Abstract

Grating couplers for side coupling of the light from a high-power laser diode array (LDA) into the inner cladding of a double-clad fiber were studied theoretically and implemented experimentally. In the experiments, two types of grating couplers were designed and fabricated: a gold-coated surface relief grating coupler and a gold-embedded silica grating coupler. A suitable design for heat dissipation for each grating coupler was employed to minimize thermal expansion due to the heat accumulated from the light absorption by the metal part of the grating coupler. The experimental results show that the gold-embedded silica grating coupler is superior to the surface relief gold grating coupler, because of its higher resistance to thermal expansion and better heat removal capability. In addition, the grating pitch and groove width were optimized for the highest overall coupling efficiency by taking account the backward diffraction loss and the groove wall nonverticality due to fabrication distortion. The experimental results show that the gold-embedded silica grating coupler is capable of coupling light power up to 21 W from a 976-nm continuous-wave LDA into the inner cladding of a 400-μm-diameter double-clad fiber with an overall coupling efficiency of 50%.

© 2012 IEEE

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2011 (4)

Y. D. Liu, Y. C. Tsai, Y. K. Lu, L. J. Wang, M. C. Hsieh, S. M. Yeh, W. H. Cheng, "New scheme of double-variable-curvature microlens for efficient coupling high-power lasers to single-mode fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 898-904 (2011).

Q. Xiao, P. Yan, S. Yin, J. Hao, M. Gong, "100 W ytterbium-doped monolithic fiber laser with fused angle-polished side-pumping configuration," Laser Phys. Lett. 8, 125-129 (2011).

Q. Xiao, P. Yan, J. He, Y. Wang, X. Zhang, M. Gong, "Tapered fused fiber bundle coupler capable of 1 kW laser combining and 300 W laser splitting," Laser Phys. Lett. 21, 1415-1419 (2011).

C. Kopp, E. Augendre, R. Orobtchouk, O. Lemonnier, J. M. Fedeli, "Enhanced fiber grating coupler integrated by wafer-to-wafer bonding," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 1847-1851 (2011).

2010 (2)

F. Zhang, B. Yuan, C. C. Wang, T. Ning, C. Liu, R. Geng, Y. C. Lu, "Side pumping scheme with a dual-sided grating coupler," J. Opt. 12, 015501-1-015501-7 (2010).

D. J. Richardson, J. Nilsson, W. A. Clarkson, "High power fiber lasers: Current status and future perspectives," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 27, B63-B92 (2010).

2009 (3)

F. V. Laere, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, G. Roelkens, D. V. Thourhout, R. Baets, "Focusing polarization diversity grating couplers in silicon-on-insulator," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 612-618 (2009).

F. Zhang, C. C. Wang, T. A. Ning, C. Liu, R. Geng, Y. C. Lu, "Multi-point side pumping scheme of fiber lasers for high-power diode arrays," Opt. Commun. 282, 3325-3329 (2009).

B. Schmid, A. Petrov, M. Eich, "Optimized grating coupler with fully etched slots," Opt. Exp. 17, 11066-11076 (2009).

2007 (2)

S. Siitonen, P. Laakkonen, J. Tervo, M. Kuittinen, "A double-sided grating coupler for thin light guides," Opt. Exp. 15, 2008-2018 (2007).

M. Hildebrandt, M. Frede, D. Kracht, "Narrow-linewidth ytterbium-doped fiber amplifier system with 45 nm tuning range and 133 W of output power," Opt. Lett. 32, 2345-2347 (2007).

2005 (1)

P. Yan, M. Gong, C. Li, P. Ou, A. Xu, "Distributed pumping multifiber series fiber laser," Opt. Exp. 13, 2699-2706 (2005).

2004 (2)

Y. Jeong, J. K. Sahu, D. N. Payne, J. Nilsson, "Ytterbium-doped large-core fiber laser with 1.36 kW continuous-wave output power," Opt. Exp. 12, 6088-6092 (2004).

J. J. Larsen, G. Vienne, "Side pumping of double-clad photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Lett. 29, 436-438 (2004).

2003 (4)

J. Limpert, A. Liem, H. Zellmer, A. Tunnemann, "500 W continuous-wave fibre laser with excellent beam quality," Electron. Lett. 39, 645-647 (2003).

J. P. Koplow, S. W. Moore, D. A. V. Kliner, "A new method for side pumping of double-clad fiber sources," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 529-540 (2003).

J. Xu, J. Lu, G. Kumar, J. Lu, K. Ueda, "A non-fused fiber coupler for side-pumping of double-clad fiber lasers," Opt. Commun. 220, 389-395 (2003).

R. Herda, A. Liem, B. Schnabel, A. Drauschke, H. J. Fuchs, E. B. Kley, H. Zellmer, A. Tunnermann, "Efficient side-pumping of fibre lasers using binary gold diffraction gratings," Electron. Lett. 39, 276-277 (2003).

1999 (2)

L. Goldberg, J. P. Koplow, D. A. V. Kliner, "Highly efficient 4-W Yb-doped fiber amplifier pumped by a broad-stripe laser diode," Opt. Lett. 24, 673-675 (1999).

V. Dominic, S. MacCormack, R. Waarts, S. Sanders, S. Bicknese, R. Dohle, E. Wolak, P. S. Yeh, E. Zucker, "110 W fibre laser," Electron. Lett. 35, 1158-1160 (1999).

