Abstract

Microstructured fibers offer the possibility of being filled with unconventional materials in order to influence the propagation properties in an optical fiber waveguide. We have studied the filling of microstructured silica fibers with electro-optic polymers. For this purpose a new electro-optic polymer formulation has been developed which is well suited for the complete filling of capillaries in microstructured optical fibers. Such filling could be of special interest for all-solid bandgap fibers thanks to the high refractive index of electro-optic polymers compared with silica, for fiber integrated electro-optical modulation, or for tunable fiber Bragg gratings. We demonstrate waveguiding with such filled fibers, investigate the integration of electrodes for poling and prove the possibility of long-period grating inscription in such fibers.

© 2012 IEEE

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  1. B. J. Eggleton, C. Kerbage, P. S. Westbrook, R. S. Windeler, A. Hale, "Microstructured optical fiber devices," Opt. Exp. 9, 698-713 (2001).
  2. L. Scolari, S. Gauza, H. Xianyu, L. Zhai, L. Eskildsen, T. T. Alkeskjold, S.-T. Wu, A. Bjarklev, "Frequency tunability of solid-core photonic crystal fibers filled with nanoparticle-doped liquid crystals," Opt. Exp. 17, 3754-3764 (2009).
  3. T. T. Larsen, A. Bjarklev, D. S. Hermann, J. Broeng, "Optical devices based on liquid crystal photonic bandgap fibres," Opt. Exp. 11, 2589-2596 (2003).
  4. M. W. Haakestad, T. T. Alkeskjold, M. D. Nielsen, L. Scolari, J. Riishede, H. E. Engan, A. Bjarklev, "Electrically tunable photonic bandgap guidance in a liquid-crystal-filled photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 819-821 (2005).
  5. T. T. Alkeskjold, J. Lægsgaard, A. Bjarklev, D. Hermann, A. Anawati, J. Broeng, J. Li, S. T. Wu, "Alloptical modulation in dye-doped nematic liquid crystal photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Exp. 12, 5857-5871 (2004).
  6. Du, Y. Q. Lu, S. T. Wu, "Electrically tunable liquid-crystal photonic crystal fiber," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2181-2183 (2004).
  7. M. J. Cho, D. H. Choi, P. A. Sullivan, L. R. Dalton, "Recent progresses in second order nonlinear optical polymers and dendrimers," Progr. Polymer Sci. 33, 1013-1058 (2008).
  8. T. Fujiwara, D. Wong, Y. Zhao, S. Fleming, S. Poole, M. Sceats, "Electro-optic modulation in germanosilicate fiber with UV-excited poling," Elec. Lett. 31, 573-575 (1995).
  9. M. Lee, H. E. Katz, C. Erben, D. M. Gill, P. Gopalan, J. D. Heber, D. J. McGee, "Broadband modulation of light by using an electro-optic polymer," Science 298, 1401-1403 (2002).
  10. T. A. Birks, F. Luan, G. J. Pearce, A. Wang, J. C. Knight, D. M. Bird, "Bend loss in all-solid band gap fibers," Opt. Exp. 14, 5688-5698 (2006).
  11. N. M. Litchinitser, S. C. Dunn, B. Usner, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, R. C. McPhedran, C. M. de Sterke, "Resonances in microstructured optical waveguides," Opt. Exp. 11, 1243-1251 (2003).
  12. P. Steinvurzel, E. D. Moore, E. C. Mägi, B. T. Kuhlmey, B. J. Eggleton, "Long period grating resonances in photonic bandgap fiber," Opt. Exp. 14, 3007-3014 (2006).
  13. P. S. Westbrook, B. J. Eggleton, R. S. Windeler, A. Hale, T. A. Strasser, G. L. Burdge, "Cladding-mode resonances in hybrid polymer-silica microstructured optical fiber gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 495-497 (2000).
  14. A. A. Abramov, B. J. Eggleton, J. A. Rogers, R. P. Espindola, A. Hale, R. S. Windeler, T. A. Strasser, "Electrically tunable efficient broad-band fiber filter," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 445-447 (1999).
  15. D. Noordegraaf, L. Scolari, J. Lægsgaard, L. Rindorf, T. T. Alkeskjold, "Electrically and mechanically induced long period gratings in liquid crystal photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Exp. 15, 7901-7912 (2007).
  16. C. Chen, X. Sun, D. Zhang, Z. Shan, S. Y. Shin, D. Zhang, "Dye-doped polymeric planar waveguide devices based on a thermal UV-bleaching technique," Opt. Laser Technol. 41, 495-498 (2009).
  17. T. Erdogan, "Cladding-mode resonances in short- and long-period fiber grating filters," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 14, 1760-1773 (1997).
  18. G. Wu, L. Zhou, Z. Wang, "Thermally poled twin hole fibers with Tungsten electrodes," Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 49, 2010-2012 (2007).

