasensitive photonic crystal fiber refractive index sensor," Opt. Lett. 34, 322-324 (2009).
  40. Y. L. Hoo, W. W. Jin, C. Shi, H. L. Ho, D. N. Wang, S. C. Ruan, "Design and modeling of a photonic crystal fiber gas sensor," Appl. Opt. 42, 3509-3515 (2003).
  41. J. B. Jensen, L. H. Pedersen, P. E. Hoiby, L. B. Nielsen, T. P. Hansen, J. R. Folkenberg, J. Riishede, D. Noordegraaf, K. Nielsen, A. Carlsen, A. Bjarklev, "Photonic crystal fiber based evanescent-wave sensor for detection of biomolecules in aqueous solutions," Opt. Lett. 29, 1974-1976 (2004).
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2011

Y. Liu, C. Meng, A. P. Zhang, Y. Xiao, H. Yu, L. Tong, "Compact microfiber bragg gratins with high-index contrast," Opt. Lett. 36, 3115-3117 (2011).

M. Ding, M. N. Zervas, G. Brambilla, "A compact broadband microfiber Bragg grating," Opt. Exp. 19, 15621-15626 (2011).

K. P. Nayak, F. L. Kien, Y. Kawai, K. Hakuta, K. Nakajima, T. Miyazaki, Y. Sugimoto, "Cavity formation on an optical nanofiber using focused ion beam milling technique," Opt. Exp. 19, 14040-14050 (2011).

2010

S. Liu, L. Jin, W. Jin, D. Wang, C. Liao, Y. Wang, "Structural long period gratings made by drilling micro-holes in photonic crystal fibers with a femtosecond infrared laser," Opt. Exp. 18, 5496-5503 (2010).

X. Fang, C. R. Liao, D. N. Wang, "Femtosecond laser fabricated fiber Bragg grating in microfiber for refractive index sensing," Opt. Lett. 35, 1007-1009 (2010).

C. Toninelli, Y. Delley, T. Stöferle, A. Renn, S. Götzinger, V. Sandoghdar, "A scanning microcavity for in situ control of single-molecule emission," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 021107-1-021107-3 (2010).

M. Nomura, Y. Ota, N. Kumagai, S. Iwamoto, Y. Arakawa, "Zero-cell photonic crystal nanocavity laser with quantum dot gain," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 191108-1-191108-3 (2010).

A. Mock, J. D. O'Brien, "Strategies for reducing the out-of-plane radiation in photonic crystal heterostructure microcavities for continuous wave laser applications," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 1042-1050 (2010).

2009

D. K. C. Wu, B. T. Kuhlmey, B. J. Eggleton, "Ultrasensitive photonic crystal fiber refractive index sensor," Opt. Lett. 34, 322-324 (2009).

Q. Song, H. Cao, S. T. Ho, G. S. Solomon, "Near-IR subwavelength microdisk lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 061109-1-061109-3 (2009).

2008

A. Mock, J. D. O'Brien, "Direct extraction of large quality factors and resonant frequencies from Padé interpolated resonance spectra," Opt. Quantum Electron. 40, 1187-1192 (2008).

X. P. Cheng, P. Shum, C. H. Tse, J. L. Zhou, M. Tang, W. C. Tan, R. F. Wu, J. Zhang, "Single-longitudinal-mode erbium-doped fiber ring laser based on high finesse fiber Bragg grating Fabry—Pérot etalon," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 976-978 (2008).

2007

C. J. Hensley, D. H. Broaddus, C. B. Schaffer, A. L. Gaeta, "Photonic band-gap fiber gas cell fabricated using femtosecond micromachining," Opt. Exp. 15, 6690-6695 (2007).

C. Martelli, P. Olivero, J. Canning, N. Groothoff, B. Gibson, S. Huntington, "Micromachining structured optical fibers using focused ion beam milling," Opt. Lett. 32, 1575-1577 (2007).

Y. Takahashi, H. Hagino, T. Yoshinori, B.-S. Song, T. Asano, S. Noda, "High-Q nanocavity with a 2-ns photon lifetime," Opt. Exp. 15, 17206-17213 (2007).

M. C. P. Huy, G. Laffont, V. Dewynter, P. Ferdinand, P. Roy, J.-L. Augeste, D. Pagnoux, W. Blanc, B. Dussardier, "Three-hole microstructured optical fiber for efficient fiber bragg grating refractometer," Opt. Lett. 32, 2390-2392 (2007).

2006

L. Rindorf, J. B. Jensen, M. Dufva, L. H. Pedersen, P. E. Høiby, O. Bang, "Photonic crystal fiber long-period gratings for biochemical sensing," Opt. Exp. 13, 8224-8231 (2006).

