Abstract

A high-speed ring-assisted Mach–Zehnder interferometer (RAMZI) silicon modulator is reported and experimentally demonstrated. The RAMZI optical structure relaxes the optimum coupling condition of the ring without degrading the modulator performance, which therefore improves the modulator robustness against fabrication deviations and could eventually lead to an enhanced modulation bandwidth. Hence, our RAMZI silicon modulator, based on carrier depletion in a <i>pipin</i> active structure, exhibits a 3 dB electro-optical bandwidth of 19 GHz, enabling up to 20 Gbit/s data transmission over a RF/optical interaction length of only ~200 μm.

© 2011 IEEE

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  1. B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, J. Chan, K. Bergman, "High-performance modulators and switches for silicon photonic networks-on-chip," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 16, 6-22 (2010).
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  13. W. D. Sacher, J. K. S. Poon, "Characteristics of microring resonators with waveguide-resonator coupling modulation," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 3800-3811 (2009).
  14. T. Ye, Y. Zhou, C. Yan, Y. Li, "Chirp-free optical modulation using a silicon push-pull coupling microring," Opt. Lett. 34, 785-787 (2009).
  15. T. Ye, X. Cai, "On power consumption of silicon microring based optical modulators," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 1615-1623 (2010).
  16. A. Leinse, M. B. J. Diemeer, A. Rousseau, A. Driessen, "A novel high- speed polymeric EO modulator based on a combination of a microring resonator and an MZI," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2074-2076 (2005).
  17. D. M. Gill, S. S. Patel, M. Rasras, K. Tu, A. E. White, Y. Chen, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, R. L. Kamocsai, C. M. Hill, J. Beattie, "CMOS-compatible Si-ring-assisted Mach–Zehnder interferometer with internal bandwidth equalization," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 16, 45-52 (2010).
  18. L. Zhang, Y. Li, J.-Y. Yang, M. Song, R. G. Beausoleil, A. E. Willner, "Silicon-based microring resonator modulators for intensity modulation," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 16, 149-158 (2010).
  19. X. Xiaobo, J. Khurgin, K. Jin, F. S. Chow, "Linearized Mach–Zehnder intensity modulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 531-533 (2003).
  20. J. Yang, F. Wang, X. Jiang, H. Qu, M. Wang, Y. Wang, "Influence of loss on linearity of microring-assisted Mach–Zehnder modulator," Opt. Exp. 12, 4178-4188 (2004).
  21. M. Song, L. Zhang, R. G. Beausoleil, A. Willner, "Nonlinear distortion in a silicon microring-based electro-optic modulator for analog optical links," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 16, 185-191 (2010).
  22. A. Khilo, C. M. Sorace, F. X. Kärtner, "Broadband linearized silicon modulator," Opt. Exp. 19, 4485-4500 (2011).
  23. G. Rasigade, D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, E. Cassan, "Performance evolutions of carrier depletion silicon optical modulators: From p-n to p-i-p-i-n diodes," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 16, 179-184 (2010).
  24. G. Rasigade, M. Ziebell, D. Marris-Morini, J.-M. Fédéli, F. Milesi, P. Grosse, D. Bouville, E. Cassan, L. Vivien, "High extinction ratio 10 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator," Opt. Exp. 19, 5827-5832 (2011).
  25. A. Yariv, "Critical coupling and its control in optical waveguide-ring resonator systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 483-485 (2002).

2011 (2)

A. Khilo, C. M. Sorace, F. X. Kärtner, "Broadband linearized silicon modulator," Opt. Exp. 19, 4485-4500 (2011).

G. Rasigade, M. Ziebell, D. Marris-Morini, J.-M. Fédéli, F. Milesi, P. Grosse, D. Bouville, E. Cassan, L. Vivien, "High extinction ratio 10 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator," Opt. Exp. 19, 5827-5832 (2011).

2010 (10)

M. Song, L. Zhang, R. G. Beausoleil, A. Willner, "Nonlinear distortion in a silicon microring-based electro-optic modulator for analog optical links," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 16, 185-191 (2010).

P. Dong, S. Liao, H. Liang, W. Qian, X. Wang, R. Shafiiha, D. Feng, G. Li, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, M. Asghari, "High-speed and compact silicon modulator based on a racetrack resonator with a 1 V drive voltage," Opt. Lett. 35, 3246-3248 (2010).

G. Rasigade, D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, E. Cassan, "Performance evolutions of carrier depletion silicon optical modulators: From p-n to p-i-p-i-n diodes," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 16, 179-184 (2010).

