Abstract

We propose a novel way to enhance the sensitivity of single-mode--multimode--single-mode (SMS) fiber structure in the measurement of surrounding refractive index (RI), which is realized by depositing the multimode fiber section with a high RI overlay. First, as an essential basis of the analysis of the novel structure, characteristics of mode reorganizations in the deposited multimode fiber are discussed. Second, based on full-vector mode expansion, a theoretical analysis of transmission characteristics of the deposited SMS fiber structure is presented. Third, aimed at RI measurement ranges which are of common interest in liquid and gas sensing, the transmission spectra of the structure in response to the surrounding RI are investigated by simulations. To well utilize the collective effect of multiple interference modes in mode reorganizations, the monitoring based on wavelength shifts of valleys and the optimization of the overlay are analyzed for various application requirements. Lastly, largely enhanced sensitivities for RI measurements are demonstrated with properly designed overlay. For RI ranges from 1.31 to 1.35 and 1.0 to 1.03, average sensitivities of 900 and 206 nm/RIU are achieved with overlay thicknesses of 340 and 470 nm, respectively.

© 2012 IEEE

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  1. Q. Wang, G. Farrell, "All-fiber multimode-interference-based refractometer sensor: Proposal and design," Opt. Lett. 31, (2006).
  2. Q. Wu, Y. Semenova, P. Wang, G. Farrell, "High sensitivity SMS fiber structure based refractometer—Analysis and experiment," Opt. Exp. 19, (2011).
  3. Y. X. Jin, C. C. Chan, Y. Zhao, X. Y. Dong, "Refractive index measurement by using multimode interference," 21st Int. Conf. Opt. Fiber Sens. (2011).
  4. P. Wang, G. Brambilla, M. Ding, Y. Semenova, Q. Wu, G. Farrell, "Investigation of single-mode-multimode-single-mode and single-mode-tapered-multimode-single-mode fiber structures and their application for refractive index sensing," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 28, (2011).
  5. N. D. Rees, S. W. James, R. P. Tatam, "Optical fiber long-period gratings with Langmuir-Blodgett thin-film overlays," Opt. Lett. 27, (2002).
  6. I. Del Villar, I. R. Matias, F. J. Arregui, P. Lalanne, "Optimization of sensitivity in long period fiber gratings with overlay deposition," Opt. Exp. 13, (2005).
  7. A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, "Mode transition in high refractive index coated long period gratings," Opt. Exp. 14, (2006).
  8. C. Q. Xu, W. P. Huang, Y. F. Li, "Long-period grating refractive index sensor with a modified cladding structure for large operational range and high sensitivity," Appl. Opt. 45, (2006).
  9. W. S. Mohanmmed, P. W. E. Smith, X. Gu, "All-fiber multimode interference bandpass filter," Opt. Lett. 31, (2006).
  10. Q. Wang, G. Farrell, W. Yan, "Investigation on single-mode-multimode-single-mode fiber structure," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, (2008).
  11. P. Pilla, A. Iadicicco, L. Contessa, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, A. Cusano, "Optical chemo-sensor based on long period gratings coated with $\delta$ form Syndiotactic Polystyrene," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1713-1715 (2005).
  12. H. Li, M. Brio, L. Li, A. Schulzgen, N. Peyghambarian, J. V. Moloney, "Multimode interference in circular step-index fibers studied with the mode expansion approach," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 24, (2007).
  13. Y. C. Lu, L. Yang, W. P. Huang, S. S. Jian, "Improved full-vector finite-difference complex mode solver for optical waveguides of circular symmetry," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 1868-1876 (2008).

2011 (2)

Q. Wu, Y. Semenova, P. Wang, G. Farrell, "High sensitivity SMS fiber structure based refractometer—Analysis and experiment," Opt. Exp. 19, (2011).

P. Wang, G. Brambilla, M. Ding, Y. Semenova, Q. Wu, G. Farrell, "Investigation of single-mode-multimode-single-mode and single-mode-tapered-multimode-single-mode fiber structures and their application for refractive index sensing," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 28, (2011).

2008 (2)

Q. Wang, G. Farrell, W. Yan, "Investigation on single-mode-multimode-single-mode fiber structure," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, (2008).

