Abstract

Borrowing from wireless communications, a “diversity” optical code-division multiple-access (O-CDMA) scheme for optical wireless is studied in this paper. The scheme transmits multiple copies of an optical code per data bit of one for improving code performance and spectral efficiency. An approximate performance-analytical model is also formulated for quick computation and comparison with a conventional O-CDMA scheme. Under the assumptions of same code power and hardware complexity, our study finds an important application of the diversity scheme, which circumvents a heavy code-weight requirement (for achieving good code performance) in conventional O-CDMA by transmitting multiple copies of lower weight codes with little penalty in spectral efficiency and without depletion in code cardinality (i.e., the number of possible subscribers.)

© 2012 IEEE

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  1. P. R. Prucnal, M. Santoro, T. Fan, "Spread spectrum fiber-optic local area network using optical processing," J. Lightw. Technol. 4, 547-554 (1986).
  2. W. C. Kwong, P. A. Perrier, P. R. Prucnal, "Performance comparison of asynchronous and synchronous code-division multiple-access techniques for fiber-optic local area networks," IEEE Trans. Commun. 39, 1625-1634 (1991).
  3. A. Stok, E. H. Sargent, "The role of optical CDMA in access networks," IEEE Mag. Commun. 40, 83-87 (2002).
  4. G.-C. Yang, W. C. Kwong, Prime Codes With Applications to CDMA Optical and Wireless Networks (Artech House, 2002).
  5. P. R. Prucnal, Optical Code Division Multiple Access: Fundamental and Applications (Taylor & Francis, 2006).
  6. V. J. Hernandez, W. Cong, J. Hu, C. Yang, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, Z. Ding, B. H. Kolner, J. P. Heritage, S. J. B. Yoo, "A 320-Gb/s capacity (32-user$\,\times\,$10 Gb/s) SPECTS O-CDMA network testbed with enhanced spectral efficiency through forward error correction," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 79-86 (2007).
  7. C.-S. Brés, P. R. Prucnal, "Code-empowered lightwave networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 2911-2921 (2007).
  8. F. R. K. Chung, J. A. Salehi, V. K. Wei, "Optical orthogonal code: Design, analysis, and applications," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 35, 595-604 (1989).
  9. G.-C. Yang, T. Fuja, "Optical orthogonal codes with unequal auto- and cross-correlation constraints," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 41, 96-106 (1995).
  10. G.-C. Yang, W. C. Kwong, "Performance comparison of multiwavelength CDMA and WDMA${+}$CDMA for fiber-optic networks," IEEE Trans. Commun. 45, 1426-1434 (1997).
  11. W. C. Kwong, G.-C. Yang, V. Baby, C.-S. Bres, P. R. Prucnal, "Multiple-wavelength optical orthogonal codes under prime-sequence permutations for optical CDMA," IEEE Trans. Commun. 53, 117-123 (2005).
  12. K. Pahlavan, A. H. Levesque, Wireless Information Networks (Wiley-Interscience, 2005).
  13. U. N. Griner, S. Arnon, "Multiuser diffuse indoor wireless infrared communication using equalized synchronous CDMA," IEEE Trans. Commun. 54, 1654-1662 (2006).
  14. B. M. Ghaffari, M. D. Matinfar, J. A. Salehi, "Wireless optical CDMA LAN: Digital implementation analysis," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 27, 1676-1686 (2009).
  15. F. Alsaadi, J. M. H. Elmirghani, "Adaptive mobile spot diffusing angle diversity MC-CDMA optical wireless system in a real indoor environment," IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 8, 2187-2192 (2009).
  16. S. Z. Pinter, X. N. Fernando, "Estimation and equalization of fiber-wireless uplink for multiuser CDMA 4G networks," IEEE Trans. Commun. 58, 1803-1813 (2010).
  17. J.-J. Chen, G.-C. Yang, "CDMA fiber-optic systems with optical hard limiters," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 950-958 (2001).
  18. C.-C. Hsu, G.-C. Yang, W. C. Kwong, "Hard-limiting performance analysis of 2-D optical codes under the chip-asynchronous assumption," IEEE Trans. Commun. 56, 762-768 (2008).
  19. S. Galli, R. Menendez, E. Narimanov, P. R. Prucnal, "A novel method for increasing the spectral efficiency of optical CDMA," IEEE Trans. Commun. 56, 2133-2144 (2008).
  20. C.-Y. Chang, H.-T. Chen, G.-C. Yang, W. C. Kwong, "Spectral efficiency study of QC-CHPCs in multirate optical CDMA system," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 25, 118-128 (2007).
  21. M. M. Rad, H. A. Fathallah, L. A. Rusch, "Fiber fault monitoring for passive optical networks using hybrid 1-D/2-D coding," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 2054-2056 (2008).
  22. M. Y. S. Sowailem, M. H. S. Morsy, H. M. H. Shalaby, "Employing code domain for contention resolution in optical burst switched networks with detailed performance analysis," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 5284-5294 (2009).
  23. H. Beyranvand, J. A. Salehi, "All-optical multiservice path switching in optical code switched GMPLS core network," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 2001-2012 (2009).
  24. Y. Deng, Z. Wang, K. Kravtsov, J. Chang, C. Hartzell, M. P. Fok, P. R. Prucnal, "Demonstration and analysis of asynchronous and survivable optical CDMA ring networks," J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 2, 159-165 (2010).
  25. X. Wang, K. Kitayama, "Analysis of beat noise in coherent and incoherent time-spreading OCDMA," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 2226-2235 (2004).
  26. C.-S. Brès, Y.-K. Huang, D. Rand, I. Glesk, P. R. Prucnal, T. M. Bazan, C. Michie, D. Harle, I. Andonovic, "On the experimental characterization of beat noise in 2-D time-spreading wavelength-hopping OCDMA systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2314-2316 (2006).
  27. J. L. Hodges, E. L. Lehmann, Basic Concepts of Probability and Statistics (SIAM, 2005).

