Abstract

This paper investigates the nonlinear generation of ultra-flat broadband spectra suited to communication applications. The technique is based on the inclusion of a linear pulse shaping element prior to a nonlinear fiber, where highly controllable spectral broadening is enabled. An adaptive pulse shaping system exploiting optimization algorithms (evolution strategy—ES) allows for automatic convergence to the desired spectrum. Using this technique, a spectrum exhibiting a 3-dB bandwidth of ~12 nm and a 0.5-dB bandwidth of ~8 nm is reported. The technique can be used to generate even broader spectra or indeed spectra exhibiting more exotic shapes.

© 2012 IEEE

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  1. T. Morioka, K. Mori, M. Saruwatari, "More than 100-wavelength-channel picosecond optical pulse generation from single laser source using supercontinuum in optical fibers," Electron. Lett. 29, 862-864 (1993).
  2. D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, T. Schellinger, M. Jordan, M. Winter, G. Huber, T. Vallaitis, R. Bonk, P. Kleinow, F. Frey, M. Roeger, S. Koenig, A. Ludwig, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Hoh, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, S. Ben Ezra, N. Narkiss, B. Nebendahl, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, T. Ellermeyer, J. Lutz, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, "26 Tbit s(-1) line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast Fourier transform processing," Nature Photon. 5, 364-371 (2011).
  3. L. E. Hooper, P. J. Mosley, A. C. Muir, W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, "All-normal dispersion photonic crystal fiber for coherent supercontinuum generation," Proc. 2010 Conf. Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (2010).
  4. A. M. Clarke, D. G. Williams, M. A. F. Roelens, B. J. Eggleton, "Reconfigurable optical pulse generator employing a Fourier-domain programmable optical processor," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 97-103 (2010).
  5. P. J. Almeida, P. Petropoulos, M. Ibsen, D. J. Richardson, "Generation of ultra-flat SPM-broadened spectra in a highly nonlinear fiber using pulse pre-shaping in a fiber Bragg grating," Proc. 2005 Optical Fiber Communications Conf. Technical Digest/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (2005).
  6. A. M. Weiner, "Femtosecond pulse shaping using spatial light modulators," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 1929-1960 (2000).
  7. P. Petropoulos, M. Ibsen, A. D. Ellis, D. J. Richardson, "Rectangular pulse generation based on pulse reshaping using a superstructured fiber Bragg grating," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 746-752 (2001).
  8. G. Baxter, S. Frisken, D. Abakoumov, H. Zhou, I. Clarke, A. Bartos, S. Poole, "Highly programmable wavelength selective switch based on liquid crystal on silicon switching elements," Proc. 2006 Optical Fiber Communication Conf./National Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (2006).
  9. F. Parmigiani, C. Finot, K. Mukasa, M. Ibsen, M. A. F. Roelens, P. Petropoulos, D. J. Richardson, "Ultra-flat SPM-broadened spectra in a highly nonlinear fiber using parabolic pulses formed in a fiber Bragg grating," Opt. Exp. 14, 7617-7622 (2006).
  10. K. Kashiwagi, H. Ishizu, Y. Kodama, S. Choi, T. Kurokawa, "Highly precise optical pulse synthesis for flat spectrum supercontinuum generation with wide mode spacing," Proc. 36th Eur. Conf. Exhibition on Optical Commun. (ECOC 2010) (2010).
  11. D. Zeidler, S. Frey, K. L. Kompa, M. Motzkus, "Evolutionary algorithms and their application to optimal control studies," Phys. Rev. A 64, (2001) pp. art..
  12. H.-P. P. Schwefel, Evolution and Optimum Seeking: The Sixth Generation (Wiley, 1993).
  13. H. G. Beyer, H. P. Schwefel, "Evolution strategies—A comprehensive introduction," Natural Comput. 1, 3-52 (2002) 2002.
  14. N. Hansen, A. Ostermeier, "Completely derandomized self-adaptation in evolution strategies," Evolutionary Comput. 9, 159-195 (2001).

2011 (1)

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, T. Schellinger, M. Jordan, M. Winter, G. Huber, T. Vallaitis, R. Bonk, P. Kleinow, F. Frey, M. Roeger, S. Koenig, A. Ludwig, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Hoh, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, S. Ben Ezra, N. Narkiss, B. Nebendahl, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, T. Ellermeyer, J. Lutz, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, "26 Tbit s(-1) line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast Fourier transform processing," Nature Photon. 5, 364-371 (2011).

2010 (1)

A. M. Clarke, D. G. Williams, M. A. F. Roelens, B. J. Eggleton, "Reconfigurable optical pulse generator employing a Fourier-domain programmable optical processor," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 97-103 (2010).

