Abstract

Yb<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>doped yttrium-rich alumino-silicate nano-particles based D- and P- (pentagonal) shaped optical fibers with core diameter ~30–35 µm are fabricated using the conventional MCVD process and solution doping technique. Parameters of different stages of the fiber preforms fabrication are optimized to get uniform distributions of Al, Y, F, and Yb ions in the core region, ensured by the data of an EPMA analysis. In the presence of small amounts of fluorine, the size of nano-particles is maintained within 5–10 nm; the EDX data reveal that the nano-particles are rich in yttrium-alumino-silicate phase and are dispersed uniformly across the preforms core. The critical parameters of the processes involved at the fibers fabrication along with the nano-structuring and spectroscopic features are highlighted. It is shown experimentally that the drawn D- and P- shaped fibers support high laser efficiency (~80% at 976-nm pumping) and demonstrate negligible photodarkening.

© 2012 IEEE

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2010 (3)

M. C. Paul, B. N. Upadhyaya, S. Das, A. Dhar, M. Pal, S. Kher, K. Dasgupta, S. K. Bhadra, R. Sen, "Study of the fabrication parameters of large core Yb2O3 doped optical fibre through solution doping technique," Opt. Commun. 283, 1039-1046 (2010).

M. C. Paul, S. Bysakh, S. Das, S. K. Bhadra, M. Pal, S. Yoo, M. P. Kalita, A. J. Boyland, J. K. Sahu, "Yb2O3 doped YAG nano-crystallites in silica based core glass matrix of optical fiber preform," Mater. Sci. Eng. B 175, 108-119 (2010).

S. Yoo, M. P. Kalita, A. J. Boyland, A. S. Webb, R. J. Standish, J. K. Sahu, M. C. Paul, S. Das, S. K. Bhadra, M. Pal, "Ytterbium-doped Y2O3 nanoparticle silica optical fibers for high power fiber lasers with suppressed photodarkening," Opt. Commun. 283, 3423-3427 (2010).

2009 (2)

P. R. Watekar, S. Moon, A. Lin, S. Ju, W.-T. Han, "Linear and nonlinear optical properties of Si nanoparticles/Er-ions doped optical fiber," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 568-575 (2009).

W. Blanc, B. Dussardier, M. C. Paul, "Er doped oxide nanoparticles in silica based optical fibres," Glass Technol.—Eur. J. Glass Sci. Technol. A 50, 79-81 (2009).

2008 (2)

P. Barua, E. H. Sekiya, K. Saito, A. J. Ikushima, "Influences of Yb3+ concentration on the spectroscopic properties of silica glass," J. Non-Cryst. Sol. 354, 4760-4764 (2008).

A. Ubaldini, M. M. Carnasciali, "Raman characterisation of powder of cubic RE2O3 (RE ${=}$ Nd, Gd, Ddy, Tm, and Lu), Sc2O3 and Y2O3," J. Alloys Compounds 374–378, 374-378 (2008).

2007 (2)

T. C. Newell, P. Peterson, A. Gavrieldes, M. P. Sharma, "Temperature effects on the emission properties of Yb-doped optical fibers," Opt. Commun. 273, 256-259 (2007).

A. D. Guzman-Chavez, A. V. Kir'yanov, Yu. O. Barmenkov, N. N. Il'ichev, "Reversible photo-darkening and resonant photobleaching of ytterbium-doped silica fiber at in-core 977-nm and 543-nm irradiation," Laser Phys. Lett. 4, 734-739 (2007).

2006 (1)

A. S. Kurkov, V. S. Paramonov, O. I. Medvedkov, "Ytterbium fiber laser emitting at 1160 nm," Laser Phys. Lett. 3, 503-506 (2006).

2004 (1)

P. Jander, W. S. Brocklesby, "Spectroscopy of yttria-alumina-silica glass doped with thulium and erbium," IEEE. J. Quantum Electron. 40, 509-512 (2004).

2003 (1)

M. Rajala, K. Janka, P. Kykkänen, "An industrial method for nanoparticle synthesis with a wide range of compositions," Rev. Adv. Mater. Sci. 5, 493-499 (2003).

