Abstract

Fiber optic sensors have applications in the measurement of a wide range of physical properties such as temperature, pressure, and refractive index. These sensors are immune to electromagnetic interference, made of high temperature dielectric materials and hence can be deployed in harsh environments where conventional electronics would fail. Photonic crystal (PC) fiber tip sensors are highly sensitive to changes in the refractive index and temperature while remaining compact and robust. In comparison to conventional fiber sensors such as fiber Bragg gratings (FBG) or long period fiber gratings (LPFG), they are attractive in several aspects. PC fiber tip sensors have better sensitivity to refractive index and temperature than FBG sensors and are have much smaller sensing volumes than FBGs and LPFGs. Their small size allows them to combine high sensitivity and structural robustness. The most attractive feature may be that PC fiber tip sensors also return a spectrally rich signal with independently shifting resonances that can be used to extract multiple physical properties of the measurand and distinguish between them. In this paper, we show that the PC fiber tip sensor is highly sensitive to the refractive index and temperature of the environment and that both parameters can be simultaneously determined using multiple wavelengths.

© 2011 IEEE

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2009 (2)

I. W. Jung, S. B. Mallick, O. Solgaard, "A large-area high-reflectivity broadband monolithic single-crystal-silicon photonic crystal mirror MEMS scanner with low dependence on incident angle and polarization," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 1447-1454 (2009).

A. Wang, Y. Zhu, G. Pickrell, "Optical fiber high-temperature sensors," Opt. Photon. News 20, 26-31 (2009).

2008 (1)

O. Kilic, M. Digonnet, G. Kino, O. Solgaard, "Controlling uncoupled resonances in photonic crystals through breaking the mirror symmetry," Opt. Exp. 16, 13090-13103 (2008).

2007 (2)

Y. Wang, C.-Q. Xu, "Spun FBG sensors with low polarization dependence under transverse force," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 477-479 (2007).

O. Kilic, M. Digonnet, G. Kino, O. Solgaard, "External fibre Fabry–Perot acoustic sensor based on a photonic-crystal mirror," Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3049-3054 (2007).

2005 (2)

W. Liang, Y. Huang, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, A. Yariv, "Highly sensitive fiber Bragg grating refractive index sensors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151122-1-151122-3 (2005).

S.-K. Eah, H. M. Jaeger, N. F. Scherer, G. P. Wiederrecht, X.-M. Lin, "Plasmon scattering from a single gold nanoparticle collected through an optical fiber," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 031902-1-031902-3 (2005).

2004 (1)

C.-B. Kim, C. B. Su, "Measurement of the refractive index of liquids at 1.3 and 1.5 micron using a fibre optic Fresnel ratio meter," Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 1683-1687 (2004).

2002 (1)

S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, "Analysis of guided resonance in photonic crystal slabs," Phys. Rev. B 65, 235112-1-235112-8 (2002).

2001 (1)

C. Gaffney, C. K. Chau, "Using refractive index gradients to measure diffusivity between liquids," Amer. J. Phys. 69, 821-825 (2001).

2000 (2)

F. G. D. Corte, G. Cocorullo, M. Iodice, I. Rendina, "Temperature dependence of the thermo-optic coefficient of InP, GaAs, and SiC from room temperature to 600 K at the wavelength of 1.5 $\mu$m," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1614-1616 (2000).

C. Z. Tan, J. Arndt, "Temperature dependence of refractive index of glassy SiO$_2$ in the infrared wavelength range," J. Phys. Chem. Solids 61, 1315-1320 (2000).

1997 (1)

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, E. J. Friebele, "Fiber grating sensors," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1442-1463 (1997).

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

E. Udd, "Overview of fiber optic sensors," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 4015-4030 (1995).

1994 (1)

T. Ergodan, V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, D. Monroe, "Decay of ultraviolet-induced fiber Bragg gratings," J. Appl. Phys. 76, 73-80 (1994).

1989 (1)

G. Meltz, W. W. Morey, W. H. Glenn, "Formation of Bragg gratings in optical fibers by transverse holographic method," Opt. Lett. 14, 823-825 (1989).

1980 (1)

H. H. Li, "Refractive index of silicon and germanium and its wavelength and temperature derivatives," J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 9, 561-658 (1980).

