Abstract

A novel low-complexity coherent receiver solution is presented to improve spectral efficiency in wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) systems. It is based on the receiver-side partial-response equalization and maximum-likelihood sequence detection (MLSD) in prefiltered WDM systems. The partial-response equalization shapes the channel into an intermediate state with a known partial response which is finally recovered by MLSD without the need of channel estimation. In this scheme, the severe intersymbol interference induced by the prefiltering can be shared between the partial-response equalization and MLSD. Therefore, a tradeoff can be made between complexity and performance. The feasibility of receiver-side partial-response shaping relaxes the efforts and requirements on the transmitter-side prefiltering, which permits the mature WDM components to implement prefiltering. In addition, the partial-response equalization or shaping structure is also improved based on our prior art, which further simplifies the overall scheme. For near-baudrate-spacing optically prefiltered WDM systems, duobinary response is experimentally proved as a good intermediate response to shape. Due to the short memory of the duobinary response, the complexity of the receiver based on duobinary shaping has been reduced to a low level. As a whole, the proposed scheme provides a good alternative to Nyquist-WDM at comparable spectral efficiencies. With the proposed receiver-side duobinary shaping technique, three sets of experiments have been carried out to verify the improved duobinary shaping scheme and meanwhile demonstrate the main features, including 5 × 112-Gb/s polarization-multiplexed quadrature phase-shift keying (PM-QPSK) WDM transmission over a 25-GHz grid, single-channel 40-Gbaud PM-QPSK experiment, and 30-GHz-spaced 3 × 224-Gb/s PM 16-ary quadrature amplitude modulation transmission.