2001 (1)

W. T. Nichols, J. W. Keto, D. E. Henneke, J. R. Brock, G. Malyavanatham, M. F. Becker, H. D. Glicksman, "Large-scale production of nanocrystals by laser ablation of microparticles in a flowing aerosol," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1128-1130 (2001).

2000 (1)

E. M. Yeatman, M. M. Ahmad, O. McCarthy, A. Martucci, M. Guglielmi, "Sol-gel fabrication of rare-earth doped photonic components," J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 19, 231-236 (2000).

1999 (2)

J. St. John, J. L. Coffer, Y. Chen, R. F. Pinizzotto, "Synthesis and characterization of discrete luminescent erbium-doped silicon nanocrystals," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 121, 1888-1892 (1999).

C. E. Chryssou, A. J. Kenyon, T. S. Iwayama, C. W. Pitt, D. E. Hole, "Evidence of energy coupling between Si nanocrystals and Er3+ in ion-implanted silica thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2011-2013 (1999).

1998 (2)

M. Fujii, M. Yoshida, S. Hayashi, D. K. Yamamoto, "Photoluminescence from SiO2 films containing Si nanocrystals and Er: effects of nanocrystalline size on the photoluminescence efficiency of Er3+," J. Appl. Phys. 84, 4525-4531 (1998).

T. Schaller, J. F. Stebbins, "The structural role of lanthanum and yttrium in aluminosilicate glasses: A Al-27 and O-17 MAS NMR study," J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 10690-10697 (1998).

1992 (1)

J. T. Kohli, J. E. Shelby, J. S. Frye, "A structural investigation of yttrium aluminosilicate glasses using Si-29 and Al-27 magic angle spinning nuclear-magnetic-resonance," Phys. Chem. Glasses 33, 73-78 (1992).

1987 (1)

J. E. Townsend, S. B. Poole, D. N. Payne, "Solution-doping technique for fabrication of rare-earth-doped optical fibers," Electron. Lett. 23, 329-331 (1987).

1974 (1)

N. H. Ray, "Composition-property relationships in inorganic oxide glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 15, 423-434 (1974).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

C. E. Chryssou, A. J. Kenyon, T. S. Iwayama, C. W. Pitt, D. E. Hole, "Evidence of energy coupling between Si nanocrystals and Er3+ in ion-implanted silica thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2011-2013 (1999).

W. T. Nichols, J. W. Keto, D. E. Henneke, J. R. Brock, G. Malyavanatham, M. F. Becker, H. D. Glicksman, "Large-scale production of nanocrystals by laser ablation of microparticles in a flowing aerosol," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1128-1130 (2001).

Electron. Lett. (1)

J. E. Townsend, S. B. Poole, D. N. Payne, "Solution-doping technique for fabrication of rare-earth-doped optical fibers," Electron. Lett. 23, 329-331 (1987).

Glass Technol.—Eur. J. Glass Sci. Technol. A (1)

W. Blanc, B. Dussardier, M. C. Paul, "Er doped oxide nanoparticles in silica based optical fibres," Glass Technol.—Eur. J. Glass Sci. Technol. A 50, 79-81 (2009).

IEEE. J. Quantum Electron. (1)

P. Jander, W. S. Brocklesby, "Spectroscopy of yttria-alumina-silica glass doped with thulium and erbium," IEEE. J. Quantum Electron. 40, 509-512 (2004).

J. Alloys Compounds (1)

A. Ubaldini, M. M. Carnasciali, "Raman characterisation of powder of cubic RE2O3 (RE ${=}$ Nd, Gd, Ddy, Tm, and Lu), Sc2O3 and Y2O3," J. Alloys Compounds 374–378, 374-378 (2008).

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

J. St. John, J. L. Coffer, Y. Chen, R. F. Pinizzotto, "Synthesis and characterization of discrete luminescent erbium-doped silicon nanocrystals," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 121, 1888-1892 (1999).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Fujii, M. Yoshida, S. Hayashi, D. K. Yamamoto, "Photoluminescence from SiO2 films containing Si nanocrystals and Er: effects of nanocrystalline size on the photoluminescence efficiency of Er3+," J. Appl. Phys. 84, 4525-4531 (1998).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

P. R. Watekar, S. Moon, A. Lin, S. Ju, W.-T. Han, "Linear and nonlinear optical properties of Si nanoparticles/Er-ions doped optical fiber," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 568-575 (2009).

