Abstract

Realizing an optically flat and lightweight high-speed scanning micromirror still remains as a challenging problem. In this paper, we propose a drum-type lightweight micromirror that is capable of providing high scanning speed and retaining optical flatness, simultaneously. The fabrication technique and surface deformation analysis of the proposed micromirror are described. The drum-type design is realized using a stretched polycrystalline (poly-) Si membrane across a rigid crystalline (c-) Si ring. The tensile stress in the poly-Si membrane is 300–400 MPa that keeps the membrane flat. At the static condition, the total peak-to-valley surface heights in the center poly-Si membrane of the designed five distinct shapes of micromirrors are varied from 16 to 29 nm. The stress concentration at mirror edge is investigated by the amount of surface distortion which is less than 40 nm (i.e., one-tenth wavelength of the blue light). The maximum total peak-to-valley surface height is about 50 nm and the dominant profile is at the connecting part between the c-Si ring and the poly-Si membrane. The amount of dynamic deformation in the poly-Si membrane is less than 40 nm. This satisfies the optical flatness compared to the wavelength of blue light.

© 2012 IEEE

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  1. P. M. Hagelin, O. Solgaard, "Optical raster-scanning displays based on surface micromachined polysilicon mirrors," IEEE J. Sel. Topics. Quantum Electron. 5, 67-74 (1999).
  2. M. H. Kiang, O. Solgaard, R. Muller, K. Y. Lau, "Electrostatic combdrive-actuated micromirrors for laser-beam scanning and positioning," J. Microelectromech. Syst. 7, 27-37 (1998).
  3. M. H. Kiang, O. Solgaard, R. Muller, K. Y. Lau, "Micromachined polysilicon microscanners for barcode readers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1707-1709 (1996).
  4. H. Miyajima, K. Murakami, M. Katashiro, "MEMS optical scanners for microscopes," IEEE J. Sel. Topics. Quantum Electron. 10, 514-527 (2004).
  5. R. T. Chen, H. Nguyen, M. C. Wu, "A high-speed low-voltage stress-induced micromachined 2$\,\times\,$2 optical switch," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1396-1398 (1999).
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  8. J. T. Nee, Hybrid surface-/bulk-micromachining processes for scanning micro-optical components Ph.D. dissertation Dept. Elect. Eng. Comput. Sci. Univ. CaliforniaBerkeley (2001).
  9. K. E. Petersen, "Silicon torsional scanning mirror," IBM J. Res. Devel. 24, 631-637 (1980).
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  13. P. R. Patterson, G. J. Su, H. Toshiyoshi, M. C. Wu, "A MEMS 2-D scanner with bonded single-crystalline honeycomb micromirror," Proc. Solid-State Sensor Actuator Conf. (2000) pp. 17-18.
  14. V. Milanovic, M. Last, K. S. J. Pister, "Laterally actuated torsional micromirrors for large static deflection," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1-4 (2003).
  15. H. Y. Lin, W. Fang, "A rib reinforced micro torsional mirror driven by electrostatic torque generators," Sens. Actuators A 105, 1-9 (2003).
  16. S. Hsu, T. Klose, C. Drabe, H. Schenk, "Fabrication and characterization of a dynamically flat high resolution micro-scanner," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 10, 1-9 (2008).
  17. C. H. Ji, M. Choi, S. C. Kim, S. H. Lee, S. H. Kim, Y. Yee, J. U. Bu, "An electrostatic scanning micromirror with diaphragm mirror plate and diamond-shaped reinforcement plate," J. Micromech. Microeng. 16, 1033-1039 (2006).
  18. M. Mita, Y. Mita, H. Toshiyoshi, H. Fujita, "Multiple-height microstructures fabricated by ICP-RIE and embedded masking layers," IEEJ Trans. Sensors Micromachines 120-E, 493-497 (2000).
  19. M. Sasaki, D. Briand, W. Noell, N. Rooij, K. Hane, "Three-dimensional SOI-MEMS constructed by buckled bridges and vertical comb drive actuator," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 455-461 (2004).
  20. A. T. Voustas, M. K. Hatalis, "Structure of as-deposited LPCVD silicon films at low deposition temperatures and pressures," J. Electrochem. Soc. 139, 2659-2665 (1992).
  21. H. Miura, H. Ohta, N. Okamoto, T. Kaga, "Crystallization-induced stress in amorphous silicon thin films," Trans. JSME A 58, 1960-1965 (1996) (in Japanese).
  22. H. Miura, A. Nishimura, "Effect of phosphorus-doping on crystallization-induced stress of silicon thin films," Trans. JSME 61, 1051-1056 (1995) (in Japanese).
  23. S. Kumagai, A. Hikita, T. Iwamoto, T. Tomikawa, M. Hori, M. Sasaki, "Multiple-height microstructure fabricated by deep reactive ion etching and selective ashing of resist layer combined with ultraviolet curing," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51, 01AB04 1-01AB04 6 (2012).
  24. R. A. Conant, Micromachined Mirrors (Kluwer, 2003) pp. 79-89.
  25. M. Sasaki, M. Fujishima, K. Hane, H. Miura, "Simultaneous realization of stabilized temperature characteristics and low-voltage driving of micromirror using thin film torsion bar of tensile poly-Si," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 1455-1462 (2009).
  26. K. Yamada, T. Kuriyama, "A glasses-like retinal display using asymmetric silicon micro-mirrors," IEE J. Trans. Sens. Micromachines 129, 35-40 (2009).

