Abstract

640 Gb/s all-optical ON–OFF keying signal regeneration based on nonlinearities in a periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) waveguide is demonstrated and characterized. The data are transferred from the distorted original optical time division multiplexing (OTDM) signal onto a high quality and locally generated 640 GHz clock by pump depletion simultaneously operating a wavelength conversion. The thresholding behavior and the saturation effect of pump depletion in the PPLN waveguide for low and high pump power values, respectively, allow for a noise compression on the wavelength-converted replica of the original signal. The use of a stable clock with a shorter pulsewidth also allows for a sort of sampling of the original OTDM frame in the bit time center, resulting in a pulse reshaping that eliminates all noise contributions on the pulse tails. This operation produces a reduction of the original time jitter of the signal. The sampling operation also results in a compression of the new OTDM frame pulses compensating for the residual chromatic dispersion effects. After having characterized the transfer function of the proposed regeneration scheme, we evaluate its effectiveness as a function of optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR), pulse broadening, and time jitter of the input signal. Regeneration performance is measured in terms of bit error rate (BER) and power penalty @BER = 10<sup>-9</sup>. Error-free operation can be recovered and maintained over an input signal OSNR range of 8 dB. This results in a BER improvement up to several orders of magnitude, obtained when the input OSNR is reduced by 20 dB with respect to the baseline. The time jitter of input signals with original jitter values from 100 to 300 fs has been reduced of nearly one order of magnitude to values lower than 40 fs. We also demonstrate that a pulse broadening up to 20% of the original pulsewidth can be compensated. Finally, wavelength tunability of the regenerator input and output signal can be, in principle, guaranteed over the whole C-band and beyond.

© 2012 IEEE

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  1. H. C. H. Mulvad, L. K. Oxenløwe, M. Galili, A. T. Clausen, L. Grüner-Nielsen, P. Jeppesen, "1.28 Tbit/s single-polarisation serial OOK optical data generation and demultiplexing," Electron. Lett. 45, 280-281 (2009).
  2. M. J. O'Mahony, D. Simeonidou, D. K. Hunter, A. Tzanakaki, "The application of optical packet switching in future communication networks," Commun. Mag. 39, 128-135 (2001).
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  4. P. Ghelfi, A. Bogoni, M. Scaffardi, F. Ponzini, C. Porzi, L. Poti, "320 Gb/s all-optical regeneration for OTDM signals," Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (2004) pp. 648-649.
  5. Y. Ueno, S. Nakamura, K. Tajima, "Penalty-free error-free all-optical data pulse regeneration at 84 Gb/s by using a symmetric-Mach-Zehnder-type semiconductor regenerator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 469-471 (2001).
  6. V. G. Ta'eed, M. Shokooh-Saremi, L. Fu, I. C. M. Littler, D. J. Moss, M. Rochette, B. J. Eggleton, R. Y. Ruan, B. Luther-Davies, "Self-phase modulation-based integrated optical regeneration in chalcogenide waveguides," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 360-370 (2006).
  7. R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, D. F. Geraghty, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, "Signal regeneration using low-power four-wave mixing on silicon chip," Nature Photon. 2, 3-38 (2008).
  8. R. Salem, A. M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, D. F. Geraghty, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, "Low-power optical regeneration using four-wave mixing in a silicon chip," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (2008) pp. 1-3.
  9. S. Liu, K. J. Lee, F. Parmigiani, M. Ibsen, P. Petropoulos, D. Richardson, K. Gallo, "OTDM to WDM format conversion based on cascaded SHG/DFG in a single PPLN waveguide," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (2010) pp. 1-3.
  10. G.-W. Lu, S. Shinada, H. Furukawa, N. Wada, T. Miyazaki, H. Ito, "160-Gb/s tunable all-optical phase-transparent wavelength conversion through cascaded SFG-DFG in a linear-chirped PPLN waveguide," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (2010) pp. 1-3.
  11. J. Wang, Z. Bakhtiari, Y. Xiao-Li, O. F. Yilmaz, S. R. Nuccio, X. Wu, H. Huang, J. Y. Yang, Y. Yue, I. Fazal, R. Hellwarth, A. E. Willner, "Experimental demonstration of data traffic grooming of a single 10-Gbit/s TDM tributary channel between two 160-Gbit/s WDM channels," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (2010) pp. 1-3.
  12. A. Bogoni, X. Wu, Z. Bakhtiari, S. R. Nuccio, A. E. Willner, "640 Gb/s all-optical logic functions in a PPLN waveguide," Proc. 36th Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (2010) pp. 1-3.
  13. M. V. Drummond, J. D. Reis, R. N. Nogueira, P. P. Monteiro, A. L. Teixeira, S. Shinada, N. Wada, H. Ito, "Error-free wavelength conversion at 160 Gbit/s in PPLN waveguide at room temperature," Electron. Lett. 45, 1135-1137 (2009).
  14. A. Bogoni, X. Wu, S. Nuccio, A. E. Willner, "640 Gb/s all-optical regeneration in a PPLN waveguide," Proc. IEEE 23rd Annu. Meet. Photon. Soc. (2010) pp. 205-206.
  15. R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Academic, 2003).
  16. L. K. Oxenløwe, F. G. Agis, C. Ware, S. Kurimura, H. C. H. Mulvad, M. Galili, K. Kitamura, H. Nakajima, J. Ichikawa, D. Erasme, A. T. Clausen, P. Jeppesen, "640 Gbit/s clock recovery using periodically poled lithium niobate," Electron. Lett. 44, 370-371 (2008).
  17. A. Bogoni, X. Wu, S. R. Nuccio, J. Wang, Z. Bakhtiari, A. E. Willner, "Photonic 640 Gb/s reconfigurable OTDM add-drop multiplexer based on pump depletion in a single PPLN waveguide," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 18, 709-716 (2012).
  18. A. Bogoni, X. Wu, I. Fazal, A. E. Willner, "160 Gb/s time-domain channel extraction/insertion and all-optical logic operations exploiting a single PPLN waveguide," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 4221-4227 (2009).