Y. C. Lu, L. Yang, W. P. Huang, S. S. Jian, "Improved full-vector finite-difference complex mode solver for optical waveguides of circular symmetry," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 1868-1876 (2008).

2007 (1)

H. Li, M. Brio, L. Li, A. Schulzgen, N. Peyghambarian, J. V. Moloney, "Multimode interference in circular step-index fibers studied with the mode expansion approach," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 24, (2007).

2006 (4)

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, "Mode transition in high refractive index coated long period gratings," Opt. Exp. 14, (2006).

C. Q. Xu, W. P. Huang, Y. F. Li, "Long-period grating refractive index sensor with a modified cladding structure for large operational range and high sensitivity," Appl. Opt. 45, (2006).

W. S. Mohanmmed, P. W. E. Smith, X. Gu, "All-fiber multimode interference bandpass filter," Opt. Lett. 31, (2006).

Q. Wang, G. Farrell, "All-fiber multimode-interference-based refractometer sensor: Proposal and design," Opt. Lett. 31, (2006).

2005 (2)

I. Del Villar, I. R. Matias, F. J. Arregui, P. Lalanne, "Optimization of sensitivity in long period fiber gratings with overlay deposition," Opt. Exp. 13, (2005).

P. Pilla, A. Iadicicco, L. Contessa, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, A. Cusano, "Optical chemo-sensor based on long period gratings coated with $\delta$ form Syndiotactic Polystyrene," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1713-1715 (2005).

2002 (1)

N. D. Rees, S. W. James, R. P. Tatam, "Optical fiber long-period gratings with Langmuir-Blodgett thin-film overlays," Opt. Lett. 27, (2002).

Appl. Opt. (1)

C. Q. Xu, W. P. Huang, Y. F. Li, "Long-period grating refractive index sensor with a modified cladding structure for large operational range and high sensitivity," Appl. Opt. 45, (2006).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

P. Pilla, A. Iadicicco, L. Contessa, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, A. Cusano, "Optical chemo-sensor based on long period gratings coated with $\delta$ form Syndiotactic Polystyrene," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1713-1715 (2005).

J. Lightw. Technol. (2)

Q. Wang, G. Farrell, W. Yan, "Investigation on single-mode-multimode-single-mode fiber structure," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, (2008).

Y. C. Lu, L. Yang, W. P. Huang, S. S. Jian, "Improved full-vector finite-difference complex mode solver for optical waveguides of circular symmetry," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 1868-1876 (2008).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B (1)

H. Li, M. Brio, L. Li, A. Schulzgen, N. Peyghambarian, J. V. Moloney, "Multimode interference in circular step-index fibers studied with the mode expansion approach," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 24, (2007).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B (1)

P. Wang, G. Brambilla, M. Ding, Y. Semenova, Q. Wu, G. Farrell, "Investigation of single-mode-multimode-single-mode and single-mode-tapered-multimode-single-mode fiber structures and their application for refractive index sensing," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 28, (2011).

Opt. Exp. (2)

Q. Wu, Y. Semenova, P. Wang, G. Farrell, "High sensitivity SMS fiber structure based refractometer—Analysis and experiment," Opt. Exp. 19, (2011).

I. Del Villar, I. R. Matias, F. J. Arregui, P. Lalanne, "Optimization of sensitivity in long period fiber gratings with overlay deposition," Opt. Exp. 13, (2005).

Opt. Lett. (2)

N. D. Rees, S. W. James, R. P. Tatam, "Optical fiber long-period gratings with Langmuir-Blodgett thin-film overlays," Opt. Lett. 27, (2002).

Q. Wang, G. Farrell, "All-fiber multimode-interference-based refractometer sensor: Proposal and design," Opt. Lett. 31, (2006).

Opt. Exp. (1)

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, "Mode transition in high refractive index coated long period gratings," Opt. Exp. 14, (2006).

Opt. Lett. (1)

W. S. Mohanmmed, P. W. E. Smith, X. Gu, "All-fiber multimode interference bandpass filter," Opt. Lett. 31, (2006).

Other (1)

Y. X. Jin, C. C. Chan, Y. Zhao, X. Y. Dong, "Refractive index measurement by using multimode interference," 21st Int. Conf. Opt. Fiber Sens. (2011).

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