W. Kuang, W. J. Kim, A. Mock, J. D. O'Brien, "Propagation loss of line-defect photonic crystal slab waveguides," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 1183-1195 (2006).

A. R. Bhagwat, A. L. Gaeta, "Nonlinear optics in hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Exp. 16, 5035-5047 (2006).

Y. O. Barmenkov, D. Zalvidea, S. Torres-Peiró, J. L. Cruz, M. V. Andrés, "Effective length of short Fabry-Perot cavity formed by uniform fiber Bragg gratings," Opt. Exp. 14, 6394-6398 (2006).

2005

B.-S. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano, Y. Akahane, "Ultra-high-Q photonic double-heterostructure nanocavity," Nature Mater. 4, 207-210 (2005).

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B.-S. Song, S. Noda, "Fine-tuned high-Q photonic-crystal nanocavity," Opt. Exp. 13, 1202-1214 (2005).

D. Englund, I. Fushman, J. Vu?kovi?, "General recipe for designing photonic crystal cavities," Opt. Exp. 13, 5961-5975 (2005).

2004

2003

Y. L. Hoo, W. W. Jin, C. Shi, H. L. Ho, D. N. Wang, S. C. Ruan, "Design and modeling of a photonic crystal fiber gas sensor," Appl. Opt. 42, 3509-3515 (2003).

K. J. Vahala, "Optical microcavities," Nature 424, 839-846 (2003).

J. C. Knight, "Photonic crystal fibres," Nature 424, 847-851 (2003).

P. S. J. Russell, "Photonic crystal fibers," Science 299, 358-362 (2003).

J. Limpert, T. Schreiber, S. Nolte, H. Zellmer, A. Tünnermann, R. Iliew, F. Lederer, J. Broeng, G. Vienne, A. Petersson, C. Jakobsen, "High-power air-clad large-mode-area photonic crystal fiber laser," Opt. Exp. 11, 818-823 (2003).

2002

K. Srinivasan, O. Painter, "Momentum space design of high-Q photonic crystal optical cavities," Opt. Exp. 10, 670-684 (2002).

2000

J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W. J. Wadsworth, P. S. J. Russell, "Anomolous dispersion in photonic crystal fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 807-809 (2000).

1999

W.-C. Du, X.-M. Tao, H.-Y. Tam, "Fiber Bragg grating cavity sensor for simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 105-107 (1999).

1998

S. Dey, R. Mittra, "Efficient computation of resonant frequencies and quality factors of cavities via a combination of the finite-difference time-domain technique and the Padé approximation," IEEE Microw. Guided Wave Lett. 8, 415-417 (1998).

1993

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, J. Albert, "Bragg gratings fabricated in monomode photosensitive optical fiber by UV exposure through a phase mask," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1035-1037 (1993).

1989

G. Meltz, W. W. Morey, W. H. Glenn, "Formation of Bragg gratings in optical fibers by a transverse holographic method," Opt. Lett. 14, 823-825 (1989).

E. Yablonovitch, T. J. Gmitter, "Photonic band structure: The face-centered-cubic case," Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 1950-1953 (1989).

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

M. Nomura, Y. Ota, N. Kumagai, S. Iwamoto, Y. Arakawa, "Zero-cell photonic crystal nanocavity laser with quantum dot gain," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 191108-1-191108-3 (2010).

Q. Song, H. Cao, S. T. Ho, G. S. Solomon, "Near-IR subwavelength microdisk lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 061109-1-061109-3 (2009).

C. Toninelli, Y. Delley, T. Stöferle, A. Renn, S. Götzinger, V. Sandoghdar, "A scanning microcavity for in situ control of single-molecule emission," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 021107-1-021107-3 (2010).

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, J. Albert, "Bragg gratings fabricated in monomode photosensitive optical fiber by UV exposure through a phase mask," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1035-1037 (1993).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron.

W. Kuang, W. J. Kim, A. Mock, J. D. O'Brien, "Propagation loss of line-defect photonic crystal slab waveguides," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 1183-1195 (2006).

IEEE Microw. Guided Wave Lett.

S. Dey, R. Mittra, "Efficient computation of resonant frequencies and quality factors of cavities via a combination of the finite-difference time-domain technique and the Padé approximation," IEEE Microw. Guided Wave Lett. 8, 415-417 (1998).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

W.-C. Du, X.-M. Tao, H.-Y. Tam, "Fiber Bragg grating cavity sensor for simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 105-107 (1999).

X. P. Cheng, P. Shum, C. H. Tse, J. L. Zhou, M. Tang, W. C. Tan, R. F. Wu, J. Zhang, "Single-longitudinal-mode erbium-doped fiber ring laser based on high finesse fiber Bragg grating Fabry—Pérot etalon," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 976-978 (2008).

