Abstract

We probe the limits, both experimentally and analytically, of passive optical network (PON) monitoring using periodic coding technology. The experimental demonstration focuses on a 16 customer PON with a 20 km feeder fiber followed by either a single cluster or a tiered hierarchy. A directly modulated laser modulated at 1 GHz was used to generate the monitoring probe signals. The measured data from the experimental setup was fed to a reduced complexity maximum likelihood sequence estimation (RC-MLSE) algorithm to detect and localize the customers. Three different PON deployments were tested. We demonstrate improved monitoring robustness when using a variable threshold for networks with a tiered geographic distribution. While only a 16 customer PON was tested, our experimental setup had 18 dB margin in the total loss budget corresponding to splitting losses for 64 customers. We investigate analytically the total permissible loss budget of the monitoring system operating in the 1650 nm waveband as a function of receiver specifications. We examine the effect of resolution in the analog-to-digital conversion on the correlation peaks that form sufficient statistics for the RC-MLSE algorithm. Resolution affects both the RC-MLSE algorithm and the use of signal averaging to improve signal-to-noise ratio. We find that the monitoring system is able to monitor current PON standards with inexpensive, commercially available electronics.

© 2011 IEEE

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  1. H. Fathallah, L. A. Rusch, "Code division multiplexing for in-service out-of-band monitoring," J. Opt. Netw. 6, 819-829 (2007).
  2. M. M. Rad, H. Fathallah, S. LaRochelle, L. A. Rusch, "Experimental validation of PON monitoring using periodic coding," Proc. IEEE GLOBECOM (2009) pp. 1-7.
  3. N. Honda, D. Iida, H. Izumita, Y. Azuma, "In-service line monitoring system in PONs using 1650 nm Brillouin OTDR and fibers with individually assigned BFSs," IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 4575-4582 (2009).
  4. H. Fathallah, M. M. Rad, L. A. Rusch, "PON monitoring: Periodic encoders with low capital and operational cost," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 2039-2041 (2008).
  5. M. M. Rad, H. Fathallah, S. LaRochelle, L. A. Rusch, "Computationally efficient monitoring of PON fiber link quality using periodic coding," IEEE/OSA J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 3, 77-86 (2011).
  6. A. Girard, "FTTx PON technology and testing," EXFO Electro-Opt. Eng. Inc. (2005).
  7. M. D. Vaughn, D. Kozichek, D. Meis, A. Boskovic, R. Wanger, "Value of reach-and-split ratio increase in FTTH access networks," IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 2617-2622 (2004).
  8. D. Derickson, Fiber Optic Test and Measurement (Prentice-Hall, 1998).
  9. B. Razavi, Design of Integrated Circuits for Optical Communication (McGraw-Hill, 2003).
  10. S. D. Personick, "Optical detectors and receivers," IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 1005-1020 (2008).
  11. ONET8501"Limiting transimpedance amplifier with RSSI," Texas Instrument http://www.ti.com/.
  12. S. Galal, B. Razavi, "10-Gb/s limiting amplifier and laser/modular driver in 0.18-$\mu$m CMOS technology," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 38, 2138-2146 (2003).
  13. R. H. Walden, "Analog-to-digital converter survey and analysis," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (JSAC) 17, 539-550 (1999).
  14. J. C. Campbell, "Recent advances in telecommunications avalanche photodiodes," IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 109-121 (2007).
  15. N. Gagnon, A. Girard, M. Leblanc, "Considerations and recommendations for in-service out-of-band testing on live FTTH networks," Proc. IEEE Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC) (2006) pp. 8-.
  16. M. Ismail, Low Power Low Voltage Sigma Delta Modulators in Nanometer CMOS (Springer-Verlag, 2006).

2011 (1)

M. M. Rad, H. Fathallah, S. LaRochelle, L. A. Rusch, "Computationally efficient monitoring of PON fiber link quality using periodic coding," IEEE/OSA J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 3, 77-86 (2011).

