Abstract

Crosstalk noise is an intrinsic characteristic of photonic devices used by optical router which is used in optical networks-on-chip. It also adds a new dimension to the design of the optical router based on the photonic devices. We analyzed crosstalk noise at device level and router level. Based on the detailed analysis, we proposed a general analytical model to study the transmission loss, crosstalk noise, optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR), and bit error ratio in the 5 × 5 hitless optical router. For the first time, this paper used the crossing angles of 60° or 120° instead of the conventional 90° crossing angle to design the optical router. It is obtained that by using this method OSNR is improved by about 10 dB.

© 2011 IEEE

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |

  1. A. Shacham, K. Bergman, L. P. Carloni, "Photonic networks-on-chip for future generations of chip multi-processors," IEEE Trans. Comput. 57, 1246-1260 (2008).
  2. V. W. S. Chan, K. L. Hall, E. Modiano, K. A. Rauschenbach, "Architectures and technologies for high-speed optical data networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 2146-2168 (1998).
  3. A. Z. Shang, F. A. P. Tooler, "Digital optical interconnects for networks and computing systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 2086-2094 (2000).
  4. B. A. Small, B. G. Lee, K. Bergman, Q. Xu, M. Lipson, "Multiple-wavelength integrated photonic networks based on microring resonator devices," J. Opt. Netw. 6, 112-120 (2007).
  5. Y. Vlasov, W. M. J. Green, F. Xia, "High-throughput silicon nanophotonic wavelength-insensitive switch for on-chip optical networks," Nature Photon. 2, 242-246 (2008).
  6. S. T. Chu, B. E. Little, W. Pan, T. A. Kaneko, S. A. Sato, Y. A. Kokubun, "An eight-channel add-drop filter using vertically coupled microring resonators over a cross grid," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 691-693 (1999).
  7. B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, W. Pan, Y. A. Kokubun, "Microring resonator arrays for VLSI photonics," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 323-325 (2000).
  8. N. Sherwood-Droz, H. Wang, L. Chen, B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, K. Bergman, M. Lipson, "Optical 4$\,\times\,$4 hitless silicon router for optical networks-on-chip (NoC)," Opt. Exp. 16, 15915-15922 (2007).
  9. M. J. Cianchetti, J. C. Kerekes, D. H. Albonesi, "Phastlane: A rapid transit optical routing network," 36th Int. Symp. Comput. Archit. AustinTX (2009).
  10. Y. Pan, P. Kumar, J. Kim, G. Memik, Y. Zhang, A. Choudhary, "Firefly: Illuminating future network-on-chip with nanophotonics," 36th Int. Symp. Comput. Archit. AustinTX (2009).
  11. A. Joshi, C. Batten, V. Stojanovic, K. Asanovic, "Building manycore processor-to-DRAM networks with monolithic silicon photonics," IEEE Micro 29, 8-21 (2009).
  12. H. Gu, K. Mo, J. Xu, W. Zhang, "A low-power low-cost optical router for optical networks-on-chip in multiprocessor systems-on-chip," Proc. IEEE Comput. Soc. Annu. Symp. VLSI (2009) pp. 19-24.
  13. Y. Xie, M. Nikdast, J. Xu, W. Zhang, Q. Li, X. Wu, Y. Ye, W. Liu, X. Wang, "Crosstalk noise and bit error rate analysis for optical network-on-chip," Proc. 47th ACM/IEEE Design Autom. Conf. (2010) pp. 657-660.
  14. R. G. Beausoleil, J. Ahn, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, M. Fiorentino, N. P. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C. M. Santori, R. S. Schreiber, S. M. Spillane, D. Vantrease, Q. Xu, "A nanophotonic interconnect for high-performance many-core computation," Proc. 16th IEEE Symp. High Perform. Interconnects (2008) pp. 182-189.
  15. S. Haykin, Communication Systems (Wiley, 2003).
  16. H. Chen, A. W. Poon, "Low-loss multimode-interference-based crossings for silicon wire waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2260-2262 (2006).
  17. W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, "Compact, low-loss waveguide crossings for high-index-contrast SOI photonic wires," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf./Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf. (2007) pp. 1-3.
  18. P. Sanchis, J. V. Galán, A. Griol, J. Martí, M. A. Piqueras, J. M. Perdigues, "Low-crosstalk in silicon-on-insulator waveguide crossings with optimized-angle," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1583-1585 (2007).
  19. F. Xia, M. Rooks, L. Sekaric, Y. Vlasov, "Ultra-compact high order ring resonator filters using submicron silicon photonic wires for on-chip optical interconnects," Opt. Exp. 15, 11934-11941 (2007).
  20. S. Xiao, M. H. Khan, H. Shen, M. Qi, "A highly compact third-order silicon microring add–drop filter with a very large free spectral range, a flat passband and a low delay dispersion," Opt. Exp. 15, 14765-14771 (2007).
  21. B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, P. Dong, M. Lipson, K. Bergman, "All-optical comb switch for multi-wavelength message routing in silicon photonic networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 767-769 (2008).

