Abstract

We propose a novel scheme that combines a polarization-beam splitter (PBS) and a 90° hybrid into a single device to demodulate the dual-polarization quadrature phase-shift keying (DP-QPSK) signal by introducing a photonic crystal structure into a 4 × 4 multimode interference coupler. Since no separated PBS is utilized, the demodulator has much smaller chip size compared with a conventional DP-QPSK demodulator which contains two PBSs and two 90° hybrids. Simulation with 2-D finite-difference time-domain method indicates that the demodulator can operate very well for demodulating the DP-QPSK signal. The numerical simulation demonstrates a common-mode rejection ratio larger than 20 dB and phase errors smaller than ±5° of the device over the C-band wavelength range.

© 2012 IEEE

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  1. Y. Han, G. Li, "Theoretical sensitivity of direct-detection multilevel modulation formats for high spectral efficiency optical communications," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 571-580 (2006).
  2. E. Cassan, "On-chip optical interconnects with compact and low-loss light distribution in silicon-on-insulator rib waveguides," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 9, 460-464 (2003).
  3. G. Rasigade, "High extinction ratio 10 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator," Opt. Exp. 19, 5827-5832 (2011).
  4. L. Vivien, "42 GHz pin germanium photodetector integrated in a silicon-on-insulator waveguide," Opt. Exp. 17, 6252-6257 (2009).
  5. C. Wree, "High spectral efficiency 1.6-b/s/Hz transmission (8$\,\times\,$40 Gb/s with a 25-GHz grid) over 200-km SSMF using RZ-DQPSK and polarization multiplexing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1303-1305 (2003).
  6. D. van den Borne, "1.6-b/s/Hz spectrally efficient transmission over 1700 km of SSMF using 40$\,\times\,$85.6-Gb/s POLMUX-RZ-DQPSK," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 222-232 (2007).
  7. P. Boffi, "Measurement of PMD tolerance in 40-Gb/s polarization-multiplexed RZ-DQPSK," Opt. Exp. 16, 13398-13404 (2008).
  8. Y. Sakamaki, "Dual polarisation optical hybrid using silica-based planar lightwave circuit technology for digital coherent receiver," Electron. Lett. 46, 58-60 (2010).
  9. R. Nagarajan, "10 channel, 45.6 Gb/s per channel, polarization-multiplexed DQPSK, InP receiver photonic integrated circuit," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 386-395 (2011).
  10. T. Inoue, "Double-pass PBS-integrated coherent mixer using silica-based PLC," presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. San DiegoCA (2010) Paper OThB2.
  11. C. R. Doerr, "Monolithic InP multiwavelength coherent receiver using a chirped arrayed waveguide grating," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 536-541 (2011).
  12. Y. Hashizutne, "Integrated polarisation beam splitter using waveguide birefringence dependence on waveguide core width," Electron. Lett. 37, 1517-1518 (2001).
  13. M. R. Watts, "Integrated mode-evolution-based polarization splitter," Opt. Lett. 30, 967-969 (2005).
  14. M. Seimetz, C. M. Weinert, "Options, feasibility, and availability of 2$\,\times\,$4 90$^{\circ}$ hybrids for coherent optical systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 1317-1322 (2006).
  15. S. H. Jeong, K. Morito, "Novel optical 90$^{\circ}$ hybrid consisting of a paired interference based 2$\,\times\,$4 MMI coupler, a phase shifter and a 2$\,\times\,$2 MMI coupler," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 1323-1331 (2010).
  16. C. R. Doerr, "Monolithic demodulator for 40-Gb/s DQPSK using a star coupler," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 171-174 (2006).
  17. Y. Sakamaki, "One-chip integrated dual polarization optical hybrid using silica-based planar lightwave circuit technology," Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (2009) pp. 1-2.
  18. L. W. Chung, S. L. Lee, "Multimode-interference-based broadband demultiplexers with internal photonic crystals," Opt. Exp. 14, 4923-4927 (2006).
  19. Y. Shi, "Proposal for an ultracompact polarization-beam splitter based on a photonic-crystal-assisted multimode interference coupler," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 825-827 (2007).
  20. L. B. Soldano, E. C. M. Pennings, "Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: Principles and applications," J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 615-627 (1995).
  21. Y. Jiao, "Accurate and efficient simulation for silicon-nanowire-based multimode interference couplers with a 3-D finite-element mode-propagation analysis," JOSA B 27, 1813-1818 (2010).
  22. E. Pennings, "Ultracompact, all-passive optical 90$^{\circ}$ hybrid on InP using self- imaging," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 701-703 (1993).
  23. M. Boudreau, "An integrated InP coherent receiver for 40 and 100 Gb/Sec telecommunication systems," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (2009) pp. 1-3.
  24. S. H. Jeong, K. Morito, "Optical 90$^{\circ}$ hybrid with broad operating bandwidth of 94 nm," Opt. Lett. 34, 3505-3507 (2009).
  25. R. Halir, "High-performance 90$^{\circ}$ hybrid based on a silicon-on-insulator multimode interference coupler," Opt. Lett. 36, 178-180 (2011).
  26. C. R. Doerr, "Monolithic polarization and phase diversity coherent receiver in silicon," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 520-525 (2010).