© 2012 IEEE

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  1. A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, S. Chandrasekhar, X. Liu, B. Zhu, D. W. Peckham, "Spectrally efficient long-haul WDM transmission using 224-GB/s polarization-multiplexed 16-QAM," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 373-377 (2011).
  2. J. Yu, X. Zhou, Y. K. Huang, S. Gupta, M. F. Huang, T. Wang, P. Magill, "112.8-Gb/s PM-RZ-64QAM optical signal generation and transmission on a 12.5 GHz WDM grid," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. San DiegoCA (2010) Paper OThM1.
  3. X. Zhou, J. Yu, M.-F. Huang, Y. Shao, T. Wang, L. Nelson, P. Magill, M. Birk, P. I. Borel, D. W. Peckham, R. Lingle, Jr.B. Zhu, "64-Tb/s, 8 b/s/Hz, PDM-36QAM transmission over 320 km using both pre- and post-transmission digital signal processing," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 571-577 (2011).
  4. Y. Ma, Q. Yan, Y. Tang, S. Chen, W. Shieh, "1-Tb/s single-channel coherent optical OFDM transmission over 600-km SSMF fiber with subwavelength bandwidth access," Opt. Exp. 17, 9421-9427 (2009).
  5. X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, B. Zhu, P. J. Winzer, A. H. Gnauck, D. W. Peckham, "448-Gb/s reduced-guard-interval CO-OFDM transmission over 2000 km of ultra-large-area fiber and five 80-GHz-grid ROADMs," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 483-490 (2011).
  6. A. Sano, E. Yamada, H. Masuda, E. Yamazaki, T. Kobayashi, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, R. Kudo, K. Ishihara, Y. Takatori, "No-guard-interval coherent optical OFDM for 100-Gb/s long-haul WDM transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 3705-3713 (2009).
  7. S. Chandrasekhar, X. Liu, B. Zhu, D. W. Peckham, "Transmission of a 1.2 Tb/s 24-carrier no-guard-interval coherent OFDM superchannel over 7200-km of ultra-large-area fiber," Eur. Conf. Exhib. Opt. Commun. ViennaAustria (2009) Postdeadline Paper PD2.6.
  8. J. Yu, Z. Dong, X. Xiao, Y. Xia, S. Shi, C. Ge, W. Zhou, N. Chi, Y. Shao, "Generation of 112 coherent multi-carriers and transmission of 10 Tb/s (112$\,\times\,$100 Gb/s) single optical OFDM superchannel over 640 km SMF," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (2011) Paper PDPA6.
  9. G. Bosco, A. Carena, V. Curri, P. Poggiolini, F. Forghieri, "Performance limits of Nyquist-WDM and CO-OFDM in high-speed PM-QPSK systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1129-1131 (2010).
  10. X. Zhou, L. Nelson, P. Magill, R. Isaac, B. Zhu, D. W. Peckham, P. Borel, K. Carlson, "8$\,\times\,$450-Gb/s, 50-GHz-Spaced, PDM-32QAM transmission over 400 km and one 50-GHz-Grid ROADM," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Los AngelesCA (2011) Paper PDPB3.
  11. G. Gavioli, E. Torrengo, G. Bosco, A. Carena, V. Curri, V. Miot, P. Poggiolini, M. Belmonte, F. Forghieri, C. Muzio, S. Piciaccia, A. Brinciotti, A. La Porta, C. Lezzi, S. Savory, S. Abrate, "Investigation of the impact of ultra-narrow carrier spacing on the transmission of a 10-carrier 1 Tb/s superchannel," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. San DiegoCA (2010) Paper OThD3.
  12. R. Cigliutti, E. Torrengo, G. Bosco, N. P. Caponio, A. Carena, V. Curri, P. Poggiolini, Y. Yamamoto, T. Sasaki, F. Forghieri, "Transmission of 9$\,\times\,$138 Gb/s prefiltered PM-8QAM signals over 4000 km of pure silica-core fiber," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 2310-2318 (2011).
  13. J. Li, Z. Tao, H. Zhang, W. Yan, T. Hoshida, J. C. Rasmussen, "Enhanced digital coherent receiver for high spectral-efficiency dual-polarization quadrature duobinary systems," Eur. Conf. Exhib. Opt. Commun. TurinItaly (2010) Paper Th.10.A.3.
  14. J. Li, Z. Tao, H. Zhang, W. Yan, T. Hoshida, J. C. Rasmussen, "Spectrally efficient quadrature duobinary coherent systems with symbol-rate digital signal processing," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 1098-1104 (2011).
  15. J.-X. Cai, Y. Cai, C. R. Davidson, D. G. Foursa, A. J. Lucero, O. V. Sinkin, W. W. Patterson, A. N. Pilipetskii, G. Mohs, N. S. Bergano, "Transmission of 96$\,\times\,$100-Gb/s bandwidth-constrained PDM-RZ-QPSK channels with 300% spectral efficiency over 10610 km and 400% spectral efficiency over 4370 km," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 491-498 (2011).
  16. J.-X. Cai, Y. Cai, C. R. Davidson, A. Lucero, H. Zhang, D. G. Foursa, O. V. Sinkin, W. W. Patterson, A. Pilipetskii, G. Mohs, N. S. Bergano, "20 Tbit/s capacity transmission over 6 860 km," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (2011) Paper PDPB4.
  17. K. Horikoshi, T. Kobayashi, S. Yamanaka, E. Yamazaki, A. Sano, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, "Spectrum-narrowing tolerant 171-Gbit/s PDM-16QAM transmission over 1 200 km using maximum likelihood sequence estimation," Eur. Conf. Exhib. Opt. Commun. GenevaSwitzerland (2011) Paper We.10.P1.73.
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  20. D. D. Falconer, F. R. Magee, Jr."Adaptive channel memory truncation for maximum-likelihood sequence estimation," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 52, 1541-1562 (1973).
  21. S. Qureshi, E. Newhall, "An adaptive receiver for data transmission over time-dispersive channels," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory IT-19, 448-457 (1973).
  22. W. U. Lee, F. S. Hill, Jr."A maximum likelihood sequence estimator with decision feedback equalization," IEEE Trans. Commun. COM-25, 971-980 (1977).
  23. S. J. Savory, "Digital coherent optical receivers: Algorithms and subsystems," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 16, 1164-1179 (2010).
  24. H. Kobayashi, "Correlative level coding and maximum likelihood decoding," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory IT-17, 586-594 (1971).
  25. N. Alic, M. Kalsson, M. Skold, O. Milenkovic, P. A. Andrekson, S. Radic, "Joint statistics and MLSD in filtered incoherent high-speed fiber-optic communications," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 1564-1572 (2010).
  26. V. M. Eyuboglu, S. U. Qureshi, "Reduced-state sequence estimation for coded modulation on intersymbol interference channels," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 7, 989-995 (1989).
  27. S. Olcer, "Reduced-state sequence detection of multilevel partial-response signals," IEEE Trans. Commun. 40, 3-6 (1992).
  28. M. Selmi, Y. Jaouën, P. Ciblat, "Accurate digital frequency offset estimator for coherent PolMux QAM transmission systems," Eur. Conf. Exhib. Opt. Commun. ViennaAustria (2009) Paper P3.08.
  29. J. Li, L. Li, Z. Tao, T. Hoshida, J. C. Rasmussen, "Laser-linewidth-tolerant feed-forward carrier phase estimator with reduced complexity for QAM," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 2358-2364 (2011).