2009 (1)

A. Joshi, C. Batten, V. Stojanovic, K. Asanovic, "Building manycore processor-to-DRAM networks with monolithic silicon photonics," IEEE Micro 29, 8-21 (2009).

2008 (3)

Y. Vlasov, W. M. J. Green, F. Xia, "High-throughput silicon nanophotonic wavelength-insensitive switch for on-chip optical networks," Nature Photon. 2, 242-246 (2008).

B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, P. Dong, M. Lipson, K. Bergman, "All-optical comb switch for multi-wavelength message routing in silicon photonic networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 767-769 (2008).

A. Shacham, K. Bergman, L. P. Carloni, "Photonic networks-on-chip for future generations of chip multi-processors," IEEE Trans. Comput. 57, 1246-1260 (2008).

2007 (5)

B. A. Small, B. G. Lee, K. Bergman, Q. Xu, M. Lipson, "Multiple-wavelength integrated photonic networks based on microring resonator devices," J. Opt. Netw. 6, 112-120 (2007).

N. Sherwood-Droz, H. Wang, L. Chen, B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, K. Bergman, M. Lipson, "Optical 4$\,\times\,$4 hitless silicon router for optical networks-on-chip (NoC)," Opt. Exp. 16, 15915-15922 (2007).

P. Sanchis, J. V. Galán, A. Griol, J. Martí, M. A. Piqueras, J. M. Perdigues, "Low-crosstalk in silicon-on-insulator waveguide crossings with optimized-angle," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1583-1585 (2007).

F. Xia, M. Rooks, L. Sekaric, Y. Vlasov, "Ultra-compact high order ring resonator filters using submicron silicon photonic wires for on-chip optical interconnects," Opt. Exp. 15, 11934-11941 (2007).

S. Xiao, M. H. Khan, H. Shen, M. Qi, "A highly compact third-order silicon microring add–drop filter with a very large free spectral range, a flat passband and a low delay dispersion," Opt. Exp. 15, 14765-14771 (2007).

2006 (1)

H. Chen, A. W. Poon, "Low-loss multimode-interference-based crossings for silicon wire waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2260-2262 (2006).

2000 (2)

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, W. Pan, Y. A. Kokubun, "Microring resonator arrays for VLSI photonics," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 323-325 (2000).

A. Z. Shang, F. A. P. Tooler, "Digital optical interconnects for networks and computing systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 2086-2094 (2000).

1999 (1)

S. T. Chu, B. E. Little, W. Pan, T. A. Kaneko, S. A. Sato, Y. A. Kokubun, "An eight-channel add-drop filter using vertically coupled microring resonators over a cross grid," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 691-693 (1999).

1998 (1)

V. W. S. Chan, K. L. Hall, E. Modiano, K. A. Rauschenbach, "Architectures and technologies for high-speed optical data networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 2146-2168 (1998).

IEEE Micro (1)

A. Joshi, C. Batten, V. Stojanovic, K. Asanovic, "Building manycore processor-to-DRAM networks with monolithic silicon photonics," IEEE Micro 29, 8-21 (2009).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (5)

H. Chen, A. W. Poon, "Low-loss multimode-interference-based crossings for silicon wire waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2260-2262 (2006).

