Abstract

We report on the fabrication and characterization of optical channel waveguide in <i>x</i>-cut KTiOAsO<sub>4</sub> crystal produced by photographic masking and following direct O<sup>+</sup>ion implantation at energy of 3.0 MeV and fluence of 5 × 10<sup>13</sup> ions/cm<sup>2</sup>. Positive changes of both <i>n<sub>x</sub></i> and <i>n<sub>y</sub></i> refractive indices (corresponding TM and TE polarized light respectively) in the waveguide region are responsible for light waveguiding. After annealing treatment, the propagation losses of the waveguide could be reduced to 1.2 dB/cm, exhibiting acceptable guiding properties.

© 2011 IEEE

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  26. F. Chen, X. L. Wang, Q. M. Lu, G. Fu, S. L. Li, F. Lu, K. M. Wang, D. Y. Shen, "Property study on nickel ion implanted planar waveguide in KTiOAsO$_{4}$ crystal," Nucl. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. B. 194, 355-358 (2002).
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2011 (1)

S. Berneschi, M. Brenci, G. N. Conti, S. Pelli, M. Bettinelli, A. Speghini, I. Banyasz, M. Fried, N. Q. Khanh, T. Lohner, P. Petrik, A. Watterich, Z. Zolnai, "Slab optical waveguides in Er$^{3 +}$-doped tellurite glass by N$^{+}$ ion implantation at 1.5 MeV," Opt. Eng. 50, 071110-1-071110-7 (2011).

2010 (3)

Y. Tan, F. Chen, "Engineering of thermo-optic properties in ion implanted lithium niobate waveguides by electronic stopping power," J. Phys. D 43, 485104 (2010).

Y. Ren, N. Dong, F. Chen, A. Benayas, D. Jaque, F. Qiu, T. Narusawa, "Swift heavy-ion irradiated active waveguides in Nd:YAG crystals: Fabrication and laser generation," Opt. Lett. 35, 3276-3279 (2010).

N. N. Dong, F. Chen, D. Jaque, "Carbon ion implanted Nd:MgO:LiNbO$_{3}$ optical channel waveguides: An intermediate step between light and heavy ion implanted waveguides," Opt. Exp. 18, 5951-5956 (2010).

2009 (3)

F. Chen, Y. Tan, D. Jaque, "Ion-implanted optical channel waveguides in neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet transparent ceramics for integrated laser generation," Opt. Lett. 34, 28-30 (2009).

O. Y. Khyzhun, V. L. Bekenev, V. V. Atuchin, A. K. Sinelnichenko, L. I. Isaenko, "Electronic structure of KTiOAsO$_{4}$: A comparative study by the full potential linearized augmented plane wave method, X-ray emission spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy," J. Alloys Compounds 477, 768-775 (2009).

F. Chen, "Photonic guiding structures in lithium niobate crystals produced by energetic ion beams," J. Appl. Phys. 106, 081101-1-081101-29 (2009).

2008 (1)

V. V. Atuchin, L. I. Isaenko, O. Y. Khyzhun, L. D. Pokrovsky, A. K. Sinelnichenko, S. A. Zhurkov, "Structural and electronic properties of the KTiOAsO$_{4}$ (001) surface," Opt. Mater. 30, 1149-1152 (2008).

2007 (2)

C. V. Ramana, V. V. Atuchin, U. Becker, R. C. Ewing, L. I. Isaenko, O. Yu. Khyzhun, A. A. Merkulov, L. D. Pokrovsky, A. K. Sinelnichenko, S. A. Zhurkov, "Low-energy Ar ion-beam-induced amorphization and chemical modification of potassium titanyl arsenate (001) crystal surfaces," J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 2702-2708 (2007).

F. Chen, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, "Development of ion implanted optical waveguides in optical materials: A review," Opt. Mater. 29, 1523-1542 (2007).

2006 (1)

Y. Jiang, K. M. Wang, X. L. Wang, C. L. Jia, L. Wang, Y. Jiao, Q. M. Lu, H. J. Ma, R. Nie, D. Y. Shen, "Planar optical waveguide in potassium titanyl arsenate formed by oxygen ion implantation at low fluences," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 011114-1-011114-3 (2006).

2005 (1)

X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, F. Chen, G. Fu, S. L. Li, H. Liu, L. Gao, D. Y. Shen, H. J. Ma, R. Nie, "Optical properties of stoichiometric LiNbO$_{3}$ waveguides formed by low fluence oxygen ion implantation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 041103 (2005).

2004 (2)

G. G. Bentini, M. Bianconi, L. Correra, M. Chiarini, P. Mazzoldi, C. Sada, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, R. Guzzi, "Damage effects produced in the near-surface region of x-cut LiNbO$_{3}$ by low fluence, high energy implantation of nitrogen, oxygen, and fluorine ions," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 242-247 (2004).