2011 (7)

A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, S. Chandrasekhar, X. Liu, B. Zhu, D. W. Peckham, "Spectrally efficient long-haul WDM transmission using 224-GB/s polarization-multiplexed 16-QAM," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 373-377 (2011).

X. Zhou, J. Yu, M.-F. Huang, Y. Shao, T. Wang, L. Nelson, P. Magill, M. Birk, P. I. Borel, D. W. Peckham, R. Lingle, Jr.B. Zhu, "64-Tb/s, 8 b/s/Hz, PDM-36QAM transmission over 320 km using both pre- and post-transmission digital signal processing," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 571-577 (2011).

X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, B. Zhu, P. J. Winzer, A. H. Gnauck, D. W. Peckham, "448-Gb/s reduced-guard-interval CO-OFDM transmission over 2000 km of ultra-large-area fiber and five 80-GHz-grid ROADMs," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 483-490 (2011).

R. Cigliutti, E. Torrengo, G. Bosco, N. P. Caponio, A. Carena, V. Curri, P. Poggiolini, Y. Yamamoto, T. Sasaki, F. Forghieri, "Transmission of 9$\,\times\,$138 Gb/s prefiltered PM-8QAM signals over 4000 km of pure silica-core fiber," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 2310-2318 (2011).

J. Li, Z. Tao, H. Zhang, W. Yan, T. Hoshida, J. C. Rasmussen, "Spectrally efficient quadrature duobinary coherent systems with symbol-rate digital signal processing," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 1098-1104 (2011).

J.-X. Cai, Y. Cai, C. R. Davidson, D. G. Foursa, A. J. Lucero, O. V. Sinkin, W. W. Patterson, A. N. Pilipetskii, G. Mohs, N. S. Bergano, "Transmission of 96$\,\times\,$100-Gb/s bandwidth-constrained PDM-RZ-QPSK channels with 300% spectral efficiency over 10610 km and 400% spectral efficiency over 4370 km," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 491-498 (2011).

J. Li, L. Li, Z. Tao, T. Hoshida, J. C. Rasmussen, "Laser-linewidth-tolerant feed-forward carrier phase estimator with reduced complexity for QAM," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 2358-2364 (2011).

2010 (3)

G. Bosco, A. Carena, V. Curri, P. Poggiolini, F. Forghieri, "Performance limits of Nyquist-WDM and CO-OFDM in high-speed PM-QPSK systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1129-1131 (2010).

S. J. Savory, "Digital coherent optical receivers: Algorithms and subsystems," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 16, 1164-1179 (2010).

N. Alic, M. Kalsson, M. Skold, O. Milenkovic, P. A. Andrekson, S. Radic, "Joint statistics and MLSD in filtered incoherent high-speed fiber-optic communications," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 1564-1572 (2010).

2009 (2)

A. Sano, E. Yamada, H. Masuda, E. Yamazaki, T. Kobayashi, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, R. Kudo, K. Ishihara, Y. Takatori, "No-guard-interval coherent optical OFDM for 100-Gb/s long-haul WDM transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 3705-3713 (2009).

Y. Ma, Q. Yan, Y. Tang, S. Chen, W. Shieh, "1-Tb/s single-channel coherent optical OFDM transmission over 600-km SSMF fiber with subwavelength bandwidth access," Opt. Exp. 17, 9421-9427 (2009).

1992 (1)

S. Olcer, "Reduced-state sequence detection of multilevel partial-response signals," IEEE Trans. Commun. 40, 3-6 (1992).

1989 (1)

V. M. Eyuboglu, S. U. Qureshi, "Reduced-state sequence estimation for coded modulation on intersymbol interference channels," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 7, 989-995 (1989).