1998 (1)

1995 (1)

M. G. Moharam, E. B. Grann, D. A. Pommet, T. K. Gaylord, "Formulation for stable and efficient implementation of the rigorous coupled-wave analysis of binary gratings," J. Opt. Soc. Amer4. A 12, 1068-1076 (1995).

Electron. Lett. (3)

V. Dominic, S. MacCormack, R. Waarts, S. Sanders, S. Bicknese, R. Dohle, E. Wolak, P. S. Yeh, E. Zucker, "110 W fibre laser," Electron. Lett. 35, 1158-1160 (1999).

J. Limpert, A. Liem, H. Zellmer, A. Tunnemann, "500 W continuous-wave fibre laser with excellent beam quality," Electron. Lett. 39, 645-647 (2003).

R. Herda, A. Liem, B. Schnabel, A. Drauschke, H. J. Fuchs, E. B. Kley, H. Zellmer, A. Tunnermann, "Efficient side-pumping of fibre lasers using binary gold diffraction gratings," Electron. Lett. 39, 276-277 (2003).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. P. Koplow, S. W. Moore, D. A. V. Kliner, "A new method for side pumping of double-clad fiber sources," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 529-540 (2003).

J. Lightw. Technol. (3)

C. Kopp, E. Augendre, R. Orobtchouk, O. Lemonnier, J. M. Fedeli, "Enhanced fiber grating coupler integrated by wafer-to-wafer bonding," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 1847-1851 (2011).

F. V. Laere, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, G. Roelkens, D. V. Thourhout, R. Baets, "Focusing polarization diversity grating couplers in silicon-on-insulator," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 612-618 (2009).

Y. D. Liu, Y. C. Tsai, Y. K. Lu, L. J. Wang, M. C. Hsieh, S. M. Yeh, W. H. Cheng, "New scheme of double-variable-curvature microlens for efficient coupling high-power lasers to single-mode fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 898-904 (2011).

J. Opt. (1)

F. Zhang, B. Yuan, C. C. Wang, T. Ning, C. Liu, R. Geng, Y. C. Lu, "Side pumping scheme with a dual-sided grating coupler," J. Opt. 12, 015501-1-015501-7 (2010).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B (1)

D. J. Richardson, J. Nilsson, W. A. Clarkson, "High power fiber lasers: Current status and future perspectives," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 27, B63-B92 (2010).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer4. A (1)

M. G. Moharam, E. B. Grann, D. A. Pommet, T. K. Gaylord, "Formulation for stable and efficient implementation of the rigorous coupled-wave analysis of binary gratings," J. Opt. Soc. Amer4. A 12, 1068-1076 (1995).

Laser Phys. Lett. (2)

Q. Xiao, P. Yan, S. Yin, J. Hao, M. Gong, "100 W ytterbium-doped monolithic fiber laser with fused angle-polished side-pumping configuration," Laser Phys. Lett. 8, 125-129 (2011).

Q. Xiao, P. Yan, J. He, Y. Wang, X. Zhang, M. Gong, "Tapered fused fiber bundle coupler capable of 1 kW laser combining and 300 W laser splitting," Laser Phys. Lett. 21, 1415-1419 (2011).

Opt. Commun. (2)

F. Zhang, C. C. Wang, T. A. Ning, C. Liu, R. Geng, Y. C. Lu, "Multi-point side pumping scheme of fiber lasers for high-power diode arrays," Opt. Commun. 282, 3325-3329 (2009).

J. Xu, J. Lu, G. Kumar, J. Lu, K. Ueda, "A non-fused fiber coupler for side-pumping of double-clad fiber lasers," Opt. Commun. 220, 389-395 (2003).

Opt. Exp. (4)

S. Siitonen, P. Laakkonen, J. Tervo, M. Kuittinen, "A double-sided grating coupler for thin light guides," Opt. Exp. 15, 2008-2018 (2007).

B. Schmid, A. Petrov, M. Eich, "Optimized grating coupler with fully etched slots," Opt. Exp. 17, 11066-11076 (2009).

Y. Jeong, J. K. Sahu, D. N. Payne, J. Nilsson, "Ytterbium-doped large-core fiber laser with 1.36 kW continuous-wave output power," Opt. Exp. 12, 6088-6092 (2004).

P. Yan, M. Gong, C. Li, P. Ou, A. Xu, "Distributed pumping multifiber series fiber laser," Opt. Exp. 13, 2699-2706 (2005).

Opt. Lett. (4)

Other (3)

P. Schreiber, B. Hoefer, P. Dannberg, U. D. Zeitner, "High-brightness fiber-coupling schemes for diode laser bars," Proc. SPIE (2005) pp. 587602-1-587602-10.

H. Schlüter, C. Tillkorn, U. Bonna, G. Charache, J. Hostetler, T. Li, C. Miester, R. Roff, T. Vethake, C. Schnitzler, "Dense spatial multiplexing enables high brightness multi-kW diode laser systems," Proc. SPIE (2006) pp. 61040M-1-61040M-8.

M. Haag, B. Köhler, J. Biesenbach, T. Brand, "Novel high-brightness fiber coupled diode laser device," Proc. SPIE (2007) pp. 64560T-1-64560T-8.

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