Abstract

Microstructured optical fiber inline cavity designs are presented with lengths less than 60 µm, mode volumes less than 3 (λ<sub>0</sub>/<i>n</i>)<sup>3</sup>, and <i>Q</i> factors exceeding 3000. The device geometries are consistent with the fiber postprocessing capabilities of focused ion beam or femtosecond micromachining. The devices are based on introducing a longitudinally periodic hole array into a microstructured optical fiber. The micromachined fiber dispersion is calculated using the 3-D finite-different time-domain method. Bandgap frequencies, confined cavity mode frequencies, and quality factors are presented. Application of the device as a fast-response-time refractometer is explored, and sensitivities of 150 nm per refractive index unit are predicted.

© 2012 IEEE

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2011 (3)

M. Ding, M. N. Zervas, G. Brambilla, "A compact broadband microfiber Bragg grating," Opt. Exp. 19, 15621-15626 (2011).

K. P. Nayak, F. L. Kien, Y. Kawai, K. Hakuta, K. Nakajima, T. Miyazaki, Y. Sugimoto, "Cavity formation on an optical nanofiber using focused ion beam milling technique," Opt. Exp. 19, 14040-14050 (2011).

Y. Liu, C. Meng, A. P. Zhang, Y. Xiao, H. Yu, L. Tong, "Compact microfiber bragg gratins with high-index contrast," Opt. Lett. 36, 3115-3117 (2011).

2010 (5)

X. Fang, C. R. Liao, D. N. Wang, "Femtosecond laser fabricated fiber Bragg grating in microfiber for refractive index sensing," Opt. Lett. 35, 1007-1009 (2010).

M. Nomura, Y. Ota, N. Kumagai, S. Iwamoto, Y. Arakawa, "Zero-cell photonic crystal nanocavity laser with quantum dot gain," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 191108-1-191108-3 (2010).

S. Liu, L. Jin, W. Jin, D. Wang, C. Liao, Y. Wang, "Structural long period gratings made by drilling micro-holes in photonic crystal fibers with a femtosecond infrared laser," Opt. Exp. 18, 5496-5503 (2010).

A. Mock, J. D. O'Brien, "Strategies for reducing the out-of-plane radiation in photonic crystal heterostructure microcavities for continuous wave laser applications," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 1042-1050 (2010).

C. Toninelli, Y. Delley, T. Stöferle, A. Renn, S. Götzinger, V. Sandoghdar, "A scanning microcavity for in situ control of single-molecule emission," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 021107-1-021107-3 (2010).

2009 (2)

Q. Song, H. Cao, S. T. Ho, G. S. Solomon, "Near-IR subwavelength microdisk lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 061109-1-061109-3 (2009).

D. K. C. Wu, B. T. Kuhlmey, B. J. Eggleton, "Ultrasensitive photonic crystal fiber refractive index sensor," Opt. Lett. 34, 322-324 (2009).

2008 (2)

X. P. Cheng, P. Shum, C. H. Tse, J. L. Zhou, M. Tang, W. C. Tan, R. F. Wu, J. Zhang, "Single-longitudinal-mode erbium-doped fiber ring laser based on high finesse fiber Bragg grating Fabry—Pérot etalon," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 976-978 (2008).

A. Mock, J. D. O'Brien, "Direct extraction of large quality factors and resonant frequencies from Padé interpolated resonance spectra," Opt. Quantum Electron. 40, 1187-1192 (2008).

2007 (4)

Y. Takahashi, H. Hagino, T. Yoshinori, B.-S. Song, T. Asano, S. Noda, "High-Q nanocavity with a 2-ns photon lifetime," Opt. Exp. 15, 17206-17213 (2007).

C. J. Hensley, D. H. Broaddus, C. B. Schaffer, A. L. Gaeta, "Photonic band-gap fiber gas cell fabricated using femtosecond micromachining," Opt. Exp. 15, 6690-6695 (2007).

C. Martelli, P. Olivero, J. Canning, N. Groothoff, B. Gibson, S. Huntington, "Micromachining structured optical fibers using focused ion beam milling," Opt. Lett. 32, 1575-1577 (2007).

M. C. P. Huy, G. Laffont, V. Dewynter, P. Ferdinand, P. Roy, J.-L. Augeste, D. Pagnoux, W. Blanc, B. Dussardier, "Three-hole microstructured optical fiber for efficient fiber bragg grating refractometer," Opt. Lett. 32, 2390-2392 (2007).

2006 (4)

L. Rindorf, J. B. Jensen, M. Dufva, L. H. Pedersen, P. E. Høiby, O. Bang, "Photonic crystal fiber long-period gratings for biochemical sensing," Opt. Exp. 13, 8224-8231 (2006).

A. R. Bhagwat, A. L. Gaeta, "Nonlinear optics in hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Exp. 16, 5035-5047 (2006).