1977 (1)

W. U. Lee, F. S. Hill, Jr."A maximum likelihood sequence estimator with decision feedback equalization," IEEE Trans. Commun. COM-25, 971-980 (1977).

1973 (2)

D. D. Falconer, F. R. Magee, Jr."Adaptive channel memory truncation for maximum-likelihood sequence estimation," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 52, 1541-1562 (1973).

S. Qureshi, E. Newhall, "An adaptive receiver for data transmission over time-dispersive channels," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory IT-19, 448-457 (1973).

1972 (1)

G. D. Forney, Jr."Maximum likelihood sequence estimation of digital sequences in the presence of intersymbol interference," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory IT-18, 363-378 (1972).

1971 (1)

H. Kobayashi, "Correlative level coding and maximum likelihood decoding," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory IT-17, 586-594 (1971).

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (1)

D. D. Falconer, F. R. Magee, Jr."Adaptive channel memory truncation for maximum-likelihood sequence estimation," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 52, 1541-1562 (1973).

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (1)

V. M. Eyuboglu, S. U. Qureshi, "Reduced-state sequence estimation for coded modulation on intersymbol interference channels," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 7, 989-995 (1989).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

S. J. Savory, "Digital coherent optical receivers: Algorithms and subsystems," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 16, 1164-1179 (2010).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

G. Bosco, A. Carena, V. Curri, P. Poggiolini, F. Forghieri, "Performance limits of Nyquist-WDM and CO-OFDM in high-speed PM-QPSK systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1129-1131 (2010).

IEEE Trans. Commun. (2)

S. Olcer, "Reduced-state sequence detection of multilevel partial-response signals," IEEE Trans. Commun. 40, 3-6 (1992).

W. U. Lee, F. S. Hill, Jr."A maximum likelihood sequence estimator with decision feedback equalization," IEEE Trans. Commun. COM-25, 971-980 (1977).

IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory (3)

G. D. Forney, Jr."Maximum likelihood sequence estimation of digital sequences in the presence of intersymbol interference," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory IT-18, 363-378 (1972).

S. Qureshi, E. Newhall, "An adaptive receiver for data transmission over time-dispersive channels," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory IT-19, 448-457 (1973).

H. Kobayashi, "Correlative level coding and maximum likelihood decoding," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory IT-17, 586-594 (1971).

J. Lightw. Technol. (9)

N. Alic, M. Kalsson, M. Skold, O. Milenkovic, P. A. Andrekson, S. Radic, "Joint statistics and MLSD in filtered incoherent high-speed fiber-optic communications," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 1564-1572 (2010).

J. Li, L. Li, Z. Tao, T. Hoshida, J. C. Rasmussen, "Laser-linewidth-tolerant feed-forward carrier phase estimator with reduced complexity for QAM," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 2358-2364 (2011).

R. Cigliutti, E. Torrengo, G. Bosco, N. P. Caponio, A. Carena, V. Curri, P. Poggiolini, Y. Yamamoto, T. Sasaki, F. Forghieri, "Transmission of 9$\,\times\,$138 Gb/s prefiltered PM-8QAM signals over 4000 km of pure silica-core fiber," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 2310-2318 (2011).

J. Li, Z. Tao, H. Zhang, W. Yan, T. Hoshida, J. C. Rasmussen, "Spectrally efficient quadrature duobinary coherent systems with symbol-rate digital signal processing," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 1098-1104 (2011).

J.-X. Cai, Y. Cai, C. R. Davidson, D. G. Foursa, A. J. Lucero, O. V. Sinkin, W. W. Patterson, A. N. Pilipetskii, G. Mohs, N. S. Bergano, "Transmission of 96$\,\times\,$100-Gb/s bandwidth-constrained PDM-RZ-QPSK channels with 300% spectral efficiency over 10610 km and 400% spectral efficiency over 4370 km," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 491-498 (2011).

A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, S. Chandrasekhar, X. Liu, B. Zhu, D. W. Peckham, "Spectrally efficient long-haul WDM transmission using 224-GB/s polarization-multiplexed 16-QAM," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 373-377 (2011).