2009

L. Scolari, S. Gauza, H. Xianyu, L. Zhai, L. Eskildsen, T. T. Alkeskjold, S.-T. Wu, A. Bjarklev, "Frequency tunability of solid-core photonic crystal fibers filled with nanoparticle-doped liquid crystals," Opt. Exp. 17, 3754-3764 (2009).

C. Chen, X. Sun, D. Zhang, Z. Shan, S. Y. Shin, D. Zhang, "Dye-doped polymeric planar waveguide devices based on a thermal UV-bleaching technique," Opt. Laser Technol. 41, 495-498 (2009).

2008

M. J. Cho, D. H. Choi, P. A. Sullivan, L. R. Dalton, "Recent progresses in second order nonlinear optical polymers and dendrimers," Progr. Polymer Sci. 33, 1013-1058 (2008).

2007

D. Noordegraaf, L. Scolari, J. Lægsgaard, L. Rindorf, T. T. Alkeskjold, "Electrically and mechanically induced long period gratings in liquid crystal photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Exp. 15, 7901-7912 (2007).

G. Wu, L. Zhou, Z. Wang, "Thermally poled twin hole fibers with Tungsten electrodes," Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 49, 2010-2012 (2007).

2006

T. A. Birks, F. Luan, G. J. Pearce, A. Wang, J. C. Knight, D. M. Bird, "Bend loss in all-solid band gap fibers," Opt. Exp. 14, 5688-5698 (2006).

P. Steinvurzel, E. D. Moore, E. C. Mägi, B. T. Kuhlmey, B. J. Eggleton, "Long period grating resonances in photonic bandgap fiber," Opt. Exp. 14, 3007-3014 (2006).

2005

M. W. Haakestad, T. T. Alkeskjold, M. D. Nielsen, L. Scolari, J. Riishede, H. E. Engan, A. Bjarklev, "Electrically tunable photonic bandgap guidance in a liquid-crystal-filled photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 819-821 (2005).

2004

T. T. Alkeskjold, J. Lægsgaard, A. Bjarklev, D. Hermann, A. Anawati, J. Broeng, J. Li, S. T. Wu, "Alloptical modulation in dye-doped nematic liquid crystal photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Exp. 12, 5857-5871 (2004).

Du, Y. Q. Lu, S. T. Wu, "Electrically tunable liquid-crystal photonic crystal fiber," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2181-2183 (2004).

2003

T. T. Larsen, A. Bjarklev, D. S. Hermann, J. Broeng, "Optical devices based on liquid crystal photonic bandgap fibres," Opt. Exp. 11, 2589-2596 (2003).

N. M. Litchinitser, S. C. Dunn, B. Usner, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, R. C. McPhedran, C. M. de Sterke, "Resonances in microstructured optical waveguides," Opt. Exp. 11, 1243-1251 (2003).

2002

M. Lee, H. E. Katz, C. Erben, D. M. Gill, P. Gopalan, J. D. Heber, D. J. McGee, "Broadband modulation of light by using an electro-optic polymer," Science 298, 1401-1403 (2002).

2001

B. J. Eggleton, C. Kerbage, P. S. Westbrook, R. S. Windeler, A. Hale, "Microstructured optical fiber devices," Opt. Exp. 9, 698-713 (2001).

2000

P. S. Westbrook, B. J. Eggleton, R. S. Windeler, A. Hale, T. A. Strasser, G. L. Burdge, "Cladding-mode resonances in hybrid polymer-silica microstructured optical fiber gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 495-497 (2000).

1999

A. A. Abramov, B. J. Eggleton, J. A. Rogers, R. P. Espindola, A. Hale, R. S. Windeler, T. A. Strasser, "Electrically tunable efficient broad-band fiber filter," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 445-447 (1999).

1997

T. Erdogan, "Cladding-mode resonances in short- and long-period fiber grating filters," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 14, 1760-1773 (1997).