2012 (1)

S. Kumagai, A. Hikita, T. Iwamoto, T. Tomikawa, M. Hori, M. Sasaki, "Multiple-height microstructure fabricated by deep reactive ion etching and selective ashing of resist layer combined with ultraviolet curing," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51, 01AB04 1-01AB04 6 (2012).

2009 (2)

M. Sasaki, M. Fujishima, K. Hane, H. Miura, "Simultaneous realization of stabilized temperature characteristics and low-voltage driving of micromirror using thin film torsion bar of tensile poly-Si," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 1455-1462 (2009).

K. Yamada, T. Kuriyama, "A glasses-like retinal display using asymmetric silicon micro-mirrors," IEE J. Trans. Sens. Micromachines 129, 35-40 (2009).

2008 (2)

S. Hsu, T. Klose, C. Drabe, H. Schenk, "Fabrication and characterization of a dynamically flat high resolution micro-scanner," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 10, 1-9 (2008).

M. Sasaki, T. Sasaki, K. Hane, H. Miura, "An optically flat micromirror using a stretched membrane with crystallization-induced stress," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 10, 1-8 (2008).

2006 (1)

C. H. Ji, M. Choi, S. C. Kim, S. H. Lee, S. H. Kim, Y. Yee, J. U. Bu, "An electrostatic scanning micromirror with diaphragm mirror plate and diamond-shaped reinforcement plate," J. Micromech. Microeng. 16, 1033-1039 (2006).

2004 (2)

M. Sasaki, D. Briand, W. Noell, N. Rooij, K. Hane, "Three-dimensional SOI-MEMS constructed by buckled bridges and vertical comb drive actuator," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 455-461 (2004).

H. Miyajima, K. Murakami, M. Katashiro, "MEMS optical scanners for microscopes," IEEE J. Sel. Topics. Quantum Electron. 10, 514-527 (2004).

2003 (2)

V. Milanovic, M. Last, K. S. J. Pister, "Laterally actuated torsional micromirrors for large static deflection," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1-4 (2003).

H. Y. Lin, W. Fang, "A rib reinforced micro torsional mirror driven by electrostatic torque generators," Sens. Actuators A 105, 1-9 (2003).

2000 (1)

M. Mita, Y. Mita, H. Toshiyoshi, H. Fujita, "Multiple-height microstructures fabricated by ICP-RIE and embedded masking layers," IEEJ Trans. Sensors Micromachines 120-E, 493-497 (2000).

