Abstract

A novel and flexible photonics-based scheme is proposed for generating phase-coded RF pulses suitable for coherent radar systems with pulse compression techniques. After selecting two modes from a mode-locked laser (MLL), the technique exploits an optical in-phase/quadrature modulator driven by a low-sample rate and low-noise direct digital synthesizer to modulate the phase of only one mode. The two laser modes are then heterodyned in a photodiode, and the RF pulse is properly filtered out. The scheme is experimentally validated implementing a 4-bit Barker code and a linear chirp on radar pulses with a carrier frequency of about 25 GHz, starting from an MLL at about 10 GHz. The measures of phase noise, amplitude- and phase-transients, and autocorrelation functions confirm the effectiveness of the scheme in producing compressed radar pulses without affecting the phase stability of the optically generated high-frequency carriers. An increase in the radar resolution from 150 to 37.5 m is calculated. The proposed scheme is capable of flexibly generating software-defined phase-modulated RF pulses with high stability, even at very high carrier frequency, using only a single commercial device with potentials for wideband modulation. It can therefore allow a new generation of high-resolution coherent radars with reduced complexity and cost.

© 2012 IEEE

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  2. L. Goldberg, H. F. Taylor, J. F. Weller, D. M. Bloom, "Microwave signal generation with injection locked laser diodes," Electron. Lett. 19, 491-493 (1983).
  3. J. Sun, Y. Dai, X. Chen, Y. Zhang, S. Xie, "Stable dual-wavelength DFB fiber laser with separate resonant cavities and its application in tunable microwave generation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2587-2589 (2006).
  4. L. Goldberg, R. D. Esman, K. J. Williams, "Generation and control of microwave signals by optical techniques," Proc. IEE J. Optoelectron. (1992) pp. 288-295.
  5. G. Serafino, P. Ghelfi, G. E. Villanueva, J. Palací, P. Pérez-Millán, J. L. Cruz, C. Porzi, A. Bogoni, "Stable optically generated RF signals from a fibre mode-locked laser," IEEE Photon. Soc. Annu. Meet (2010).
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  7. B. Jalali, P. Kelkar, V. Saxena, "Photonic arbitrary wavelength generator," Proc. 14th Annu. Meet. Laser-Opt. Soc. (2001) pp. 253-254.
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  16. Z. Li, W. Li, H. Chi, X. Zhang, J. Yao, "Photonic generation of phase-coded microwave signal with large frequency tunability," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 712-714 (2011).
  17. P. Pérez-Millán, A. Wiberg, P. O. Hedekvist, P. A. Andrekson, M. V. Andrésa, "Optical demultiplexing of millimeter-wave subcarriers for wireless channel distribution employing dual wavelength FBGs," Opt. Commun. 275, 335-343 (2007).
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  20. L. Banchi, F. Rossi, M. Ferianis, A. Bogoni, L. Potì, P. Ghelfi, "Synchronization of 3 GHz repetition rate harmonically mode-locked fiber laser for optical timing applications," presented at the DIPAC Conf. VeneziaItaly (2007).

2011 (1)

Z. Li, W. Li, H. Chi, X. Zhang, J. Yao, "Photonic generation of phase-coded microwave signal with large frequency tunability," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 712-714 (2011).

2010 (1)

Y. Park, J. Azaña, "Ultrahigh dispersion of broadband microwave signals by incoherent photonic processing," Opt. Exp. 18, 14752-14761 (2010).

2008 (3)

H. Chi, J. P. Yao, "Photonic generation of phase-coded millimeterwave signal using a polarization modulator," IEEE Microw. Wireless Compon. Lett. 18, 371-373 (2008).

K. Sasagawa, M. Tsuchiya, "Low-noise and high-frequency resolution electrooptic sensing of RF near-fields using an external optical modulator," J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 1242-1248 (2008).

D.-J. Lee, J. F. Whitaker, "Bandwidth enhancement of electro-optic field sensing using photonic down-mixing with harmonic sidebands," Opt. Exp. 16, 14771-14779 (2008).

2007 (3)

H. Chi, J. P. Yao, "An approach to photonic generation of high frequency phase-coded RF pulses," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 768-770 (2007).

P. Pérez-Millán, A. Wiberg, P. O. Hedekvist, P. A. Andrekson, M. V. Andrésa, "Optical demultiplexing of millimeter-wave subcarriers for wireless channel distribution employing dual wavelength FBGs," Opt. Commun. 275, 335-343 (2007).

H. Chi, J. P. Yao, "All-fiber chirped microwave pulse generation based on spectral shaping and wavelength-to-time conversion," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 55, 1958-1963 (2007).

2006 (1)

J. Sun, Y. Dai, X. Chen, Y. Zhang, S. Xie, "Stable dual-wavelength DFB fiber laser with separate resonant cavities and its application in tunable microwave generation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2587-2589 (2006).

2005 (2)

I. S. Lin, J. D. McKinney, A. M. Weiner, "Photonic synthesis of broadband microwave arbitrary waveform applicable to ultra-wideband communication," IEEE Microw. Wireless Compon. Lett. 15, 226-228 (2005).