2010 (2)

S. Z. Pinter, X. N. Fernando, "Estimation and equalization of fiber-wireless uplink for multiuser CDMA 4G networks," IEEE Trans. Commun. 58, 1803-1813 (2010).

Y. Deng, Z. Wang, K. Kravtsov, J. Chang, C. Hartzell, M. P. Fok, P. R. Prucnal, "Demonstration and analysis of asynchronous and survivable optical CDMA ring networks," J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 2, 159-165 (2010).

2009 (4)

M. Y. S. Sowailem, M. H. S. Morsy, H. M. H. Shalaby, "Employing code domain for contention resolution in optical burst switched networks with detailed performance analysis," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 5284-5294 (2009).

H. Beyranvand, J. A. Salehi, "All-optical multiservice path switching in optical code switched GMPLS core network," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 2001-2012 (2009).

B. M. Ghaffari, M. D. Matinfar, J. A. Salehi, "Wireless optical CDMA LAN: Digital implementation analysis," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 27, 1676-1686 (2009).

F. Alsaadi, J. M. H. Elmirghani, "Adaptive mobile spot diffusing angle diversity MC-CDMA optical wireless system in a real indoor environment," IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 8, 2187-2192 (2009).

2008 (3)

C.-C. Hsu, G.-C. Yang, W. C. Kwong, "Hard-limiting performance analysis of 2-D optical codes under the chip-asynchronous assumption," IEEE Trans. Commun. 56, 762-768 (2008).

S. Galli, R. Menendez, E. Narimanov, P. R. Prucnal, "A novel method for increasing the spectral efficiency of optical CDMA," IEEE Trans. Commun. 56, 2133-2144 (2008).

M. M. Rad, H. A. Fathallah, L. A. Rusch, "Fiber fault monitoring for passive optical networks using hybrid 1-D/2-D coding," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 2054-2056 (2008).

2007 (3)

C.-Y. Chang, H.-T. Chen, G.-C. Yang, W. C. Kwong, "Spectral efficiency study of QC-CHPCs in multirate optical CDMA system," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 25, 118-128 (2007).