Amer. J. Phys. (1)

C. Gaffney, C. K. Chau, "Using refractive index gradients to measure diffusivity between liquids," Amer. J. Phys. 69, 821-825 (2001).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

S.-K. Eah, H. M. Jaeger, N. F. Scherer, G. P. Wiederrecht, X.-M. Lin, "Plasmon scattering from a single gold nanoparticle collected through an optical fiber," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 031902-1-031902-3 (2005).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

W. Liang, Y. Huang, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, A. Yariv, "Highly sensitive fiber Bragg grating refractive index sensors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151122-1-151122-3 (2005).

F. G. D. Corte, G. Cocorullo, M. Iodice, I. Rendina, "Temperature dependence of the thermo-optic coefficient of InP, GaAs, and SiC from room temperature to 600 K at the wavelength of 1.5 $\mu$m," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1614-1616 (2000).

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

I. W. Jung, S. B. Mallick, O. Solgaard, "A large-area high-reflectivity broadband monolithic single-crystal-silicon photonic crystal mirror MEMS scanner with low dependence on incident angle and polarization," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 1447-1454 (2009).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

Y. Wang, C.-Q. Xu, "Spun FBG sensors with low polarization dependence under transverse force," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 477-479 (2007).

J. Phys. Chem. Solids (1)

C. Z. Tan, J. Arndt, "Temperature dependence of refractive index of glassy SiO$_2$ in the infrared wavelength range," J. Phys. Chem. Solids 61, 1315-1320 (2000).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T. Ergodan, V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, D. Monroe, "Decay of ultraviolet-induced fiber Bragg gratings," J. Appl. Phys. 76, 73-80 (1994).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, E. J. Friebele, "Fiber grating sensors," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1442-1463 (1997).

J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data (1)

H. H. Li, "Refractive index of silicon and germanium and its wavelength and temperature derivatives," J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 9, 561-658 (1980).

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

O. Kilic, M. Digonnet, G. Kino, O. Solgaard, "External fibre Fabry–Perot acoustic sensor based on a photonic-crystal mirror," Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3049-3054 (2007).

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

C.-B. Kim, C. B. Su, "Measurement of the refractive index of liquids at 1.3 and 1.5 micron using a fibre optic Fresnel ratio meter," Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 1683-1687 (2004).

Opt. Exp. (1)

O. Kilic, M. Digonnet, G. Kino, O. Solgaard, "Controlling uncoupled resonances in photonic crystals through breaking the mirror symmetry," Opt. Exp. 16, 13090-13103 (2008).

Opt. Lett. (1)

G. Meltz, W. W. Morey, W. H. Glenn, "Formation of Bragg gratings in optical fibers by transverse holographic method," Opt. Lett. 14, 823-825 (1989).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Photon. News (1)

A. Wang, Y. Zhu, G. Pickrell, "Optical fiber high-temperature sensors," Opt. Photon. News 20, 26-31 (2009).

Phys. Rev. B (1)

S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, "Analysis of guided resonance in photonic crystal slabs," Phys. Rev. B 65, 235112-1-235112-8 (2002).

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

E. Udd, "Overview of fiber optic sensors," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 4015-4030 (1995).

Other (7)

I. W. Jung, B. Park, J. Provine, R. T. Howe, O. Solgaard, "Monolithic Si photonic crystal slab fiber tip sensor," Proc. IEEE Photon. Soc. Int. Conf. Opt. MEMS Nanophoton. (2009) pp. 77-78.

I. W. Jung, B. Park, J. Provine, R. T. Howe, O. Solgaard, "Photonic crystal fiber tip sensor for precision temperature sensing," Proc. IEEE Laser Electro-Opt. Soc. (LEOS) Annu. Meeting Conf. (2009) pp. 761-762.

S. Hadzialic, S. Kim, S. B. Mallick, A. Sudbo, O. Solgaard, "Monolithic photonic crystals," Proc. 20th Annu. Meeting IEEE Laser Electro-Opt. Soc. (LEOS'07) pp. 341-342.

S. J. Orfanidis, Introduction to Signal Processing (Prentice-Hall, 1996).

B. Park, J. Provine, I. W. Jung, R. T. Howe, O. Solgaard, "Monolithic silicon photonic crystal fiber tip sensor for refractive index and temperature sensing," Proc. Conf. Laser Electro-Opt., Quantum Electron. Laser Sci. (CLEO/QELS) (2010) pp. 1-2.

B. J. Frey, D. B. Leviton, T. J. Madison, "Temperature-dependent refractive index of silicon and germanium," Proc. SPIE (2006).

A. N. Bashkatov, E. A. Genina, "Water refractive index in dependence on temperature and wavelength: A simple approximation," Proc. SPIE (2003) pp. 393-395.

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