2011 (4)

G. Rasigade, "High extinction ratio 10 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator," Opt. Exp. 19, 5827-5832 (2011).

R. Nagarajan, "10 channel, 45.6 Gb/s per channel, polarization-multiplexed DQPSK, InP receiver photonic integrated circuit," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 386-395 (2011).

C. R. Doerr, "Monolithic InP multiwavelength coherent receiver using a chirped arrayed waveguide grating," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 536-541 (2011).

R. Halir, "High-performance 90$^{\circ}$ hybrid based on a silicon-on-insulator multimode interference coupler," Opt. Lett. 36, 178-180 (2011).

2010 (4)

C. R. Doerr, "Monolithic polarization and phase diversity coherent receiver in silicon," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 520-525 (2010).

Y. Sakamaki, "Dual polarisation optical hybrid using silica-based planar lightwave circuit technology for digital coherent receiver," Electron. Lett. 46, 58-60 (2010).

S. H. Jeong, K. Morito, "Novel optical 90$^{\circ}$ hybrid consisting of a paired interference based 2$\,\times\,$4 MMI coupler, a phase shifter and a 2$\,\times\,$2 MMI coupler," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 1323-1331 (2010).

Y. Jiao, "Accurate and efficient simulation for silicon-nanowire-based multimode interference couplers with a 3-D finite-element mode-propagation analysis," JOSA B 27, 1813-1818 (2010).

2009 (2)

L. Vivien, "42 GHz pin germanium photodetector integrated in a silicon-on-insulator waveguide," Opt. Exp. 17, 6252-6257 (2009).

S. H. Jeong, K. Morito, "Optical 90$^{\circ}$ hybrid with broad operating bandwidth of 94 nm," Opt. Lett. 34, 3505-3507 (2009).

2008 (1)

P. Boffi, "Measurement of PMD tolerance in 40-Gb/s polarization-multiplexed RZ-DQPSK," Opt. Exp. 16, 13398-13404 (2008).

2007 (2)

D. van den Borne, "1.6-b/s/Hz spectrally efficient transmission over 1700 km of SSMF using 40$\,\times\,$85.6-Gb/s POLMUX-RZ-DQPSK," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 222-232 (2007).

Y. Shi, "Proposal for an ultracompact polarization-beam splitter based on a photonic-crystal-assisted multimode interference coupler," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 825-827 (2007).

2006 (4)

C. R. Doerr, "Monolithic demodulator for 40-Gb/s DQPSK using a star coupler," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 171-174 (2006).

L. W. Chung, S. L. Lee, "Multimode-interference-based broadband demultiplexers with internal photonic crystals," Opt. Exp. 14, 4923-4927 (2006).

Y. Han, G. Li, "Theoretical sensitivity of direct-detection multilevel modulation formats for high spectral efficiency optical communications," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 571-580 (2006).

M. Seimetz, C. M. Weinert, "Options, feasibility, and availability of 2$\,\times\,$4 90$^{\circ}$ hybrids for coherent optical systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 1317-1322 (2006).

2005 (1)

M. R. Watts, "Integrated mode-evolution-based polarization splitter," Opt. Lett. 30, 967-969 (2005).

2003 (2)

E. Cassan, "On-chip optical interconnects with compact and low-loss light distribution in silicon-on-insulator rib waveguides," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 9, 460-464 (2003).

C. Wree, "High spectral efficiency 1.6-b/s/Hz transmission (8$\,\times\,$40 Gb/s with a 25-GHz grid) over 200-km SSMF using RZ-DQPSK and polarization multiplexing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1303-1305 (2003).

2001 (1)

Y. Hashizutne, "Integrated polarisation beam splitter using waveguide birefringence dependence on waveguide core width," Electron. Lett. 37, 1517-1518 (2001).