J. Non-Cryst. Sol. (1)

P. Barua, E. H. Sekiya, K. Saito, A. J. Ikushima, "Influences of Yb3+ concentration on the spectroscopic properties of silica glass," J. Non-Cryst. Sol. 354, 4760-4764 (2008).

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

N. H. Ray, "Composition-property relationships in inorganic oxide glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 15, 423-434 (1974).

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

T. Schaller, J. F. Stebbins, "The structural role of lanthanum and yttrium in aluminosilicate glasses: A Al-27 and O-17 MAS NMR study," J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 10690-10697 (1998).

J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. (1)

E. M. Yeatman, M. M. Ahmad, O. McCarthy, A. Martucci, M. Guglielmi, "Sol-gel fabrication of rare-earth doped photonic components," J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 19, 231-236 (2000).

Laser Phys. Lett. (2)

A. S. Kurkov, V. S. Paramonov, O. I. Medvedkov, "Ytterbium fiber laser emitting at 1160 nm," Laser Phys. Lett. 3, 503-506 (2006).

A. D. Guzman-Chavez, A. V. Kir'yanov, Yu. O. Barmenkov, N. N. Il'ichev, "Reversible photo-darkening and resonant photobleaching of ytterbium-doped silica fiber at in-core 977-nm and 543-nm irradiation," Laser Phys. Lett. 4, 734-739 (2007).

Mater. Sci. Eng. B (1)

M. C. Paul, S. Bysakh, S. Das, S. K. Bhadra, M. Pal, S. Yoo, M. P. Kalita, A. J. Boyland, J. K. Sahu, "Yb2O3 doped YAG nano-crystallites in silica based core glass matrix of optical fiber preform," Mater. Sci. Eng. B 175, 108-119 (2010).

Opt. Commun. (3)

M. C. Paul, B. N. Upadhyaya, S. Das, A. Dhar, M. Pal, S. Kher, K. Dasgupta, S. K. Bhadra, R. Sen, "Study of the fabrication parameters of large core Yb2O3 doped optical fibre through solution doping technique," Opt. Commun. 283, 1039-1046 (2010).

S. Yoo, M. P. Kalita, A. J. Boyland, A. S. Webb, R. J. Standish, J. K. Sahu, M. C. Paul, S. Das, S. K. Bhadra, M. Pal, "Ytterbium-doped Y2O3 nanoparticle silica optical fibers for high power fiber lasers with suppressed photodarkening," Opt. Commun. 283, 3423-3427 (2010).

T. C. Newell, P. Peterson, A. Gavrieldes, M. P. Sharma, "Temperature effects on the emission properties of Yb-doped optical fibers," Opt. Commun. 273, 256-259 (2007).

Phys. Chem. Glasses (1)

J. T. Kohli, J. E. Shelby, J. S. Frye, "A structural investigation of yttrium aluminosilicate glasses using Si-29 and Al-27 magic angle spinning nuclear-magnetic-resonance," Phys. Chem. Glasses 33, 73-78 (1992).

Rev. Adv. Mater. Sci. (1)

M. Rajala, K. Janka, P. Kykkänen, "An industrial method for nanoparticle synthesis with a wide range of compositions," Rev. Adv. Mater. Sci. 5, 493-499 (2003).

Other (6)

L. A. Riseberg, The Relevance of Nonradiative Transitions to Solid State Lasers (Plenum Press, 1980).

Phase Separation in Glass (Academic, 1979) pp. 71.

Glass I: Interaction With Electromagnetic Radiation (Academic, 1978) pp. 5-89.

A. A. Kaminskii, Laser Crystals (Springer, 1990).

K. E. Mattsson, S. N. Knudsen, B. Cadier, T. Robin, "Photo darkening in ytterbium co-doped silica material," Proc. SPIE (2008).

T. N. Haa, P. N. Thanga, L. N. Chunga, P. T. Ngaa, Ph. V. Hoia, L. V. Luatb, T. Th. Chama, V. Th. K. Lienc, C. Barthoud, P. Benallould, Proc. Int. Workshop Photon. Appl. (2004) pp. 147.

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