2006 (1)

F. Parmigiani, C. Finot, K. Mukasa, M. Ibsen, M. A. F. Roelens, P. Petropoulos, D. J. Richardson, "Ultra-flat SPM-broadened spectra in a highly nonlinear fiber using parabolic pulses formed in a fiber Bragg grating," Opt. Exp. 14, 7617-7622 (2006).

2002 (1)

H. G. Beyer, H. P. Schwefel, "Evolution strategies—A comprehensive introduction," Natural Comput. 1, 3-52 (2002) 2002.

2001 (3)

N. Hansen, A. Ostermeier, "Completely derandomized self-adaptation in evolution strategies," Evolutionary Comput. 9, 159-195 (2001).

D. Zeidler, S. Frey, K. L. Kompa, M. Motzkus, "Evolutionary algorithms and their application to optimal control studies," Phys. Rev. A 64, (2001) pp. art..

P. Petropoulos, M. Ibsen, A. D. Ellis, D. J. Richardson, "Rectangular pulse generation based on pulse reshaping using a superstructured fiber Bragg grating," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 746-752 (2001).

2000 (1)

A. M. Weiner, "Femtosecond pulse shaping using spatial light modulators," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 1929-1960 (2000).

1993 (1)

T. Morioka, K. Mori, M. Saruwatari, "More than 100-wavelength-channel picosecond optical pulse generation from single laser source using supercontinuum in optical fibers," Electron. Lett. 29, 862-864 (1993).

Electron. Lett. (1)

T. Morioka, K. Mori, M. Saruwatari, "More than 100-wavelength-channel picosecond optical pulse generation from single laser source using supercontinuum in optical fibers," Electron. Lett. 29, 862-864 (1993).

Evolutionary Comput. (1)

N. Hansen, A. Ostermeier, "Completely derandomized self-adaptation in evolution strategies," Evolutionary Comput. 9, 159-195 (2001).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

P. Petropoulos, M. Ibsen, A. D. Ellis, D. J. Richardson, "Rectangular pulse generation based on pulse reshaping using a superstructured fiber Bragg grating," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 746-752 (2001).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

A. M. Clarke, D. G. Williams, M. A. F. Roelens, B. J. Eggleton, "Reconfigurable optical pulse generator employing a Fourier-domain programmable optical processor," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 97-103 (2010).

Natural Comput. (1)

H. G. Beyer, H. P. Schwefel, "Evolution strategies—A comprehensive introduction," Natural Comput. 1, 3-52 (2002) 2002.

Nature Photon. (1)

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, T. Schellinger, M. Jordan, M. Winter, G. Huber, T. Vallaitis, R. Bonk, P. Kleinow, F. Frey, M. Roeger, S. Koenig, A. Ludwig, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Hoh, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, S. Ben Ezra, N. Narkiss, B. Nebendahl, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, T. Ellermeyer, J. Lutz, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, "26 Tbit s(-1) line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast Fourier transform processing," Nature Photon. 5, 364-371 (2011).

Opt. Exp. (1)

F. Parmigiani, C. Finot, K. Mukasa, M. Ibsen, M. A. F. Roelens, P. Petropoulos, D. J. Richardson, "Ultra-flat SPM-broadened spectra in a highly nonlinear fiber using parabolic pulses formed in a fiber Bragg grating," Opt. Exp. 14, 7617-7622 (2006).

Phys. Rev. A (1)

D. Zeidler, S. Frey, K. L. Kompa, M. Motzkus, "Evolutionary algorithms and their application to optimal control studies," Phys. Rev. A 64, (2001) pp. art..

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

A. M. Weiner, "Femtosecond pulse shaping using spatial light modulators," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 1929-1960 (2000).

Other (5)

H.-P. P. Schwefel, Evolution and Optimum Seeking: The Sixth Generation (Wiley, 1993).

K. Kashiwagi, H. Ishizu, Y. Kodama, S. Choi, T. Kurokawa, "Highly precise optical pulse synthesis for flat spectrum supercontinuum generation with wide mode spacing," Proc. 36th Eur. Conf. Exhibition on Optical Commun. (ECOC 2010) (2010).

G. Baxter, S. Frisken, D. Abakoumov, H. Zhou, I. Clarke, A. Bartos, S. Poole, "Highly programmable wavelength selective switch based on liquid crystal on silicon switching elements," Proc. 2006 Optical Fiber Communication Conf./National Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (2006).

L. E. Hooper, P. J. Mosley, A. C. Muir, W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, "All-normal dispersion photonic crystal fiber for coherent supercontinuum generation," Proc. 2010 Conf. Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (2010).

P. J. Almeida, P. Petropoulos, M. Ibsen, D. J. Richardson, "Generation of ultra-flat SPM-broadened spectra in a highly nonlinear fiber using pulse pre-shaping in a fiber Bragg grating," Proc. 2005 Optical Fiber Communications Conf. Technical Digest/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (2005).

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