Abstract

A new integration technique of a 45-degree micromirror providing a vertical coupling between a free-space wave and a guided wave in a dielectric-glass waveguide for high-density intra-board optical interconnection was described. A planar waveguide consisting of a 4-μm-thickness GeO<sub>2</sub>:SiO<sub>2</sub> guiding core layer and a 2-μm-thickness SiO<sub>2</sub> cladding layer on an SiO<sub>2</sub> substrate was used for characterization of the micromirror. A trench with 8-μm depth and 8-μm width was formed in the waveguide by using a dry etching technique. A photoresist filling the trench was exposed at an angle of 45 degrees in the water to give a 45-degree taper in the trench. Au was evaporated on the taper to give high-reflection micromirror. An excess loss due to the micromirror insertion was estimated to be about 2 dB by comparing insertion losses of waveguides with and without the micromirror.

© 2012 IEEE

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W. J. Lee, S. H. Hwang, J. W. Lim, B. S. Rho, "Polymeric waveguide film with embedded mirror for multilayer optical circuits," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 12-14 (2009).

F. Wang, F. Liu, A. Adibi, "45 degree polymer micromirror integration for board-level three-dimensional optical interconnects," Opt. Express 17, 10514-10521 (2009).

2008 (1)

Y. Johraku, Y. Kokubun, "Low loss vertical optical path conversion using 45$^{\circ}$ mirror for coupling between optical waveguide devices and planar devices," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 6744-6749 (2008).

2007 (1)

2006 (4)

S. Hiramatsu, T. Mikawa, "Optical design of active interposer for highspeed chip level optical interconnects," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 927-934 (2006).

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, D. W. Dolfi, "Terabus: Terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies," IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 1032-1044 (2006).

C. Gunn, "CMOS photonics for high-speed interconnects," IEEE Micro 26, 58-66 (2006).

D. Taillaert, F. V. Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thorhout, P. Bienstman, R. Baets, "Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguides," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6071-6077 (2006).

2005 (2)

A. F. Benner, M. Ignatowski, J. A. Kash, M. B. Ritter, "Exploitation of optical interconnects in future server architectures," IBM J. Res. Dev. 49, 755-775 (2005).

A. L. Glebov, J. Roman, M. G. Lee, K. Yokouchi, "Optical interconnect modules with fully integrated reflector mirrors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1540-1542 (2005).

2004 (1)

2003 (2)

H. Takahara, "Optoelectronic multichip module packaging technologies and optical input/output interface chip-level packages for the next generation of hardwave systems," IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 9, 443-451 (2003).

T. Mikawa, M. Kinoshita, K. Hiruma, T. Ishitsuka, M. Okabe, S. Hiramatsu, H. Furuyama, T. Matsui, K. Kumai, O. Ibaragi, M. Bonkohara, "Implementation of active interposer for high-speed and low-cost chip level optical interconnects," IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 9, 452-459 (2003).

2002 (2)

N. Savage, "Linking with light," IEEE Spectr. 39, 32-36 (2002).

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. V. Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. D. Mesel, R. Baets, "An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949-955 (2002).

1999 (1)

J. Gan, L. Wu, H. Luan, B. Bihari, R. T. Chen, "Two-dimensional 45 surface-normal microcoupler array for guided-wave optical clock distribution," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1452-1454 (1999).

1998 (2)

H. Terui, K. Shutoh, "Novel micromirror for vertical optical path conversion formed in silica-based PLC using wettability control of resin," J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 1631-1639 (1998).

M. Usui, M. Hikita, R. Yoshimura, S. Tomaru, S. Imamura, K. Katsura, Y. Ando, "Basic evaluation of polymeric optical waveguide films applied to optical interconnections," IEICE Trans. Electron. E81-C, 1027-1033 (1998).

1997 (1)

R. Yoshimura, M. Hikita, M. Usui, S. Tomaru, S. Imamura, "Polymeric optical waveguide films with 45$^{\circ}$ mirrors formed with a 90$^{\circ}$ V-shaped diamond blade," Electron. Lett. 33, 1311-1312 (1997).