1999 (2)

R. T. Chen, H. Nguyen, M. C. Wu, "A high-speed low-voltage stress-induced micromachined 2$\,\times\,$2 optical switch," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1396-1398 (1999).

P. M. Hagelin, O. Solgaard, "Optical raster-scanning displays based on surface micromachined polysilicon mirrors," IEEE J. Sel. Topics. Quantum Electron. 5, 67-74 (1999).

1998 (2)

M. H. Kiang, O. Solgaard, R. Muller, K. Y. Lau, "Electrostatic combdrive-actuated micromirrors for laser-beam scanning and positioning," J. Microelectromech. Syst. 7, 27-37 (1998).

S. Kurth, R. Hahn, C. Kaufmann, K. Kehr, J. Mehner, U. Wollmann, W. Dotzel, T. Gessner, "Silicon mirrors and micromirror arrays for spatial laser beam modulation," Sens. Actuators A A66, 76-82 (1998).

1996 (2)

M. H. Kiang, O. Solgaard, R. Muller, K. Y. Lau, "Micromachined polysilicon microscanners for barcode readers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1707-1709 (1996).

H. Miura, H. Ohta, N. Okamoto, T. Kaga, "Crystallization-induced stress in amorphous silicon thin films," Trans. JSME A 58, 1960-1965 (1996) (in Japanese).

1995 (1)

H. Miura, A. Nishimura, "Effect of phosphorus-doping on crystallization-induced stress of silicon thin films," Trans. JSME 61, 1051-1056 (1995) (in Japanese).

1992 (1)

A. T. Voustas, M. K. Hatalis, "Structure of as-deposited LPCVD silicon films at low deposition temperatures and pressures," J. Electrochem. Soc. 139, 2659-2665 (1992).

1980 (1)

K. E. Petersen, "Silicon torsional scanning mirror," IBM J. Res. Devel. 24, 631-637 (1980).

IBM J. Res. Devel. (1)

K. E. Petersen, "Silicon torsional scanning mirror," IBM J. Res. Devel. 24, 631-637 (1980).

IEE J. Trans. Sens. Micromachines (1)

K. Yamada, T. Kuriyama, "A glasses-like retinal display using asymmetric silicon micro-mirrors," IEE J. Trans. Sens. Micromachines 129, 35-40 (2009).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics. Quantum Electron. (1)

P. M. Hagelin, O. Solgaard, "Optical raster-scanning displays based on surface micromachined polysilicon mirrors," IEEE J. Sel. Topics. Quantum Electron. 5, 67-74 (1999).

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Sasaki, D. Briand, W. Noell, N. Rooij, K. Hane, "Three-dimensional SOI-MEMS constructed by buckled bridges and vertical comb drive actuator," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 455-461 (2004).

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Sasaki, M. Fujishima, K. Hane, H. Miura, "Simultaneous realization of stabilized temperature characteristics and low-voltage driving of micromirror using thin film torsion bar of tensile poly-Si," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 1455-1462 (2009).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics. Quantum Electron. (1)

H. Miyajima, K. Murakami, M. Katashiro, "MEMS optical scanners for microscopes," IEEE J. Sel. Topics. Quantum Electron. 10, 514-527 (2004).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

R. T. Chen, H. Nguyen, M. C. Wu, "A high-speed low-voltage stress-induced micromachined 2$\,\times\,$2 optical switch," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1396-1398 (1999).

V. Milanovic, M. Last, K. S. J. Pister, "Laterally actuated torsional micromirrors for large static deflection," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1-4 (2003).

M. H. Kiang, O. Solgaard, R. Muller, K. Y. Lau, "Micromachined polysilicon microscanners for barcode readers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1707-1709 (1996).