J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W. J. Wadsworth, P. S. J. Russell, "Anomolous dispersion in photonic crystal fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 807-809 (2000).

J. Lightw. Technol.

A. Mock, J. D. O'Brien, "Strategies for reducing the out-of-plane radiation in photonic crystal heterostructure microcavities for continuous wave laser applications," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 1042-1050 (2010).

Meas. Sci. Technol.

J. M. Fini, "Microstructure fibres for optical sensing in gases and liquids," Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 1120-1128 (2004).

Nature

K. J. Vahala, "Optical microcavities," Nature 424, 839-846 (2003).

J. C. Knight, "Photonic crystal fibres," Nature 424, 847-851 (2003).

Nature Mater.

B.-S. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano, Y. Akahane, "Ultra-high-Q photonic double-heterostructure nanocavity," Nature Mater. 4, 207-210 (2005).

Opt. Exp.

Y. O. Barmenkov, D. Zalvidea, S. Torres-Peiró, J. L. Cruz, M. V. Andrés, "Effective length of short Fabry-Perot cavity formed by uniform fiber Bragg gratings," Opt. Exp. 14, 6394-6398 (2006).

A. R. Bhagwat, A. L. Gaeta, "Nonlinear optics in hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Exp. 16, 5035-5047 (2006).

K. Srinivasan, O. Painter, "Momentum space design of high-Q photonic crystal optical cavities," Opt. Exp. 10, 670-684 (2002).

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B.-S. Song, S. Noda, "Fine-tuned high-Q photonic-crystal nanocavity," Opt. Exp. 13, 1202-1214 (2005).

D. Englund, I. Fushman, J. Vu?kovi?, "General recipe for designing photonic crystal cavities," Opt. Exp. 13, 5961-5975 (2005).

Y. Takahashi, H. Hagino, T. Yoshinori, B.-S. Song, T. Asano, S. Noda, "High-Q nanocavity with a 2-ns photon lifetime," Opt. Exp. 15, 17206-17213 (2007).

L. Rindorf, J. B. Jensen, M. Dufva, L. H. Pedersen, P. E. Høiby, O. Bang, "Photonic crystal fiber long-period gratings for biochemical sensing," Opt. Exp. 13, 8224-8231 (2006).

J. Limpert, T. Schreiber, S. Nolte, H. Zellmer, A. Tünnermann, R. Iliew, F. Lederer, J. Broeng, G. Vienne, A. Petersson, C. Jakobsen, "High-power air-clad large-mode-area photonic crystal fiber laser," Opt. Exp. 11, 818-823 (2003).

C. J. Hensley, D. H. Broaddus, C. B. Schaffer, A. L. Gaeta, "Photonic band-gap fiber gas cell fabricated using femtosecond micromachining," Opt. Exp. 15, 6690-6695 (2007).

S. Liu, L. Jin, W. Jin, D. Wang, C. Liao, Y. Wang, "Structural long period gratings made by drilling micro-holes in photonic crystal fibers with a femtosecond infrared laser," Opt. Exp. 18, 5496-5503 (2010).

M. Ding, M. N. Zervas, G. Brambilla, "A compact broadband microfiber Bragg grating," Opt. Exp. 19, 15621-15626 (2011).

K. P. Nayak, F. L. Kien, Y. Kawai, K. Hakuta, K. Nakajima, T. Miyazaki, Y. Sugimoto, "Cavity formation on an optical nanofiber using focused ion beam milling technique," Opt. Exp. 19, 14040-14050 (2011).

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Quantum Electron.

A. Mock, J. D. O'Brien, "Direct extraction of large quality factors and resonant frequencies from Padé interpolated resonance spectra," Opt. Quantum Electron. 40, 1187-1192 (2008).

Phys. Rev. Lett.

E. Yablonovitch, T. J. Gmitter, "Photonic band structure: The face-centered-cubic case," Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 1950-1953 (1989).

Science

P. S. J. Russell, "Photonic crystal fibers," Science 299, 358-362 (2003).

Other

M. N. Petrovich, A. van Brakel, F. Poletti, K. Mukasa, E. Austin, V. Finazzi, P. Petropoulos, E. O'Driscoll, M. Watson, T. DelMonte, T. M. Monro, J. P. Dakin, D. J. Richardson, SPIE Optics East (SPIE, 2005).

S. M. Hendrickson, T. B. Pittman, J. D. Franson, "Holey fiber microcavities," presented at the Conf. Lasers Electro-Opt. Tech. Dig. San JoseCA (2008) Paper QWB4.

A. Taflove, S. C. Hagness, Computational Electrodynamics (Artech House, 2000).

J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade, J. N. Winn, Photonic Crystals (Princeton Univ. Press, 1995).

A. Yariv, Optical Electronics in Modern Communications (Oxford Univ. Press, 1997).

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