F. X. Wang, F. Chen, X. L. Wang, Q. M. Lu, K. M. Wang, D. Y. Shen, H. J. Ma, R. Nie, "Fabrication of optical waveguides in KTiOAsO$_{4}$ by He or Si ion implantation," Nucl. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. B. 215, 389-393 (2004).

2002 (1)

F. Chen, X. L. Wang, Q. M. Lu, G. Fu, S. L. Li, F. Lu, K. M. Wang, D. Y. Shen, "Property study on nickel ion implanted planar waveguide in KTiOAsO$_{4}$ crystal," Nucl. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. B. 194, 355-358 (2002).

2001 (1)

D. P. Shepherd, S. J. Hettrick, C. Li, J. I. Mackenzie, R. J. Beach, S. C. Mitchell, H. E. Meissner, "High-power planar dielectric waveguide lasers," J. Phys. D 34, 2420-2432 (2001).

1996 (3)

W. P. Risk, G. M. Loiacono, "Fabrication and characterization of ion-exchanged waveguides in potassium titanyl arsenate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 4157-4158 (1996).

W. J. Liu, S. S. Jiang, X. R. Huang, X. B. Hu, C. Z. Ge, J. Y. Wang, J. H. Jiang, Z. G. Wang, "White-beam synchrotron topographic characterization of flux-grown KTiOAsO$_{4}$," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 25-27 (1996).

C. S. Tu, A. R. Guo, R. Tao, R. S. Katiyar, R. Guo, A. S. Bhalla, "Temperature dependent Raman scattering in KTiOPO$_{4}$ and KTiOAsO$_{4}$ single crystals," J. Appl. Phys. 79, 3235-3240 (1996).

1994 (1)

W. R. Bosenberg, L. K. Cheng, J. D. Bierlein, "Optical parametric frequency conversion properties of KTiOAsO$_4$," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2765-2767 (1994).

1993 (2)

L. K. Cheng, L. T. Cheng, J. D. Bierlein, F. C. Zumsteg, A. A. Ballman, "Properties of doped and undoped crystals of single domain KTiOAsO$_{4}$," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 346-348 (1993).

G. M. Loiacono, D. N. Loiacono, R. A. Stolzenberger, "Crystal growth and characterization of ferroelectric CsTiOAsO$_{4}$," J. Cryst. Growth. 131, 323-330 (1993).

1992 (1)

1991 (1)

D. Fluck, P. Gunter, R. Irmscher, Ch. Buchal, "Optical strip waveguides in KNbO$_{3}$ formed by He ion implantation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 3213-3215 (1991).

1989 (1)

J. D. Bierlein, H. Vanherzeele, A. A. Ballman, "Linear and nonlinear optical properties of flux-grown KTiOAsO$_{4}$," Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 783-785 (1989).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (8)

W. R. Bosenberg, L. K. Cheng, J. D. Bierlein, "Optical parametric frequency conversion properties of KTiOAsO$_4$," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2765-2767 (1994).

L. K. Cheng, L. T. Cheng, J. D. Bierlein, F. C. Zumsteg, A. A. Ballman, "Properties of doped and undoped crystals of single domain KTiOAsO$_{4}$," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 346-348 (1993).

W. J. Liu, S. S. Jiang, X. R. Huang, X. B. Hu, C. Z. Ge, J. Y. Wang, J. H. Jiang, Z. G. Wang, "White-beam synchrotron topographic characterization of flux-grown KTiOAsO$_{4}$," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 25-27 (1996).

W. P. Risk, G. M. Loiacono, "Fabrication and characterization of ion-exchanged waveguides in potassium titanyl arsenate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 4157-4158 (1996).

D. Fluck, P. Gunter, R. Irmscher, Ch. Buchal, "Optical strip waveguides in KNbO$_{3}$ formed by He ion implantation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 3213-3215 (1991).

J. D. Bierlein, H. Vanherzeele, A. A. Ballman, "Linear and nonlinear optical properties of flux-grown KTiOAsO$_{4}$," Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 783-785 (1989).

Y. Jiang, K. M. Wang, X. L. Wang, C. L. Jia, L. Wang, Y. Jiao, Q. M. Lu, H. J. Ma, R. Nie, D. Y. Shen, "Planar optical waveguide in potassium titanyl arsenate formed by oxygen ion implantation at low fluences," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 011114-1-011114-3 (2006).