A. Zeitouny, S. Stepanov, O. Levinson, M. Horowitz, "Optical generation of linearly chirped microwave pulses using fiber Bragg gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 660-662 (2005).

2003 (1)

J. Chou, Y. Han, B. Jalali, "Adaptive RF-photonic arbitrary waveform generator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 581-583 (2003).

2002 (2)

T. Yilmaz, C. M. DePriest, T. Turpin, J. H. Abeles, P. J. Delfyett, Jr."Toward a photonic arbitrary waveform generator using a modelocked external cavity semiconductor laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1608-1610 (2002).

J. D. McKinney, D. E. Leaird, A. M. Weiner, "Millimeter-wave arbitrary waveform generation with a direct space-to-time pulse shaper," Opt. Lett. 27, 1345-1347 (2002).

1983 (1)

L. Goldberg, H. F. Taylor, J. F. Weller, D. M. Bloom, "Microwave signal generation with injection locked laser diodes," Electron. Lett. 19, 491-493 (1983).

Electron. Lett. (1)

L. Goldberg, H. F. Taylor, J. F. Weller, D. M. Bloom, "Microwave signal generation with injection locked laser diodes," Electron. Lett. 19, 491-493 (1983).

IEEE Microw. Wireless Compon. Lett. (1)

H. Chi, J. P. Yao, "Photonic generation of phase-coded millimeterwave signal using a polarization modulator," IEEE Microw. Wireless Compon. Lett. 18, 371-373 (2008).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

A. Zeitouny, S. Stepanov, O. Levinson, M. Horowitz, "Optical generation of linearly chirped microwave pulses using fiber Bragg gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 660-662 (2005).

H. Chi, J. P. Yao, "An approach to photonic generation of high frequency phase-coded RF pulses," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 768-770 (2007).

IEEE Microw. Wireless Compon. Lett. (1)

I. S. Lin, J. D. McKinney, A. M. Weiner, "Photonic synthesis of broadband microwave arbitrary waveform applicable to ultra-wideband communication," IEEE Microw. Wireless Compon. Lett. 15, 226-228 (2005).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

J. Sun, Y. Dai, X. Chen, Y. Zhang, S. Xie, "Stable dual-wavelength DFB fiber laser with separate resonant cavities and its application in tunable microwave generation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2587-2589 (2006).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

T. Yilmaz, C. M. DePriest, T. Turpin, J. H. Abeles, P. J. Delfyett, Jr."Toward a photonic arbitrary waveform generator using a modelocked external cavity semiconductor laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1608-1610 (2002).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

Z. Li, W. Li, H. Chi, X. Zhang, J. Yao, "Photonic generation of phase-coded microwave signal with large frequency tunability," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 712-714 (2011).

J. Chou, Y. Han, B. Jalali, "Adaptive RF-photonic arbitrary waveform generator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 581-583 (2003).

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (1)

H. Chi, J. P. Yao, "All-fiber chirped microwave pulse generation based on spectral shaping and wavelength-to-time conversion," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 55, 1958-1963 (2007).

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Opt. Exp. (1)

Y. Park, J. Azaña, "Ultrahigh dispersion of broadband microwave signals by incoherent photonic processing," Opt. Exp. 18, 14752-14761 (2010).

Opt. Lett. (1)

J. D. McKinney, D. E. Leaird, A. M. Weiner, "Millimeter-wave arbitrary waveform generation with a direct space-to-time pulse shaper," Opt. Lett. 27, 1345-1347 (2002).

Opt. Commun. (1)

P. Pérez-Millán, A. Wiberg, P. O. Hedekvist, P. A. Andrekson, M. V. Andrésa, "Optical demultiplexing of millimeter-wave subcarriers for wireless channel distribution employing dual wavelength FBGs," Opt. Commun. 275, 335-343 (2007).

Opt. Exp. (1)

D.-J. Lee, J. F. Whitaker, "Bandwidth enhancement of electro-optic field sensing using photonic down-mixing with harmonic sidebands," Opt. Exp. 16, 14771-14779 (2008).

Other (5)

L. Banchi, F. Rossi, M. Ferianis, A. Bogoni, L. Potì, P. Ghelfi, "Synchronization of 3 GHz repetition rate harmonically mode-locked fiber laser for optical timing applications," presented at the DIPAC Conf. VeneziaItaly (2007).

M. L. Skolnik, Introduction to Radar Systems (McGraw-Hill, 1980).

B. Jalali, P. Kelkar, V. Saxena, "Photonic arbitrary wavelength generator," Proc. 14th Annu. Meet. Laser-Opt. Soc. (2001) pp. 253-254.

L. Goldberg, R. D. Esman, K. J. Williams, "Generation and control of microwave signals by optical techniques," Proc. IEE J. Optoelectron. (1992) pp. 288-295.

G. Serafino, P. Ghelfi, G. E. Villanueva, J. Palací, P. Pérez-Millán, J. L. Cruz, C. Porzi, A. Bogoni, "Stable optically generated RF signals from a fibre mode-locked laser," IEEE Photon. Soc. Annu. Meet (2010).

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