1974 (1)

1973 (1)

J. J. Turner, B. Chen, L. Yang, J. M. Ballantyne, C. L. Tang, "Gratings for integrated optics fabricated by electron microscope," Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 333-334 (1973).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. J. Turner, B. Chen, L. Yang, J. M. Ballantyne, C. L. Tang, "Gratings for integrated optics fabricated by electron microscope," Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 333-334 (1973).

Electron. Lett. (1)

R. Yoshimura, M. Hikita, M. Usui, S. Tomaru, S. Imamura, "Polymeric optical waveguide films with 45$^{\circ}$ mirrors formed with a 90$^{\circ}$ V-shaped diamond blade," Electron. Lett. 33, 1311-1312 (1997).

IBM J. Res. Dev. (1)

A. F. Benner, M. Ignatowski, J. A. Kash, M. B. Ritter, "Exploitation of optical interconnects in future server architectures," IBM J. Res. Dev. 49, 755-775 (2005).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. V. Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. D. Mesel, R. Baets, "An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949-955 (2002).

IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. (3)

H. Takahara, "Optoelectronic multichip module packaging technologies and optical input/output interface chip-level packages for the next generation of hardwave systems," IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 9, 443-451 (2003).

T. Mikawa, M. Kinoshita, K. Hiruma, T. Ishitsuka, M. Okabe, S. Hiramatsu, H. Furuyama, T. Matsui, K. Kumai, O. Ibaragi, M. Bonkohara, "Implementation of active interposer for high-speed and low-cost chip level optical interconnects," IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 9, 452-459 (2003).

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, D. W. Dolfi, "Terabus: Terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies," IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 1032-1044 (2006).

IEEE Micro (1)

C. Gunn, "CMOS photonics for high-speed interconnects," IEEE Micro 26, 58-66 (2006).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

W. J. Lee, S. H. Hwang, J. W. Lim, B. S. Rho, "Polymeric waveguide film with embedded mirror for multilayer optical circuits," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 12-14 (2009).

A. L. Glebov, J. Roman, M. G. Lee, K. Yokouchi, "Optical interconnect modules with fully integrated reflector mirrors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1540-1542 (2005).

J. Gan, L. Wu, H. Luan, B. Bihari, R. T. Chen, "Two-dimensional 45 surface-normal microcoupler array for guided-wave optical clock distribution," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1452-1454 (1999).

IEEE Spectr. (1)

N. Savage, "Linking with light," IEEE Spectr. 39, 32-36 (2002).

IEICE Trans. Electron. (1)

M. Usui, M. Hikita, R. Yoshimura, S. Tomaru, S. Imamura, K. Katsura, Y. Ando, "Basic evaluation of polymeric optical waveguide films applied to optical interconnections," IEICE Trans. Electron. E81-C, 1027-1033 (1998).

J. Lightwave Technol. (4)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

Y. Johraku, Y. Kokubun, "Low loss vertical optical path conversion using 45$^{\circ}$ mirror for coupling between optical waveguide devices and planar devices," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 6744-6749 (2008).

D. Taillaert, F. V. Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thorhout, P. Bienstman, R. Baets, "Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguides," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6071-6077 (2006).

Opt. Express (1)

Other (2)

K. Shimizu, T. Muranishi, J. Inoue, K. Nishio, Y. Awatsuji, S. Ura, "Embedded micromirror fabricated by using liquid immersion exposure for thin film optical interconnects," Proc. Int. Conf. Electron. Packaging 2009 (2009) pp. 93-96.

K. Kintaka, J. Nishii, T. Muranishi, K. Shimizu, J. Inoue, K. Nishio, S. Ura, "45$^{\circ}$ micromirror embedded in a single-mode waveguide fabricated by using liquid immersion exposure," Proc. 14th Optoelectronics and Communications Conf. (2009).

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