1995

T. Fujiwara, D. Wong, Y. Zhao, S. Fleming, S. Poole, M. Sceats, "Electro-optic modulation in germanosilicate fiber with UV-excited poling," Elec. Lett. 31, 573-575 (1995).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

Du, Y. Q. Lu, S. T. Wu, "Electrically tunable liquid-crystal photonic crystal fiber," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2181-2183 (2004).

Elec. Lett.

T. Fujiwara, D. Wong, Y. Zhao, S. Fleming, S. Poole, M. Sceats, "Electro-optic modulation in germanosilicate fiber with UV-excited poling," Elec. Lett. 31, 573-575 (1995).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

P. S. Westbrook, B. J. Eggleton, R. S. Windeler, A. Hale, T. A. Strasser, G. L. Burdge, "Cladding-mode resonances in hybrid polymer-silica microstructured optical fiber gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 495-497 (2000).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

A. A. Abramov, B. J. Eggleton, J. A. Rogers, R. P. Espindola, A. Hale, R. S. Windeler, T. A. Strasser, "Electrically tunable efficient broad-band fiber filter," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 445-447 (1999).

M. W. Haakestad, T. T. Alkeskjold, M. D. Nielsen, L. Scolari, J. Riishede, H. E. Engan, A. Bjarklev, "Electrically tunable photonic bandgap guidance in a liquid-crystal-filled photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 819-821 (2005).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A

T. Erdogan, "Cladding-mode resonances in short- and long-period fiber grating filters," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 14, 1760-1773 (1997).

Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett.

G. Wu, L. Zhou, Z. Wang, "Thermally poled twin hole fibers with Tungsten electrodes," Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 49, 2010-2012 (2007).

Opt. Exp.

T. A. Birks, F. Luan, G. J. Pearce, A. Wang, J. C. Knight, D. M. Bird, "Bend loss in all-solid band gap fibers," Opt. Exp. 14, 5688-5698 (2006).

N. M. Litchinitser, S. C. Dunn, B. Usner, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, R. C. McPhedran, C. M. de Sterke, "Resonances in microstructured optical waveguides," Opt. Exp. 11, 1243-1251 (2003).

P. Steinvurzel, E. D. Moore, E. C. Mägi, B. T. Kuhlmey, B. J. Eggleton, "Long period grating resonances in photonic bandgap fiber," Opt. Exp. 14, 3007-3014 (2006).

D. Noordegraaf, L. Scolari, J. Lægsgaard, L. Rindorf, T. T. Alkeskjold, "Electrically and mechanically induced long period gratings in liquid crystal photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Exp. 15, 7901-7912 (2007).

T. T. Alkeskjold, J. Lægsgaard, A. Bjarklev, D. Hermann, A. Anawati, J. Broeng, J. Li, S. T. Wu, "Alloptical modulation in dye-doped nematic liquid crystal photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Exp. 12, 5857-5871 (2004).

B. J. Eggleton, C. Kerbage, P. S. Westbrook, R. S. Windeler, A. Hale, "Microstructured optical fiber devices," Opt. Exp. 9, 698-713 (2001).

L. Scolari, S. Gauza, H. Xianyu, L. Zhai, L. Eskildsen, T. T. Alkeskjold, S.-T. Wu, A. Bjarklev, "Frequency tunability of solid-core photonic crystal fibers filled with nanoparticle-doped liquid crystals," Opt. Exp. 17, 3754-3764 (2009).

T. T. Larsen, A. Bjarklev, D. S. Hermann, J. Broeng, "Optical devices based on liquid crystal photonic bandgap fibres," Opt. Exp. 11, 2589-2596 (2003).

Opt. Laser Technol.

C. Chen, X. Sun, D. Zhang, Z. Shan, S. Y. Shin, D. Zhang, "Dye-doped polymeric planar waveguide devices based on a thermal UV-bleaching technique," Opt. Laser Technol. 41, 495-498 (2009).

Progr. Polymer Sci.

M. J. Cho, D. H. Choi, P. A. Sullivan, L. R. Dalton, "Recent progresses in second order nonlinear optical polymers and dendrimers," Progr. Polymer Sci. 33, 1013-1058 (2008).

Science

M. Lee, H. E. Katz, C. Erben, D. M. Gill, P. Gopalan, J. D. Heber, D. J. McGee, "Broadband modulation of light by using an electro-optic polymer," Science 298, 1401-1403 (2002).

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