D. M. Gill, S. S. Patel, M. Rasras, K. Tu, A. E. White, Y. Chen, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, R. L. Kamocsai, C. M. Hill, J. Beattie, "CMOS-compatible Si-ring-assisted Mach–Zehnder interferometer with internal bandwidth equalization," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 16, 45-52 (2010).

L. Zhang, Y. Li, J.-Y. Yang, M. Song, R. G. Beausoleil, A. E. Willner, "Silicon-based microring resonator modulators for intensity modulation," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 16, 149-158 (2010).

B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, J. Chan, K. Bergman, "High-performance modulators and switches for silicon photonic networks-on-chip," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 16, 6-22 (2010).

S. Manipatruni, K. Preston, L. Chen, M. Lipson, "Ultra-low voltage, ultra-small mode volume silicon microring modulator," Opt. Exp. 18, 1506-1511 (2010).

L. Zhang, Y. Li, J.-Y. Yang, M. Song, R. G. Beausoleil, A. E. Willner, "Silicon-based microring resonator modulators for intensity modulation," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 16, 149-158 (2010).

P. Dong, R. Shafiiha, S. Liao, H. Liang, N.-N. Feng, D. Feng, G. Li, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, M. Asghari, "Wavelength-tunable silicon microring modulator," Opt. Exp. 18, 10941-10946 (2010).

T. Ye, X. Cai, "On power consumption of silicon microring based optical modulators," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 1615-1623 (2010).

2009 (4)

F. Y. Gardes, A. Brimont, P. Sanchis, G. Rasigade, D. Marris-Morini, L. O'Faolain, F. Dong, J. M. Fedeli, P. Dumon, L. Vivien, T. F. Krauss, G. T. Reed, J. Martí, "High-speed modulation of a compact silicon ring resonator based on a reverse-biased pn diode," Opt. Exp. 17, 21986-21991 (2009).

D. Gill, M. Rasras, K. Tu, Y. Chen, A. E. White, S. S. Patel, D. Carothers, A. Pomerene, R. L. Kamocsai, C. Hill, J. Beattie, "Internal bandwidth equalization in a CMOS-compatible Si-ring modulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 200-202 (2009).

W. D. Sacher, J. K. S. Poon, "Characteristics of microring resonators with waveguide-resonator coupling modulation," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 3800-3811 (2009).

T. Ye, Y. Zhou, C. Yan, Y. Li, "Chirp-free optical modulation using a silicon push-pull coupling microring," Opt. Lett. 34, 785-787 (2009).

2008 (1)

Y. Vlasov, W. M. L. Green, F. Xia, "High-throughput silicon nanophotonic wavelength-insensitive switch for on-chip optical networks," Nat. Photon. 2, 242-246 (2008).

2007 (2)

Q. Xu, S. Manipatruni, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, M. Lipson, "12.5 Gbit/s carrier-injection-based silicon micro-ring silicon modulators," Opt. Exp. 15, 430-436 (2007).

W. M. J. Green, M. J. Rooks, L. Sekaric, Y. A. Vlasov, "Optical modulation using anti-crossing between paired amplitude and phase resonators," Opt. Exp. 15, 17264-17272 (2007).

2005 (1)

A. Leinse, M. B. J. Diemeer, A. Rousseau, A. Driessen, "A novel high- speed polymeric EO modulator based on a combination of a microring resonator and an MZI," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2074-2076 (2005).

2004 (2)

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, M. Lipson, "All-optical control of light on a silicon chip," Nature 431, 1081-1084 (2004).

J. Yang, F. Wang, X. Jiang, H. Qu, M. Wang, Y. Wang, "Influence of loss on linearity of microring-assisted Mach–Zehnder modulator," Opt. Exp. 12, 4178-4188 (2004).

2003 (1)

X. Xiaobo, J. Khurgin, K. Jin, F. S. Chow, "Linearized Mach–Zehnder intensity modulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 531-533 (2003).

2002 (1)

A. Yariv, "Critical coupling and its control in optical waveguide-ring resonator systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 483-485 (2002).

1987 (1)

R. Soref, B. Bennett, "Electrooptical effects in silicon," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 123-129 (1987).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. Soref, B. Bennett, "Electrooptical effects in silicon," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 123-129 (1987).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (6)

B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, J. Chan, K. Bergman, "High-performance modulators and switches for silicon photonic networks-on-chip," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 16, 6-22 (2010).

