Abstract

Array-waveguide grating (AWG) is a kind of passive wavelength router. It can perform nonblocking switching functions in conjunction with tunable wavelength converters (TWCs). For optical switching systems with large number of ports, however, the scalability of the AWG is restricted by coherent crosstalk. In this paper, we propose a modular method of designing arrays of AWGs for large-scale switching systems, in which a contention-free connection from an idle input to an idle output can always be established regardless of the number of existing connections in progress. The construction process of AWG networks is sometimes called AWG function decomposition. For the decomposition of an $N\times N$ AWG, we describe the modular architecture of a functionally equivalent three-stage network of smaller AWGs, and derive the necessary and sufficient conditions on the number of smaller AWG modules needed for nonblocking switching. Our results can be applied to the decomposition of any AWG components employed in an AWG-based switching network to suppress the coherent crosstalk.

© 2012 IEEE

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  1. M. Vaez, C.-T. Lea, "Wide-sense nonblocking banyan-type switching systems based on directional couplers," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 16, 1327-1332 (1998).
  2. X. Jiang, A. Pattavina, S. Horiguchi, "Strictly nonblocking f-cast photonics networks," IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 16, 732-745 (2008).
  3. J. Ramamirtham, J. S. Turner, "Design of wavelength converting switches for optical burst switching," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM (2002) pp. 1162-1171.
  4. J. Chenys, "Routing in an awg-based optical packet switching," Photon. Netw. Commun. 5, 69-80 (2003).
  5. J. J. G. Leonardus, Non-Blocking Cyclic AWG-Based Node Architectures EU patent: EP1761103 (2007).
  6. W. D. Zhong, J. P. Lacey, R. Tucker, "Multiwavelength crossconnects for optical transport networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 1613-1620 (1996).
  7. M. Maier, M. Reisslein, A. Wolisz, "High-performance switchless WDM network using multiple free spectral ranges of an arrayed-waveguide grating," Proc. SPIE Photonics East Terabit Optical Networking: Architecture, Control, and Management Issues (2000) pp. 101-112.
  8. D. Lucerna, G. Maier, A. Pattavina, "AWG-based architecture for optical interconnection in asynchronous systems," Proc. IEEE HPSR (2011) pp. 250-255.
  9. A. Bianco, D. Hay, F. Neri, "Crosstalk-preventing scheduling in single and two-stage AWG-based cell switches," IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 19, 142-155 (2011).
  10. A. Pattavina, R. Zanzottera, "Non-blocking WDM switches based on arrayed waveguide grating and shared wavelength conversion," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM (2006) pp. 1-11.
  11. Y. Deng, T. T. Lee, "Crosstalk-free conjugate networks for optical multicast switching," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 3635-3645 (2006).
  12. R. Gaudino, G. A. G. Castillo, F. Neri, J. M. Finochietto, "Simple optical fabrics for scalable terabit packet switches," Proc. IEEE ICC (2008) pp. 5331-5337.
  13. V. Mikhailov, C. Doerr, P. Bayvel, "Ultra low coherent crosstalk, high port-count free-space wavelength router," Proc. OFC (2003) pp. 257-258.
  14. S. Kamei, M. Ishii, A. Kaneko, T. Shibata, M. Itoh, "N × N cyclic-frequency router with improved performance based on arrayed-waveguide grating," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 4097-4014 (2009).
  15. F. Liu, R. J. S. Pedersen, P. Jeppesen, "Very low crosstalk wavelength router construction using arrayed-waveguide grating multi/demultiplexers," Electron. Lett. 35, 839-840 (1999).
  16. Y. Fukushima, X. Jiang, A. Pattavina, S. Horiguchi, "Self-routing nonblocking WDM switches based on arrayed waveguide grating," IEICE Trans. Commun. E92-B, 1173-1182 (2009).
  17. H. Q. Ngo, D. Pan, C. Qiao, "Constructions and analyses of nonblocking WDM switches based on arrayed waveguide grating and limited wavelength conversion," IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 14, 205-217 (2006).

2011 (1)

A. Bianco, D. Hay, F. Neri, "Crosstalk-preventing scheduling in single and two-stage AWG-based cell switches," IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 19, 142-155 (2011).

2009 (2)

S. Kamei, M. Ishii, A. Kaneko, T. Shibata, M. Itoh, "N × N cyclic-frequency router with improved performance based on arrayed-waveguide grating," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 4097-4014 (2009).

Y. Fukushima, X. Jiang, A. Pattavina, S. Horiguchi, "Self-routing nonblocking WDM switches based on arrayed waveguide grating," IEICE Trans. Commun. E92-B, 1173-1182 (2009).