2012 (1)

A. Bogoni, X. Wu, S. R. Nuccio, J. Wang, Z. Bakhtiari, A. E. Willner, "Photonic 640 Gb/s reconfigurable OTDM add-drop multiplexer based on pump depletion in a single PPLN waveguide," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 18, 709-716 (2012).

2009 (3)

A. Bogoni, X. Wu, I. Fazal, A. E. Willner, "160 Gb/s time-domain channel extraction/insertion and all-optical logic operations exploiting a single PPLN waveguide," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 4221-4227 (2009).

M. V. Drummond, J. D. Reis, R. N. Nogueira, P. P. Monteiro, A. L. Teixeira, S. Shinada, N. Wada, H. Ito, "Error-free wavelength conversion at 160 Gbit/s in PPLN waveguide at room temperature," Electron. Lett. 45, 1135-1137 (2009).

H. C. H. Mulvad, L. K. Oxenløwe, M. Galili, A. T. Clausen, L. Grüner-Nielsen, P. Jeppesen, "1.28 Tbit/s single-polarisation serial OOK optical data generation and demultiplexing," Electron. Lett. 45, 280-281 (2009).

2008 (2)

R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, D. F. Geraghty, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, "Signal regeneration using low-power four-wave mixing on silicon chip," Nature Photon. 2, 3-38 (2008).

L. K. Oxenløwe, F. G. Agis, C. Ware, S. Kurimura, H. C. H. Mulvad, M. Galili, K. Kitamura, H. Nakajima, J. Ichikawa, D. Erasme, A. T. Clausen, P. Jeppesen, "640 Gbit/s clock recovery using periodically poled lithium niobate," Electron. Lett. 44, 370-371 (2008).

2006 (1)

V. G. Ta'eed, M. Shokooh-Saremi, L. Fu, I. C. M. Littler, D. J. Moss, M. Rochette, B. J. Eggleton, R. Y. Ruan, B. Luther-Davies, "Self-phase modulation-based integrated optical regeneration in chalcogenide waveguides," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 360-370 (2006).

2001 (2)

M. J. O'Mahony, D. Simeonidou, D. K. Hunter, A. Tzanakaki, "The application of optical packet switching in future communication networks," Commun. Mag. 39, 128-135 (2001).

Y. Ueno, S. Nakamura, K. Tajima, "Penalty-free error-free all-optical data pulse regeneration at 84 Gb/s by using a symmetric-Mach-Zehnder-type semiconductor regenerator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 469-471 (2001).

Commun. Mag. (1)

M. J. O'Mahony, D. Simeonidou, D. K. Hunter, A. Tzanakaki, "The application of optical packet switching in future communication networks," Commun. Mag. 39, 128-135 (2001).

Electron. Lett. (3)

H. C. H. Mulvad, L. K. Oxenløwe, M. Galili, A. T. Clausen, L. Grüner-Nielsen, P. Jeppesen, "1.28 Tbit/s single-polarisation serial OOK optical data generation and demultiplexing," Electron. Lett. 45, 280-281 (2009).