V. J. Hernandez, W. Cong, J. Hu, C. Yang, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, Z. Ding, B. H. Kolner, J. P. Heritage, S. J. B. Yoo, "A 320-Gb/s capacity (32-user$\,\times\,$10 Gb/s) SPECTS O-CDMA network testbed with enhanced spectral efficiency through forward error correction," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 79-86 (2007).

C.-S. Brés, P. R. Prucnal, "Code-empowered lightwave networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 2911-2921 (2007).

2006 (2)

U. N. Griner, S. Arnon, "Multiuser diffuse indoor wireless infrared communication using equalized synchronous CDMA," IEEE Trans. Commun. 54, 1654-1662 (2006).

C.-S. Brès, Y.-K. Huang, D. Rand, I. Glesk, P. R. Prucnal, T. M. Bazan, C. Michie, D. Harle, I. Andonovic, "On the experimental characterization of beat noise in 2-D time-spreading wavelength-hopping OCDMA systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2314-2316 (2006).

2005 (1)

W. C. Kwong, G.-C. Yang, V. Baby, C.-S. Bres, P. R. Prucnal, "Multiple-wavelength optical orthogonal codes under prime-sequence permutations for optical CDMA," IEEE Trans. Commun. 53, 117-123 (2005).

2004 (1)

X. Wang, K. Kitayama, "Analysis of beat noise in coherent and incoherent time-spreading OCDMA," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 2226-2235 (2004).

2002 (1)

A. Stok, E. H. Sargent, "The role of optical CDMA in access networks," IEEE Mag. Commun. 40, 83-87 (2002).

2001 (1)

J.-J. Chen, G.-C. Yang, "CDMA fiber-optic systems with optical hard limiters," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 950-958 (2001).

1997 (1)

G.-C. Yang, W. C. Kwong, "Performance comparison of multiwavelength CDMA and WDMA${+}$CDMA for fiber-optic networks," IEEE Trans. Commun. 45, 1426-1434 (1997).

1995 (1)

G.-C. Yang, T. Fuja, "Optical orthogonal codes with unequal auto- and cross-correlation constraints," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 41, 96-106 (1995).

1991 (1)

W. C. Kwong, P. A. Perrier, P. R. Prucnal, "Performance comparison of asynchronous and synchronous code-division multiple-access techniques for fiber-optic local area networks," IEEE Trans. Commun. 39, 1625-1634 (1991).

1989 (1)

F. R. K. Chung, J. A. Salehi, V. K. Wei, "Optical orthogonal code: Design, analysis, and applications," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 35, 595-604 (1989).

1986 (1)

P. R. Prucnal, M. Santoro, T. Fan, "Spread spectrum fiber-optic local area network using optical processing," J. Lightw. Technol. 4, 547-554 (1986).

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (1)

C.-Y. Chang, H.-T. Chen, G.-C. Yang, W. C. Kwong, "Spectral efficiency study of QC-CHPCs in multirate optical CDMA system," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 25, 118-128 (2007).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

M. M. Rad, H. A. Fathallah, L. A. Rusch, "Fiber fault monitoring for passive optical networks using hybrid 1-D/2-D coding," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 2054-2056 (2008).

IEEE Trans. Commun. (4)

G.-C. Yang, W. C. Kwong, "Performance comparison of multiwavelength CDMA and WDMA${+}$CDMA for fiber-optic networks," IEEE Trans. Commun. 45, 1426-1434 (1997).

W. C. Kwong, G.-C. Yang, V. Baby, C.-S. Bres, P. R. Prucnal, "Multiple-wavelength optical orthogonal codes under prime-sequence permutations for optical CDMA," IEEE Trans. Commun. 53, 117-123 (2005).

U. N. Griner, S. Arnon, "Multiuser diffuse indoor wireless infrared communication using equalized synchronous CDMA," IEEE Trans. Commun. 54, 1654-1662 (2006).

S. Galli, R. Menendez, E. Narimanov, P. R. Prucnal, "A novel method for increasing the spectral efficiency of optical CDMA," IEEE Trans. Commun. 56, 2133-2144 (2008).