W. Kuang, W. J. Kim, A. Mock, J. D. O'Brien, "Propagation loss of line-defect photonic crystal slab waveguides," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 1183-1195 (2006).

Y. O. Barmenkov, D. Zalvidea, S. Torres-Peiró, J. L. Cruz, M. V. Andrés, "Effective length of short Fabry-Perot cavity formed by uniform fiber Bragg gratings," Opt. Exp. 14, 6394-6398 (2006).

2005 (3)

B.-S. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano, Y. Akahane, "Ultra-high-Q photonic double-heterostructure nanocavity," Nature Mater. 4, 207-210 (2005).

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B.-S. Song, S. Noda, "Fine-tuned high-Q photonic-crystal nanocavity," Opt. Exp. 13, 1202-1214 (2005).

D. Englund, I. Fushman, J. Vu?kovi?, "General recipe for designing photonic crystal cavities," Opt. Exp. 13, 5961-5975 (2005).

2004 (2)

2003 (5)

J. Limpert, T. Schreiber, S. Nolte, H. Zellmer, A. Tünnermann, R. Iliew, F. Lederer, J. Broeng, G. Vienne, A. Petersson, C. Jakobsen, "High-power air-clad large-mode-area photonic crystal fiber laser," Opt. Exp. 11, 818-823 (2003).

Y. L. Hoo, W. W. Jin, C. Shi, H. L. Ho, D. N. Wang, S. C. Ruan, "Design and modeling of a photonic crystal fiber gas sensor," Appl. Opt. 42, 3509-3515 (2003).

J. C. Knight, "Photonic crystal fibres," Nature 424, 847-851 (2003).

P. S. J. Russell, "Photonic crystal fibers," Science 299, 358-362 (2003).

K. J. Vahala, "Optical microcavities," Nature 424, 839-846 (2003).

2002 (1)

K. Srinivasan, O. Painter, "Momentum space design of high-Q photonic crystal optical cavities," Opt. Exp. 10, 670-684 (2002).

2000 (1)

J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W. J. Wadsworth, P. S. J. Russell, "Anomolous dispersion in photonic crystal fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 807-809 (2000).

1999 (1)

W.-C. Du, X.-M. Tao, H.-Y. Tam, "Fiber Bragg grating cavity sensor for simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 105-107 (1999).

1998 (1)

S. Dey, R. Mittra, "Efficient computation of resonant frequencies and quality factors of cavities via a combination of the finite-difference time-domain technique and the Padé approximation," IEEE Microw. Guided Wave Lett. 8, 415-417 (1998).

1993 (1)

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, J. Albert, "Bragg gratings fabricated in monomode photosensitive optical fiber by UV exposure through a phase mask," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1035-1037 (1993).

1989 (2)

G. Meltz, W. W. Morey, W. H. Glenn, "Formation of Bragg gratings in optical fibers by a transverse holographic method," Opt. Lett. 14, 823-825 (1989).

E. Yablonovitch, T. J. Gmitter, "Photonic band structure: The face-centered-cubic case," Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 1950-1953 (1989).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

C. Toninelli, Y. Delley, T. Stöferle, A. Renn, S. Götzinger, V. Sandoghdar, "A scanning microcavity for in situ control of single-molecule emission," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 021107-1-021107-3 (2010).

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, J. Albert, "Bragg gratings fabricated in monomode photosensitive optical fiber by UV exposure through a phase mask," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1035-1037 (1993).

M. Nomura, Y. Ota, N. Kumagai, S. Iwamoto, Y. Arakawa, "Zero-cell photonic crystal nanocavity laser with quantum dot gain," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 191108-1-191108-3 (2010).

Q. Song, H. Cao, S. T. Ho, G. S. Solomon, "Near-IR subwavelength microdisk lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 061109-1-061109-3 (2009).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

W. Kuang, W. J. Kim, A. Mock, J. D. O'Brien, "Propagation loss of line-defect photonic crystal slab waveguides," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 1183-1195 (2006).

IEEE Microw. Guided Wave Lett. (1)

S. Dey, R. Mittra, "Efficient computation of resonant frequencies and quality factors of cavities via a combination of the finite-difference time-domain technique and the Padé approximation," IEEE Microw. Guided Wave Lett. 8, 415-417 (1998).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

X. P. Cheng, P. Shum, C. H. Tse, J. L. Zhou, M. Tang, W. C. Tan, R. F. Wu, J. Zhang, "Single-longitudinal-mode erbium-doped fiber ring laser based on high finesse fiber Bragg grating Fabry—Pérot etalon," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 976-978 (2008).

W.-C. Du, X.-M. Tao, H.-Y. Tam, "Fiber Bragg grating cavity sensor for simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 105-107 (1999).