1995 (1)

L. B. Soldano, E. C. M. Pennings, "Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: Principles and applications," J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 615-627 (1995).

1993 (1)

E. Pennings, "Ultracompact, all-passive optical 90$^{\circ}$ hybrid on InP using self- imaging," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 701-703 (1993).

Electron. Lett. (2)

Y. Sakamaki, "Dual polarisation optical hybrid using silica-based planar lightwave circuit technology for digital coherent receiver," Electron. Lett. 46, 58-60 (2010).

Y. Hashizutne, "Integrated polarisation beam splitter using waveguide birefringence dependence on waveguide core width," Electron. Lett. 37, 1517-1518 (2001).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

E. Pennings, "Ultracompact, all-passive optical 90$^{\circ}$ hybrid on InP using self- imaging," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 701-703 (1993).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (2)

Y. Han, G. Li, "Theoretical sensitivity of direct-detection multilevel modulation formats for high spectral efficiency optical communications," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 571-580 (2006).

E. Cassan, "On-chip optical interconnects with compact and low-loss light distribution in silicon-on-insulator rib waveguides," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 9, 460-464 (2003).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

C. Wree, "High spectral efficiency 1.6-b/s/Hz transmission (8$\,\times\,$40 Gb/s with a 25-GHz grid) over 200-km SSMF using RZ-DQPSK and polarization multiplexing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1303-1305 (2003).

Y. Shi, "Proposal for an ultracompact polarization-beam splitter based on a photonic-crystal-assisted multimode interference coupler," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 825-827 (2007).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

C. R. Doerr, "Monolithic demodulator for 40-Gb/s DQPSK using a star coupler," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 171-174 (2006).

J. Lightw. Technol. (7)

C. R. Doerr, "Monolithic InP multiwavelength coherent receiver using a chirped arrayed waveguide grating," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 536-541 (2011).

M. Seimetz, C. M. Weinert, "Options, feasibility, and availability of 2$\,\times\,$4 90$^{\circ}$ hybrids for coherent optical systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 1317-1322 (2006).

S. H. Jeong, K. Morito, "Novel optical 90$^{\circ}$ hybrid consisting of a paired interference based 2$\,\times\,$4 MMI coupler, a phase shifter and a 2$\,\times\,$2 MMI coupler," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 1323-1331 (2010).

D. van den Borne, "1.6-b/s/Hz spectrally efficient transmission over 1700 km of SSMF using 40$\,\times\,$85.6-Gb/s POLMUX-RZ-DQPSK," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 222-232 (2007).

R. Nagarajan, "10 channel, 45.6 Gb/s per channel, polarization-multiplexed DQPSK, InP receiver photonic integrated circuit," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 386-395 (2011).

L. B. Soldano, E. C. M. Pennings, "Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: Principles and applications," J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 615-627 (1995).

C. R. Doerr, "Monolithic polarization and phase diversity coherent receiver in silicon," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 520-525 (2010).

JOSA B (1)

Y. Jiao, "Accurate and efficient simulation for silicon-nanowire-based multimode interference couplers with a 3-D finite-element mode-propagation analysis," JOSA B 27, 1813-1818 (2010).

Opt. Exp. (1)

P. Boffi, "Measurement of PMD tolerance in 40-Gb/s polarization-multiplexed RZ-DQPSK," Opt. Exp. 16, 13398-13404 (2008).

Opt. Lett. (1)

M. R. Watts, "Integrated mode-evolution-based polarization splitter," Opt. Lett. 30, 967-969 (2005).

Opt. Exp. (3)

L. W. Chung, S. L. Lee, "Multimode-interference-based broadband demultiplexers with internal photonic crystals," Opt. Exp. 14, 4923-4927 (2006).

G. Rasigade, "High extinction ratio 10 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator," Opt. Exp. 19, 5827-5832 (2011).

L. Vivien, "42 GHz pin germanium photodetector integrated in a silicon-on-insulator waveguide," Opt. Exp. 17, 6252-6257 (2009).

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (3)

M. Boudreau, "An integrated InP coherent receiver for 40 and 100 Gb/Sec telecommunication systems," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (2009) pp. 1-3.

T. Inoue, "Double-pass PBS-integrated coherent mixer using silica-based PLC," presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. San DiegoCA (2010) Paper OThB2.

Y. Sakamaki, "One-chip integrated dual polarization optical hybrid using silica-based planar lightwave circuit technology," Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (2009) pp. 1-2.

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