Abstract

With increasing energy consumption of the Internet, it is now imperative to design energy-efficient network architectures and protocols. Optical technologies have significant promise in improving the energy efficiency of network infrastructures. Future optical backbone networks will be heterogeneous in nature where a single link may carry various line-rate signals. This mixed-line-rate (MLR) network architecture is shown to be cost effective in satisfying heterogeneous traffic demands. In this study, we present mathematical models that can act as references for designing energy- and cost-efficient MLR optical networks. We also perform a comparative study of the energy efficiency of MLR and special cases of MLR design, named as single-line-rate networks (where all the links have same line rates). We explore the scenarios where the MLR networks minimize energy consumption. Finally, we investigate the relationship between energy-minimized and cost-minimized MLR network design.

© 2011 IEEE

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2011

N. Sambo, M. Secondini, F. Cugini, G. Bottari, P. Iovanna, F. Cavaliere, P. Castoldi, "Modeling and distributed provisioning in 10 40 100-Gb/s multirate wavelength switched optical networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 1248-1257 (2011).

F. Paolucci, N. Sambo, F. Cugini, A. Giorgetti, P. Castoldi, "Experimental demonstration of impairment-aware PCE for multi-bit-rate WSONs," IEEE/OSA J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 3, 610-619 (2011).

O. Rival, G. Villares, A. Morea, "Impact of inter-channel nonlinearities on the planning of 25 100 Gb/s elastic optical networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 1326-1334 (2011).

2010

Y. Zhang, P. Chowdhury, M. Tornatore, B. Mukherjee, "Energy efficiency in telecom optical networks," IEEE Commun. Surveys Tuts. 12, 441-458 (2010).

A. Nag, M. Tornatore, B. Mukherjee, "Optical network design with mixed line rates and multiple modulation formats," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 466-475 (2010).

E. Ip, "Nonlinear compensation using backpropagation for polarization-multiplexed transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 939-951 (2010).

2009

C. Meusburger, D. A. Schupke, A. Lord, "Optimizing the migration of channels with higher bitrates," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 608-615 (2009).

G. Shen, R. S. Tucker, "Energy-minimized design for IP over WDM networks," IEEE/OSA J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 1, 176-186 (2009).

2008

2007

S. Chandrasekhar, X. Liu, "Impact of channel plan and dispersion map on hybrid DWDM transmission of 42.7-Gb/s DQPSK and 10.7-Gb/s OOK on 50-GHz grid," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1801-1803 (2007).

2002

K. Zhu, B. Mukherjee, "Traffic grooming in optical WDM mesh networks," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 20, 122-133 (2002).

IEEE Commun. Surveys Tuts.

Y. Zhang, P. Chowdhury, M. Tornatore, B. Mukherjee, "Energy efficiency in telecom optical networks," IEEE Commun. Surveys Tuts. 12, 441-458 (2010).

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun.

K. Zhu, B. Mukherjee, "Traffic grooming in optical WDM mesh networks," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 20, 122-133 (2002).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

S. Chandrasekhar, X. Liu, "Impact of channel plan and dispersion map on hybrid DWDM transmission of 42.7-Gb/s DQPSK and 10.7-Gb/s OOK on 50-GHz grid," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1801-1803 (2007).

IEEE/OSA J. Opt. Commun. Netw.

F. Paolucci, N. Sambo, F. Cugini, A. Giorgetti, P. Castoldi, "Experimental demonstration of impairment-aware PCE for multi-bit-rate WSONs," IEEE/OSA J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 3, 610-619 (2011).

G. Shen, R. S. Tucker, "Energy-minimized design for IP over WDM networks," IEEE/OSA J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 1, 176-186 (2009).

J. Lightw. Technol.

E. Ip, "Nonlinear compensation using backpropagation for polarization-multiplexed transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 939-951 (2010).

O. Rival, G. Villares, A. Morea, "Impact of inter-channel nonlinearities on the planning of 25 100 Gb/s elastic optical networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 1326-1334 (2011).

N. Sambo, M. Secondini, F. Cugini, G. Bottari, P. Iovanna, F. Cavaliere, P. Castoldi, "Modeling and distributed provisioning in 10 40 100-Gb/s multirate wavelength switched optical networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 1248-1257 (2011).

A. Nag, M. Tornatore, B. Mukherjee, "Optical network design with mixed line rates and multiple modulation formats," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 466-475 (2010).

C. Meusburger, D. A. Schupke, A. Lord, "Optimizing the migration of channels with higher bitrates," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 608-615 (2009).

J. Opt. Netw.

Other

M. Camera, "100GbE optical transport, appropriate modulation formats, and impact on deployed transport networks," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf./Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf. San DiegoCA (2010).

A. K. Somani, Survivability and Traffic Grooming in WDM Optical Networks (Cambridge Univ. Press, 2006).

F. Idzikowski, Power consumption of network elements in IP over WDM networks Telecommun. Netw. Group (TKN), TU BerlinBerlinGermany TKN Tech. Rep. TKN-09-006 (2009).

"Transmode TM-series data sheet," (2010) http://www.transmode.com/.

W. V. Heddeghem, M. De Groote, W. Vereecken, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, P. Demeester, "Energy-efficiency in telecommunications networks: Link-by-link versus end-to-end grooming," Conf. Opt. Netw. Design Model. KyotoJapan (2010).

R. S. Tucker, "Energy footprint of the network," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf./Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf., Workshop Energy Footprint ICT: Forecast Netw. Solutions San DiegoCA (2009).

K. Christodoulopoulos, K. Manousakis, E. Varvarigos, "Adapting the transmission reach in mixed line rates WDM transport networks," Conf. Opt. Netw. Design Model. BolognaItaly (2011).

H. Bissessur, A. Hugbart, S. Ruggeri, C. Bastide, "40G over 10G infrastructure—Dispersion management issues," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf./Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf. AnaheimCA (2005).

"SMART 2020: Enabling the low carbon economy in the information age," GESI'08 (2008) http://www.theclimategroup.org/assets/resources/publications/Smart2020Report_lo_res.pdf.

"Facebook: Yes, We Need 100-GigE," Light Reading http://www.lightreading.com/document.asp?doc_id=181899.

"Converge IP and DWDM layers in the core network," Cisco White Paper online: http://www.cisco.com/en/US/prod/collateral/routers/ps5763/prod_white_paper0900aecd80395e03.pdf.

G. Rizzelli, G. Maier, R. Longo, A. Pattavina, "Comparison of opaque and translucent WDM networks with different regenerator-placement strategies under static and dynamic traffic," Gruppo nazionale Telecomunicazioni e Teoria dell'Informazione (2010).

B. Ramamurthy, H. Feng, D. Datta, J. P. Heritage, B. Mukherjee, "Transparent vs. opaque vs. translucent wavelength-routed optical networks," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. San DiegoCA (1999).

A. Nag, M. Tornatore, "Transparent vs. translucent optical network design with mixed line rates," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. San DiegoCA (2009).

S. Huang, D. Seshadri, R. Dutta, "Traffic grooming: A changing role in green optical networks," IEEE GLOBECOM HonoluluHI (2009).

E. Yetginer, G. N. Rouskas, "Power efficient traffic grooming in optical WDM networks," IEEE GLOBECOM HonoluluHI (2009).

F. Musumeci, F. Vismara, V. Grkovic, M. Tornatore, A. Pattavina, "On the energy efficiency of optical transport with time driven switching," IEEE Int. Conf. Commun. KyotoJapan (2011).

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