J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W. J. Wadsworth, P. S. J. Russell, "Anomolous dispersion in photonic crystal fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 807-809 (2000).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

A. Mock, J. D. O'Brien, "Strategies for reducing the out-of-plane radiation in photonic crystal heterostructure microcavities for continuous wave laser applications," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 1042-1050 (2010).

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

J. M. Fini, "Microstructure fibres for optical sensing in gases and liquids," Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 1120-1128 (2004).

Nature (2)

J. C. Knight, "Photonic crystal fibres," Nature 424, 847-851 (2003).

K. J. Vahala, "Optical microcavities," Nature 424, 839-846 (2003).

Nature Mater. (1)

B.-S. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano, Y. Akahane, "Ultra-high-Q photonic double-heterostructure nanocavity," Nature Mater. 4, 207-210 (2005).

Opt. Exp. (12)

Y. O. Barmenkov, D. Zalvidea, S. Torres-Peiró, J. L. Cruz, M. V. Andrés, "Effective length of short Fabry-Perot cavity formed by uniform fiber Bragg gratings," Opt. Exp. 14, 6394-6398 (2006).

K. Srinivasan, O. Painter, "Momentum space design of high-Q photonic crystal optical cavities," Opt. Exp. 10, 670-684 (2002).

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B.-S. Song, S. Noda, "Fine-tuned high-Q photonic-crystal nanocavity," Opt. Exp. 13, 1202-1214 (2005).

D. Englund, I. Fushman, J. Vu?kovi?, "General recipe for designing photonic crystal cavities," Opt. Exp. 13, 5961-5975 (2005).

Y. Takahashi, H. Hagino, T. Yoshinori, B.-S. Song, T. Asano, S. Noda, "High-Q nanocavity with a 2-ns photon lifetime," Opt. Exp. 15, 17206-17213 (2007).

S. Liu, L. Jin, W. Jin, D. Wang, C. Liao, Y. Wang, "Structural long period gratings made by drilling micro-holes in photonic crystal fibers with a femtosecond infrared laser," Opt. Exp. 18, 5496-5503 (2010).

M. Ding, M. N. Zervas, G. Brambilla, "A compact broadband microfiber Bragg grating," Opt. Exp. 19, 15621-15626 (2011).

K. P. Nayak, F. L. Kien, Y. Kawai, K. Hakuta, K. Nakajima, T. Miyazaki, Y. Sugimoto, "Cavity formation on an optical nanofiber using focused ion beam milling technique," Opt. Exp. 19, 14040-14050 (2011).

A. R. Bhagwat, A. L. Gaeta, "Nonlinear optics in hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Exp. 16, 5035-5047 (2006).

C. J. Hensley, D. H. Broaddus, C. B. Schaffer, A. L. Gaeta, "Photonic band-gap fiber gas cell fabricated using femtosecond micromachining," Opt. Exp. 15, 6690-6695 (2007).

L. Rindorf, J. B. Jensen, M. Dufva, L. H. Pedersen, P. E. Høiby, O. Bang, "Photonic crystal fiber long-period gratings for biochemical sensing," Opt. Exp. 13, 8224-8231 (2006).

J. Limpert, T. Schreiber, S. Nolte, H. Zellmer, A. Tünnermann, R. Iliew, F. Lederer, J. Broeng, G. Vienne, A. Petersson, C. Jakobsen, "High-power air-clad large-mode-area photonic crystal fiber laser," Opt. Exp. 11, 818-823 (2003).

Opt. Lett. (7)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. Mock, J. D. O'Brien, "Direct extraction of large quality factors and resonant frequencies from Padé interpolated resonance spectra," Opt. Quantum Electron. 40, 1187-1192 (2008).

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

E. Yablonovitch, T. J. Gmitter, "Photonic band structure: The face-centered-cubic case," Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 1950-1953 (1989).

Science (1)

P. S. J. Russell, "Photonic crystal fibers," Science 299, 358-362 (2003).

Other (5)

M. N. Petrovich, A. van Brakel, F. Poletti, K. Mukasa, E. Austin, V. Finazzi, P. Petropoulos, E. O'Driscoll, M. Watson, T. DelMonte, T. M. Monro, J. P. Dakin, D. J. Richardson, SPIE Optics East (SPIE, 2005).

S. M. Hendrickson, T. B. Pittman, J. D. Franson, "Holey fiber microcavities," presented at the Conf. Lasers Electro-Opt. Tech. Dig. San JoseCA (2008) Paper QWB4.

A. Taflove, S. C. Hagness, Computational Electrodynamics (Artech House, 2000).

J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade, J. N. Winn, Photonic Crystals (Princeton Univ. Press, 1995).

A. Yariv, Optical Electronics in Modern Communications (Oxford Univ. Press, 1997).

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