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (1)

B. M. Ghaffari, M. D. Matinfar, J. A. Salehi, "Wireless optical CDMA LAN: Digital implementation analysis," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 27, 1676-1686 (2009).

IEEE Mag. Commun. (1)

A. Stok, E. H. Sargent, "The role of optical CDMA in access networks," IEEE Mag. Commun. 40, 83-87 (2002).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

C.-S. Brès, Y.-K. Huang, D. Rand, I. Glesk, P. R. Prucnal, T. M. Bazan, C. Michie, D. Harle, I. Andonovic, "On the experimental characterization of beat noise in 2-D time-spreading wavelength-hopping OCDMA systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2314-2316 (2006).

IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory (1)

G.-C. Yang, T. Fuja, "Optical orthogonal codes with unequal auto- and cross-correlation constraints," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 41, 96-106 (1995).

IEEE Trans. Commun. (3)

W. C. Kwong, P. A. Perrier, P. R. Prucnal, "Performance comparison of asynchronous and synchronous code-division multiple-access techniques for fiber-optic local area networks," IEEE Trans. Commun. 39, 1625-1634 (1991).

C.-C. Hsu, G.-C. Yang, W. C. Kwong, "Hard-limiting performance analysis of 2-D optical codes under the chip-asynchronous assumption," IEEE Trans. Commun. 56, 762-768 (2008).

S. Z. Pinter, X. N. Fernando, "Estimation and equalization of fiber-wireless uplink for multiuser CDMA 4G networks," IEEE Trans. Commun. 58, 1803-1813 (2010).

IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory (1)

F. R. K. Chung, J. A. Salehi, V. K. Wei, "Optical orthogonal code: Design, analysis, and applications," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 35, 595-604 (1989).

IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. (1)

F. Alsaadi, J. M. H. Elmirghani, "Adaptive mobile spot diffusing angle diversity MC-CDMA optical wireless system in a real indoor environment," IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 8, 2187-2192 (2009).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

H. Beyranvand, J. A. Salehi, "All-optical multiservice path switching in optical code switched GMPLS core network," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 2001-2012 (2009).

J. Lightw. Technol. (2)

X. Wang, K. Kitayama, "Analysis of beat noise in coherent and incoherent time-spreading OCDMA," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 2226-2235 (2004).

V. J. Hernandez, W. Cong, J. Hu, C. Yang, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, Z. Ding, B. H. Kolner, J. P. Heritage, S. J. B. Yoo, "A 320-Gb/s capacity (32-user$\,\times\,$10 Gb/s) SPECTS O-CDMA network testbed with enhanced spectral efficiency through forward error correction," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 79-86 (2007).

J. Lightw. Technol. (4)

C.-S. Brés, P. R. Prucnal, "Code-empowered lightwave networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 2911-2921 (2007).

P. R. Prucnal, M. Santoro, T. Fan, "Spread spectrum fiber-optic local area network using optical processing," J. Lightw. Technol. 4, 547-554 (1986).

J.-J. Chen, G.-C. Yang, "CDMA fiber-optic systems with optical hard limiters," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 950-958 (2001).

M. Y. S. Sowailem, M. H. S. Morsy, H. M. H. Shalaby, "Employing code domain for contention resolution in optical burst switched networks with detailed performance analysis," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 5284-5294 (2009).

J. Opt. Commun. Netw. (1)

Y. Deng, Z. Wang, K. Kravtsov, J. Chang, C. Hartzell, M. P. Fok, P. R. Prucnal, "Demonstration and analysis of asynchronous and survivable optical CDMA ring networks," J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 2, 159-165 (2010).

Other (4)

J. L. Hodges, E. L. Lehmann, Basic Concepts of Probability and Statistics (SIAM, 2005).

K. Pahlavan, A. H. Levesque, Wireless Information Networks (Wiley-Interscience, 2005).

G.-C. Yang, W. C. Kwong, Prime Codes With Applications to CDMA Optical and Wireless Networks (Artech House, 2002).

P. R. Prucnal, Optical Code Division Multiple Access: Fundamental and Applications (Taylor & Francis, 2006).

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