X. Zhou, J. Yu, M.-F. Huang, Y. Shao, T. Wang, L. Nelson, P. Magill, M. Birk, P. I. Borel, D. W. Peckham, R. Lingle, Jr.B. Zhu, "64-Tb/s, 8 b/s/Hz, PDM-36QAM transmission over 320 km using both pre- and post-transmission digital signal processing," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 571-577 (2011).

X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, B. Zhu, P. J. Winzer, A. H. Gnauck, D. W. Peckham, "448-Gb/s reduced-guard-interval CO-OFDM transmission over 2000 km of ultra-large-area fiber and five 80-GHz-grid ROADMs," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 483-490 (2011).

A. Sano, E. Yamada, H. Masuda, E. Yamazaki, T. Kobayashi, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, R. Kudo, K. Ishihara, Y. Takatori, "No-guard-interval coherent optical OFDM for 100-Gb/s long-haul WDM transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 3705-3713 (2009).

Opt. Exp. (1)

Y. Ma, Q. Yan, Y. Tang, S. Chen, W. Shieh, "1-Tb/s single-channel coherent optical OFDM transmission over 600-km SSMF fiber with subwavelength bandwidth access," Opt. Exp. 17, 9421-9427 (2009).

Other (10)

J. Yu, X. Zhou, Y. K. Huang, S. Gupta, M. F. Huang, T. Wang, P. Magill, "112.8-Gb/s PM-RZ-64QAM optical signal generation and transmission on a 12.5 GHz WDM grid," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. San DiegoCA (2010) Paper OThM1.

S. Chandrasekhar, X. Liu, B. Zhu, D. W. Peckham, "Transmission of a 1.2 Tb/s 24-carrier no-guard-interval coherent OFDM superchannel over 7200-km of ultra-large-area fiber," Eur. Conf. Exhib. Opt. Commun. ViennaAustria (2009) Postdeadline Paper PD2.6.

J. Yu, Z. Dong, X. Xiao, Y. Xia, S. Shi, C. Ge, W. Zhou, N. Chi, Y. Shao, "Generation of 112 coherent multi-carriers and transmission of 10 Tb/s (112$\,\times\,$100 Gb/s) single optical OFDM superchannel over 640 km SMF," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (2011) Paper PDPA6.

J.-X. Cai, Y. Cai, C. R. Davidson, A. Lucero, H. Zhang, D. G. Foursa, O. V. Sinkin, W. W. Patterson, A. Pilipetskii, G. Mohs, N. S. Bergano, "20 Tbit/s capacity transmission over 6 860 km," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (2011) Paper PDPB4.

K. Horikoshi, T. Kobayashi, S. Yamanaka, E. Yamazaki, A. Sano, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, "Spectrum-narrowing tolerant 171-Gbit/s PDM-16QAM transmission over 1 200 km using maximum likelihood sequence estimation," Eur. Conf. Exhib. Opt. Commun. GenevaSwitzerland (2011) Paper We.10.P1.73.

J. G. Proakis, Digital Communications (McGraw-Hill, 2001).

J. Li, Z. Tao, H. Zhang, W. Yan, T. Hoshida, J. C. Rasmussen, "Enhanced digital coherent receiver for high spectral-efficiency dual-polarization quadrature duobinary systems," Eur. Conf. Exhib. Opt. Commun. TurinItaly (2010) Paper Th.10.A.3.

X. Zhou, L. Nelson, P. Magill, R. Isaac, B. Zhu, D. W. Peckham, P. Borel, K. Carlson, "8$\,\times\,$450-Gb/s, 50-GHz-Spaced, PDM-32QAM transmission over 400 km and one 50-GHz-Grid ROADM," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Los AngelesCA (2011) Paper PDPB3.

G. Gavioli, E. Torrengo, G. Bosco, A. Carena, V. Curri, V. Miot, P. Poggiolini, M. Belmonte, F. Forghieri, C. Muzio, S. Piciaccia, A. Brinciotti, A. La Porta, C. Lezzi, S. Savory, S. Abrate, "Investigation of the impact of ultra-narrow carrier spacing on the transmission of a 10-carrier 1 Tb/s superchannel," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. San DiegoCA (2010) Paper OThD3.

M. Selmi, Y. Jaouën, P. Ciblat, "Accurate digital frequency offset estimator for coherent PolMux QAM transmission systems," Eur. Conf. Exhib. Opt. Commun. ViennaAustria (2009) Paper P3.08.

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