L. Zhang, Y. Li, J.-Y. Yang, M. Song, R. G. Beausoleil, A. E. Willner, "Silicon-based microring resonator modulators for intensity modulation," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 16, 149-158 (2010).

D. M. Gill, S. S. Patel, M. Rasras, K. Tu, A. E. White, Y. Chen, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, R. L. Kamocsai, C. M. Hill, J. Beattie, "CMOS-compatible Si-ring-assisted Mach–Zehnder interferometer with internal bandwidth equalization," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 16, 45-52 (2010).

L. Zhang, Y. Li, J.-Y. Yang, M. Song, R. G. Beausoleil, A. E. Willner, "Silicon-based microring resonator modulators for intensity modulation," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 16, 149-158 (2010).

M. Song, L. Zhang, R. G. Beausoleil, A. Willner, "Nonlinear distortion in a silicon microring-based electro-optic modulator for analog optical links," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 16, 185-191 (2010).

G. Rasigade, D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, E. Cassan, "Performance evolutions of carrier depletion silicon optical modulators: From p-n to p-i-p-i-n diodes," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 16, 179-184 (2010).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (4)

A. Yariv, "Critical coupling and its control in optical waveguide-ring resonator systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 483-485 (2002).

A. Leinse, M. B. J. Diemeer, A. Rousseau, A. Driessen, "A novel high- speed polymeric EO modulator based on a combination of a microring resonator and an MZI," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2074-2076 (2005).

X. Xiaobo, J. Khurgin, K. Jin, F. S. Chow, "Linearized Mach–Zehnder intensity modulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 531-533 (2003).

D. Gill, M. Rasras, K. Tu, Y. Chen, A. E. White, S. S. Patel, D. Carothers, A. Pomerene, R. L. Kamocsai, C. Hill, J. Beattie, "Internal bandwidth equalization in a CMOS-compatible Si-ring modulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 200-202 (2009).

J. Lightw. Technol. (2)

W. D. Sacher, J. K. S. Poon, "Characteristics of microring resonators with waveguide-resonator coupling modulation," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 3800-3811 (2009).

T. Ye, X. Cai, "On power consumption of silicon microring based optical modulators," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 1615-1623 (2010).

Nat. Photon. (1)

Y. Vlasov, W. M. L. Green, F. Xia, "High-throughput silicon nanophotonic wavelength-insensitive switch for on-chip optical networks," Nat. Photon. 2, 242-246 (2008).

Nature (1)

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, M. Lipson, "All-optical control of light on a silicon chip," Nature 431, 1081-1084 (2004).

Opt. Exp. (8)

Q. Xu, S. Manipatruni, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, M. Lipson, "12.5 Gbit/s carrier-injection-based silicon micro-ring silicon modulators," Opt. Exp. 15, 430-436 (2007).

F. Y. Gardes, A. Brimont, P. Sanchis, G. Rasigade, D. Marris-Morini, L. O'Faolain, F. Dong, J. M. Fedeli, P. Dumon, L. Vivien, T. F. Krauss, G. T. Reed, J. Martí, "High-speed modulation of a compact silicon ring resonator based on a reverse-biased pn diode," Opt. Exp. 17, 21986-21991 (2009).

S. Manipatruni, K. Preston, L. Chen, M. Lipson, "Ultra-low voltage, ultra-small mode volume silicon microring modulator," Opt. Exp. 18, 1506-1511 (2010).

P. Dong, R. Shafiiha, S. Liao, H. Liang, N.-N. Feng, D. Feng, G. Li, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, M. Asghari, "Wavelength-tunable silicon microring modulator," Opt. Exp. 18, 10941-10946 (2010).

W. M. J. Green, M. J. Rooks, L. Sekaric, Y. A. Vlasov, "Optical modulation using anti-crossing between paired amplitude and phase resonators," Opt. Exp. 15, 17264-17272 (2007).

J. Yang, F. Wang, X. Jiang, H. Qu, M. Wang, Y. Wang, "Influence of loss on linearity of microring-assisted Mach–Zehnder modulator," Opt. Exp. 12, 4178-4188 (2004).

A. Khilo, C. M. Sorace, F. X. Kärtner, "Broadband linearized silicon modulator," Opt. Exp. 19, 4485-4500 (2011).

G. Rasigade, M. Ziebell, D. Marris-Morini, J.-M. Fédéli, F. Milesi, P. Grosse, D. Bouville, E. Cassan, L. Vivien, "High extinction ratio 10 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator," Opt. Exp. 19, 5827-5832 (2011).

Opt. Lett. (2)

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