2009 (1)

N. Honda, D. Iida, H. Izumita, Y. Azuma, "In-service line monitoring system in PONs using 1650 nm Brillouin OTDR and fibers with individually assigned BFSs," IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 4575-4582 (2009).

2008 (2)

H. Fathallah, M. M. Rad, L. A. Rusch, "PON monitoring: Periodic encoders with low capital and operational cost," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 2039-2041 (2008).

S. D. Personick, "Optical detectors and receivers," IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 1005-1020 (2008).

2007 (2)

H. Fathallah, L. A. Rusch, "Code division multiplexing for in-service out-of-band monitoring," J. Opt. Netw. 6, 819-829 (2007).

J. C. Campbell, "Recent advances in telecommunications avalanche photodiodes," IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 109-121 (2007).

2004 (1)

M. D. Vaughn, D. Kozichek, D. Meis, A. Boskovic, R. Wanger, "Value of reach-and-split ratio increase in FTTH access networks," IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 2617-2622 (2004).

2003 (1)

S. Galal, B. Razavi, "10-Gb/s limiting amplifier and laser/modular driver in 0.18-$\mu$m CMOS technology," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 38, 2138-2146 (2003).

1999 (1)

R. H. Walden, "Analog-to-digital converter survey and analysis," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (JSAC) 17, 539-550 (1999).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

H. Fathallah, M. M. Rad, L. A. Rusch, "PON monitoring: Periodic encoders with low capital and operational cost," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 2039-2041 (2008).

IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. (4)

M. D. Vaughn, D. Kozichek, D. Meis, A. Boskovic, R. Wanger, "Value of reach-and-split ratio increase in FTTH access networks," IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 2617-2622 (2004).

S. D. Personick, "Optical detectors and receivers," IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 1005-1020 (2008).

N. Honda, D. Iida, H. Izumita, Y. Azuma, "In-service line monitoring system in PONs using 1650 nm Brillouin OTDR and fibers with individually assigned BFSs," IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 4575-4582 (2009).

J. C. Campbell, "Recent advances in telecommunications avalanche photodiodes," IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 109-121 (2007).

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (JSAC) (1)

R. H. Walden, "Analog-to-digital converter survey and analysis," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (JSAC) 17, 539-550 (1999).

IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits (1)

S. Galal, B. Razavi, "10-Gb/s limiting amplifier and laser/modular driver in 0.18-$\mu$m CMOS technology," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 38, 2138-2146 (2003).

IEEE/OSA J. Opt. Commun. Netw. (1)

M. M. Rad, H. Fathallah, S. LaRochelle, L. A. Rusch, "Computationally efficient monitoring of PON fiber link quality using periodic coding," IEEE/OSA J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 3, 77-86 (2011).

J. Opt. Netw. (1)

H. Fathallah, L. A. Rusch, "Code division multiplexing for in-service out-of-band monitoring," J. Opt. Netw. 6, 819-829 (2007).

Other (7)

M. M. Rad, H. Fathallah, S. LaRochelle, L. A. Rusch, "Experimental validation of PON monitoring using periodic coding," Proc. IEEE GLOBECOM (2009) pp. 1-7.

A. Girard, "FTTx PON technology and testing," EXFO Electro-Opt. Eng. Inc. (2005).

ONET8501"Limiting transimpedance amplifier with RSSI," Texas Instrument http://www.ti.com/.

D. Derickson, Fiber Optic Test and Measurement (Prentice-Hall, 1998).

B. Razavi, Design of Integrated Circuits for Optical Communication (McGraw-Hill, 2003).

N. Gagnon, A. Girard, M. Leblanc, "Considerations and recommendations for in-service out-of-band testing on live FTTH networks," Proc. IEEE Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC) (2006) pp. 8-.

M. Ismail, Low Power Low Voltage Sigma Delta Modulators in Nanometer CMOS (Springer-Verlag, 2006).

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