2008 (1)

X. Jiang, A. Pattavina, S. Horiguchi, "Strictly nonblocking f-cast photonics networks," IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 16, 732-745 (2008).

2006 (2)

Y. Deng, T. T. Lee, "Crosstalk-free conjugate networks for optical multicast switching," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 3635-3645 (2006).

H. Q. Ngo, D. Pan, C. Qiao, "Constructions and analyses of nonblocking WDM switches based on arrayed waveguide grating and limited wavelength conversion," IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 14, 205-217 (2006).

2003 (1)

J. Chenys, "Routing in an awg-based optical packet switching," Photon. Netw. Commun. 5, 69-80 (2003).

1999 (1)

F. Liu, R. J. S. Pedersen, P. Jeppesen, "Very low crosstalk wavelength router construction using arrayed-waveguide grating multi/demultiplexers," Electron. Lett. 35, 839-840 (1999).

1998 (1)

M. Vaez, C.-T. Lea, "Wide-sense nonblocking banyan-type switching systems based on directional couplers," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 16, 1327-1332 (1998).

1996 (1)

W. D. Zhong, J. P. Lacey, R. Tucker, "Multiwavelength crossconnects for optical transport networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 1613-1620 (1996).

Electron. Lett. (1)

F. Liu, R. J. S. Pedersen, P. Jeppesen, "Very low crosstalk wavelength router construction using arrayed-waveguide grating multi/demultiplexers," Electron. Lett. 35, 839-840 (1999).

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (1)

M. Vaez, C.-T. Lea, "Wide-sense nonblocking banyan-type switching systems based on directional couplers," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 16, 1327-1332 (1998).

IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. (3)

X. Jiang, A. Pattavina, S. Horiguchi, "Strictly nonblocking f-cast photonics networks," IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 16, 732-745 (2008).

A. Bianco, D. Hay, F. Neri, "Crosstalk-preventing scheduling in single and two-stage AWG-based cell switches," IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 19, 142-155 (2011).

H. Q. Ngo, D. Pan, C. Qiao, "Constructions and analyses of nonblocking WDM switches based on arrayed waveguide grating and limited wavelength conversion," IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 14, 205-217 (2006).

IEICE Trans. Commun. (1)

Y. Fukushima, X. Jiang, A. Pattavina, S. Horiguchi, "Self-routing nonblocking WDM switches based on arrayed waveguide grating," IEICE Trans. Commun. E92-B, 1173-1182 (2009).

J. Lightw. Technol. (2)

Y. Deng, T. T. Lee, "Crosstalk-free conjugate networks for optical multicast switching," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 3635-3645 (2006).

W. D. Zhong, J. P. Lacey, R. Tucker, "Multiwavelength crossconnects for optical transport networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 1613-1620 (1996).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

S. Kamei, M. Ishii, A. Kaneko, T. Shibata, M. Itoh, "N × N cyclic-frequency router with improved performance based on arrayed-waveguide grating," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 4097-4014 (2009).

Photon. Netw. Commun. (1)

J. Chenys, "Routing in an awg-based optical packet switching," Photon. Netw. Commun. 5, 69-80 (2003).

Other (7)

J. J. G. Leonardus, Non-Blocking Cyclic AWG-Based Node Architectures EU patent: EP1761103 (2007).

J. Ramamirtham, J. S. Turner, "Design of wavelength converting switches for optical burst switching," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM (2002) pp. 1162-1171.

M. Maier, M. Reisslein, A. Wolisz, "High-performance switchless WDM network using multiple free spectral ranges of an arrayed-waveguide grating," Proc. SPIE Photonics East Terabit Optical Networking: Architecture, Control, and Management Issues (2000) pp. 101-112.

D. Lucerna, G. Maier, A. Pattavina, "AWG-based architecture for optical interconnection in asynchronous systems," Proc. IEEE HPSR (2011) pp. 250-255.

A. Pattavina, R. Zanzottera, "Non-blocking WDM switches based on arrayed waveguide grating and shared wavelength conversion," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM (2006) pp. 1-11.

R. Gaudino, G. A. G. Castillo, F. Neri, J. M. Finochietto, "Simple optical fabrics for scalable terabit packet switches," Proc. IEEE ICC (2008) pp. 5331-5337.

V. Mikhailov, C. Doerr, P. Bayvel, "Ultra low coherent crosstalk, high port-count free-space wavelength router," Proc. OFC (2003) pp. 257-258.

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