IEEJ Trans. Sensors Micromachines (1)

M. Mita, Y. Mita, H. Toshiyoshi, H. Fujita, "Multiple-height microstructures fabricated by ICP-RIE and embedded masking layers," IEEJ Trans. Sensors Micromachines 120-E, 493-497 (2000).

J. Microelectromech. Syst. (1)

M. H. Kiang, O. Solgaard, R. Muller, K. Y. Lau, "Electrostatic combdrive-actuated micromirrors for laser-beam scanning and positioning," J. Microelectromech. Syst. 7, 27-37 (1998).

J. Micromech. Microeng. (1)

C. H. Ji, M. Choi, S. C. Kim, S. H. Lee, S. H. Kim, Y. Yee, J. U. Bu, "An electrostatic scanning micromirror with diaphragm mirror plate and diamond-shaped reinforcement plate," J. Micromech. Microeng. 16, 1033-1039 (2006).

J. Electrochem. Soc. (1)

A. T. Voustas, M. K. Hatalis, "Structure of as-deposited LPCVD silicon films at low deposition temperatures and pressures," J. Electrochem. Soc. 139, 2659-2665 (1992).

J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

M. Sasaki, T. Sasaki, K. Hane, H. Miura, "An optically flat micromirror using a stretched membrane with crystallization-induced stress," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 10, 1-8 (2008).

J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

S. Hsu, T. Klose, C. Drabe, H. Schenk, "Fabrication and characterization of a dynamically flat high resolution micro-scanner," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 10, 1-9 (2008).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Kumagai, A. Hikita, T. Iwamoto, T. Tomikawa, M. Hori, M. Sasaki, "Multiple-height microstructure fabricated by deep reactive ion etching and selective ashing of resist layer combined with ultraviolet curing," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51, 01AB04 1-01AB04 6 (2012).

Sens. Actuators A (1)

H. Y. Lin, W. Fang, "A rib reinforced micro torsional mirror driven by electrostatic torque generators," Sens. Actuators A 105, 1-9 (2003).

Sens. Actuators A (1)

S. Kurth, R. Hahn, C. Kaufmann, K. Kehr, J. Mehner, U. Wollmann, W. Dotzel, T. Gessner, "Silicon mirrors and micromirror arrays for spatial laser beam modulation," Sens. Actuators A A66, 76-82 (1998).

Trans. JSME (1)

H. Miura, A. Nishimura, "Effect of phosphorus-doping on crystallization-induced stress of silicon thin films," Trans. JSME 61, 1051-1056 (1995) (in Japanese).

Trans. JSME A (1)

H. Miura, H. Ohta, N. Okamoto, T. Kaga, "Crystallization-induced stress in amorphous silicon thin films," Trans. JSME A 58, 1960-1965 (1996) (in Japanese).

Other (6)

R. A. Conant, Micromachined Mirrors (Kluwer, 2003) pp. 79-89.

J. T. Nee, Hybrid surface-/bulk-micromachining processes for scanning micro-optical components Ph.D. dissertation Dept. Elect. Eng. Comput. Sci. Univ. CaliforniaBerkeley (2001).

D. L. Hetherington, J. J. Sniegowski, "Improved polysilicon surface-micromachined micromirror devices using chemical-mechanical polishing," Proc. SPIE (1998) pp. 148-153.

R. A. Conant, P. M. Hagelin, U. Krishnamoorthy, O. Solgaard, K. Y. Lau, R. S. Muller, "A full-motion video display using micromachined scanning micromirrors," Proc. Transducers (1999) pp. 376-379.

J. T. Nee, R. A. Conant, M. R. Hart, R. S. Muller, K. Y. Lau, "Stretched-film micromirrors for improved optical flatness," Proc. IEEE 13th Annu. Int. Conf. MEMS (2000) pp. 704-709.

P. R. Patterson, G. J. Su, H. Toshiyoshi, M. C. Wu, "A MEMS 2-D scanner with bonded single-crystalline honeycomb micromirror," Proc. Solid-State Sensor Actuator Conf. (2000) pp. 17-18.

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