M. V. Drummond, J. D. Reis, R. N. Nogueira, P. P. Monteiro, A. L. Teixeira, S. Shinada, N. Wada, H. Ito, "Error-free wavelength conversion at 160 Gbit/s in PPLN waveguide at room temperature," Electron. Lett. 45, 1135-1137 (2009).

L. K. Oxenløwe, F. G. Agis, C. Ware, S. Kurimura, H. C. H. Mulvad, M. Galili, K. Kitamura, H. Nakajima, J. Ichikawa, D. Erasme, A. T. Clausen, P. Jeppesen, "640 Gbit/s clock recovery using periodically poled lithium niobate," Electron. Lett. 44, 370-371 (2008).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (2)

A. Bogoni, X. Wu, S. R. Nuccio, J. Wang, Z. Bakhtiari, A. E. Willner, "Photonic 640 Gb/s reconfigurable OTDM add-drop multiplexer based on pump depletion in a single PPLN waveguide," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 18, 709-716 (2012).

V. G. Ta'eed, M. Shokooh-Saremi, L. Fu, I. C. M. Littler, D. J. Moss, M. Rochette, B. J. Eggleton, R. Y. Ruan, B. Luther-Davies, "Self-phase modulation-based integrated optical regeneration in chalcogenide waveguides," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 360-370 (2006).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

Y. Ueno, S. Nakamura, K. Tajima, "Penalty-free error-free all-optical data pulse regeneration at 84 Gb/s by using a symmetric-Mach-Zehnder-type semiconductor regenerator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 469-471 (2001).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

A. Bogoni, X. Wu, I. Fazal, A. E. Willner, "160 Gb/s time-domain channel extraction/insertion and all-optical logic operations exploiting a single PPLN waveguide," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 4221-4227 (2009).

Nature Photon. (1)

R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, D. F. Geraghty, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, "Signal regeneration using low-power four-wave mixing on silicon chip," Nature Photon. 2, 3-38 (2008).

Other (9)

R. Salem, A. M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, D. F. Geraghty, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, "Low-power optical regeneration using four-wave mixing in a silicon chip," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (2008) pp. 1-3.

S. Liu, K. J. Lee, F. Parmigiani, M. Ibsen, P. Petropoulos, D. Richardson, K. Gallo, "OTDM to WDM format conversion based on cascaded SHG/DFG in a single PPLN waveguide," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (2010) pp. 1-3.

G.-W. Lu, S. Shinada, H. Furukawa, N. Wada, T. Miyazaki, H. Ito, "160-Gb/s tunable all-optical phase-transparent wavelength conversion through cascaded SFG-DFG in a linear-chirped PPLN waveguide," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (2010) pp. 1-3.

J. Wang, Z. Bakhtiari, Y. Xiao-Li, O. F. Yilmaz, S. R. Nuccio, X. Wu, H. Huang, J. Y. Yang, Y. Yue, I. Fazal, R. Hellwarth, A. E. Willner, "Experimental demonstration of data traffic grooming of a single 10-Gbit/s TDM tributary channel between two 160-Gbit/s WDM channels," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (2010) pp. 1-3.

A. Bogoni, X. Wu, Z. Bakhtiari, S. R. Nuccio, A. E. Willner, "640 Gb/s all-optical logic functions in a PPLN waveguide," Proc. 36th Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (2010) pp. 1-3.

G. Zarris, F. Parmigiani, E. Hugues-Salas, R. Weerasuriya, D. Hillerkuss, N. A. Gonzalez, M. Spyropoulou, P. Vorreau, R. Morais, S. K. Ibrahim, D. Klonidis, P. Petropoulos, A. D. Ellis, P. Monteiro, A. Tzanakaki, D. Richardson, L. Tomkos, R. Bonk, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, D. Simeonidou, "Field trial of WDM-OTDM transmultiplexing employing photonic switch fabric-based buffer-less bit-interleaved data grooming and all-optical regeneration," presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. San DiegoCA (2009).

P. Ghelfi, A. Bogoni, M. Scaffardi, F. Ponzini, C. Porzi, L. Poti, "320 Gb/s all-optical regeneration for OTDM signals," Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (2004) pp. 648-649.

A. Bogoni, X. Wu, S. Nuccio, A. E. Willner, "640 Gb/s all-optical regeneration in a PPLN waveguide," Proc. IEEE 23rd Annu. Meet. Photon. Soc. (2010) pp. 205-206.

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Academic, 2003).

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