P. Sanchis, J. V. Galán, A. Griol, J. Martí, M. A. Piqueras, J. M. Perdigues, "Low-crosstalk in silicon-on-insulator waveguide crossings with optimized-angle," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1583-1585 (2007).

S. T. Chu, B. E. Little, W. Pan, T. A. Kaneko, S. A. Sato, Y. A. Kokubun, "An eight-channel add-drop filter using vertically coupled microring resonators over a cross grid," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 691-693 (1999).

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, W. Pan, Y. A. Kokubun, "Microring resonator arrays for VLSI photonics," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 323-325 (2000).

B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, P. Dong, M. Lipson, K. Bergman, "All-optical comb switch for multi-wavelength message routing in silicon photonic networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 767-769 (2008).

IEEE Trans. Comput. (1)

A. Shacham, K. Bergman, L. P. Carloni, "Photonic networks-on-chip for future generations of chip multi-processors," IEEE Trans. Comput. 57, 1246-1260 (2008).

J. Lightw. Technol. (2)

V. W. S. Chan, K. L. Hall, E. Modiano, K. A. Rauschenbach, "Architectures and technologies for high-speed optical data networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 2146-2168 (1998).

A. Z. Shang, F. A. P. Tooler, "Digital optical interconnects for networks and computing systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 2086-2094 (2000).

J. Opt. Netw. (1)

Nature Photon. (1)

Y. Vlasov, W. M. J. Green, F. Xia, "High-throughput silicon nanophotonic wavelength-insensitive switch for on-chip optical networks," Nature Photon. 2, 242-246 (2008).

Opt. Exp. (3)

N. Sherwood-Droz, H. Wang, L. Chen, B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, K. Bergman, M. Lipson, "Optical 4$\,\times\,$4 hitless silicon router for optical networks-on-chip (NoC)," Opt. Exp. 16, 15915-15922 (2007).

F. Xia, M. Rooks, L. Sekaric, Y. Vlasov, "Ultra-compact high order ring resonator filters using submicron silicon photonic wires for on-chip optical interconnects," Opt. Exp. 15, 11934-11941 (2007).

S. Xiao, M. H. Khan, H. Shen, M. Qi, "A highly compact third-order silicon microring add–drop filter with a very large free spectral range, a flat passband and a low delay dispersion," Opt. Exp. 15, 14765-14771 (2007).

Other (7)

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, "Compact, low-loss waveguide crossings for high-index-contrast SOI photonic wires," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf./Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf. (2007) pp. 1-3.

H. Gu, K. Mo, J. Xu, W. Zhang, "A low-power low-cost optical router for optical networks-on-chip in multiprocessor systems-on-chip," Proc. IEEE Comput. Soc. Annu. Symp. VLSI (2009) pp. 19-24.

Y. Xie, M. Nikdast, J. Xu, W. Zhang, Q. Li, X. Wu, Y. Ye, W. Liu, X. Wang, "Crosstalk noise and bit error rate analysis for optical network-on-chip," Proc. 47th ACM/IEEE Design Autom. Conf. (2010) pp. 657-660.

R. G. Beausoleil, J. Ahn, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, M. Fiorentino, N. P. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C. M. Santori, R. S. Schreiber, S. M. Spillane, D. Vantrease, Q. Xu, "A nanophotonic interconnect for high-performance many-core computation," Proc. 16th IEEE Symp. High Perform. Interconnects (2008) pp. 182-189.

S. Haykin, Communication Systems (Wiley, 2003).

M. J. Cianchetti, J. C. Kerekes, D. H. Albonesi, "Phastlane: A rapid transit optical routing network," 36th Int. Symp. Comput. Archit. AustinTX (2009).

Y. Pan, P. Kumar, J. Kim, G. Memik, Y. Zhang, A. Choudhary, "Firefly: Illuminating future network-on-chip with nanophotonics," 36th Int. Symp. Comput. Archit. AustinTX (2009).

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.