X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, F. Chen, G. Fu, S. L. Li, H. Liu, L. Gao, D. Y. Shen, H. J. Ma, R. Nie, "Optical properties of stoichiometric LiNbO$_{3}$ waveguides formed by low fluence oxygen ion implantation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 041103 (2005).

J. Alloys Compounds (1)

O. Y. Khyzhun, V. L. Bekenev, V. V. Atuchin, A. K. Sinelnichenko, L. I. Isaenko, "Electronic structure of KTiOAsO$_{4}$: A comparative study by the full potential linearized augmented plane wave method, X-ray emission spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy," J. Alloys Compounds 477, 768-775 (2009).

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

C. S. Tu, A. R. Guo, R. Tao, R. S. Katiyar, R. Guo, A. S. Bhalla, "Temperature dependent Raman scattering in KTiOPO$_{4}$ and KTiOAsO$_{4}$ single crystals," J. Appl. Phys. 79, 3235-3240 (1996).

G. G. Bentini, M. Bianconi, L. Correra, M. Chiarini, P. Mazzoldi, C. Sada, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, R. Guzzi, "Damage effects produced in the near-surface region of x-cut LiNbO$_{3}$ by low fluence, high energy implantation of nitrogen, oxygen, and fluorine ions," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 242-247 (2004).

F. Chen, "Photonic guiding structures in lithium niobate crystals produced by energetic ion beams," J. Appl. Phys. 106, 081101-1-081101-29 (2009).

J. Cryst. Growth. (1)

G. M. Loiacono, D. N. Loiacono, R. A. Stolzenberger, "Crystal growth and characterization of ferroelectric CsTiOAsO$_{4}$," J. Cryst. Growth. 131, 323-330 (1993).

J. Phys. Chem. C (1)

C. V. Ramana, V. V. Atuchin, U. Becker, R. C. Ewing, L. I. Isaenko, O. Yu. Khyzhun, A. A. Merkulov, L. D. Pokrovsky, A. K. Sinelnichenko, S. A. Zhurkov, "Low-energy Ar ion-beam-induced amorphization and chemical modification of potassium titanyl arsenate (001) crystal surfaces," J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 2702-2708 (2007).

J. Phys. D (2)

D. P. Shepherd, S. J. Hettrick, C. Li, J. I. Mackenzie, R. J. Beach, S. C. Mitchell, H. E. Meissner, "High-power planar dielectric waveguide lasers," J. Phys. D 34, 2420-2432 (2001).

Y. Tan, F. Chen, "Engineering of thermo-optic properties in ion implanted lithium niobate waveguides by electronic stopping power," J. Phys. D 43, 485104 (2010).

Nucl. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. B. (2)

F. X. Wang, F. Chen, X. L. Wang, Q. M. Lu, K. M. Wang, D. Y. Shen, H. J. Ma, R. Nie, "Fabrication of optical waveguides in KTiOAsO$_{4}$ by He or Si ion implantation," Nucl. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. B. 215, 389-393 (2004).

F. Chen, X. L. Wang, Q. M. Lu, G. Fu, S. L. Li, F. Lu, K. M. Wang, D. Y. Shen, "Property study on nickel ion implanted planar waveguide in KTiOAsO$_{4}$ crystal," Nucl. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. B. 194, 355-358 (2002).

Opt. Eng. (1)

S. Berneschi, M. Brenci, G. N. Conti, S. Pelli, M. Bettinelli, A. Speghini, I. Banyasz, M. Fried, N. Q. Khanh, T. Lohner, P. Petrik, A. Watterich, Z. Zolnai, "Slab optical waveguides in Er$^{3 +}$-doped tellurite glass by N$^{+}$ ion implantation at 1.5 MeV," Opt. Eng. 50, 071110-1-071110-7 (2011).

Opt. Exp. (1)

N. N. Dong, F. Chen, D. Jaque, "Carbon ion implanted Nd:MgO:LiNbO$_{3}$ optical channel waveguides: An intermediate step between light and heavy ion implanted waveguides," Opt. Exp. 18, 5951-5956 (2010).

Opt. Lett. (3)

Opt. Mater. (2)

F. Chen, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, "Development of ion implanted optical waveguides in optical materials: A review," Opt. Mater. 29, 1523-1542 (2007).

V. V. Atuchin, L. I. Isaenko, O. Y. Khyzhun, L. D. Pokrovsky, A. K. Sinelnichenko, S. A. Zhurkov, "Structural and electronic properties of the KTiOAsO$_{4}$ (001) surface," Opt. Mater. 30, 1149-1152 (2008).

Other (2)

K. K. Wong, Properties of Lithium Niobate (INSPEC, 2002).

P. D. Townsend, P. J. Chandler, L. Zhang, Optical Effects of Ion Implantation (Cambridge Univ. Press, 1994).

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