Abstract

Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) has recently been proposed as a modulation technique for optical networks, because of its good spectral efficiency, flexibility, and tolerance to impairments. We consider the planning problem of an OFDM optical network, where we are given a traffic matrix that includes the requested transmission rates of the connections to be served. Connections are provisioned for their requested rate by elastically allocating spectrum using a variable number of OFDM subcarriers and choosing an appropriate modulation level, taking into account the transmission distance. We introduce the Routing, Modulation Level and Spectrum Allocation (RMLSA) problem, as opposed to the typical Routing and Wavelength Assignment (RWA) problem of traditional WDM networks, prove that is also NP-complete and present various algorithms to solve it. We start by presenting an optimal ILP RMLSA algorithm that minimizes the spectrum used to serve the traffic matrix, and also present a decomposition method that breaks RMLSA into its two substituent subproblems, namely 1) routing and modulation level and 2) spectrum allocation $({\rm RML}+{\rm SA})$, and solves them sequentially. We also propose a heuristic algorithm that serves connections one-by-one and use it to solve the planning problem by sequentially serving all the connections in the traffic matrix. In the sequential algorithm, we investigate two policies for defining the order in which connections are considered. We also use a simulated annealing meta-heuristic to obtain even better orderings. We examine the performance of the proposed algorithms through simulation experiments and evaluate the spectrum utilization benefits that can be obtained by utilizing OFDM elastic bandwidth allocation, when compared to a traditional WDM network.

© 2011 IEEE

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  1. J. Berthold, A. A. M. Saleh, L. Blair, J. M. Simmons, "Optical networking: Past, present, and future," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 1104-1118 (2008).
  2. S. Yoo, "Optical packet and burst switching technologies for the future photonic internet," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4469-4492 (2006).
  3. Y. Chen, C. Qiao, X. Yu, "Optical burst switching: A new area in optical networking research," IEEE Network 18, 16-23 (2004).
  4. Q. Yang, Y. Ma, W. Shieh, "107 Gb/s coherent optical OFDM reception using orthogonal band multiplexing," Proc. NFOEC (2008).
  5. W. Shieh, X. Yi, Y. Tang, "Transmission experiment of multi-gigabit coherent optical OFDMsystems over 1000 km SSMF fiber," Electron. Lett. 43, 183-185 (2007).
  6. A. Lowery, L. B. Du, J. Armstrong, "Performance of optical OFDM in ultralong-haul WDM lightwave systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 131-138 (2007).
  7. J. Armstrong, "OFDM for optical communications," J. Ligthw. Technol. 27, 189-204 (2009).
  8. M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, Y. Sone, S. Matsuoka, "Spectrum-efficient and scalable elastic optical path network: Architecture, benefits, and enabling technologies," IEEE Commun. Mag. 47, 66-73 (2009).
  9. K. Yonenaga, F. Inuzuka, S. Yamamoto, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, T. Yoshimatsu, A. Takada, M. Jinno, "Bit-rate-flexible all-optical OFDM transceiver using variable multi-carrier source and DQPSK/DPSK mixed multiplexing," Proc. OFC (2009).
  10. B. Kozicki, H. Takara, T. Yoshimatsu, K. Yonenaga, M. Jinno, "Filtering characteristics of highly-spectrum efficient spectrum-sliced elastic optical path (SLICE) network," Proc. OFC (2009).
  11. M. Jinno, B. Kozicki, H. Takara, A. Watanabe, Y. Sone, T. Tanaka, A. Hirano, "Distance-adaptive spectrum resource allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network," IEEE Commun. Mag. 48, 138-145 (2010).
  12. R. Ryf, Y. Su, L. Moller, S. Chandrasekhar, L. Xiang, D. Neilson, C. Giles, "Wavelength blocking filter with flexible data rates and channel spacing," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 54-61 (2005).
  13. W. Zheng, Y. Jin, W. Sun, W. Guo, W. Hu, "On the spectrum-efficiency of bandwidth-variable optical OFDM transport networks," Proc. OFC (2010).
  14. W. Wei, J. Hu, D. Qian, P. N. Ji, T. Wang, X. Liu, C. Qiao, "PONIARD: A programmable optical networking infrastructure for advanced research and development of future internet," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 233-242 (2009).
  15. A. Bocoi, M. Schuster, F. Rambach, M. Kiese, C. Bunge, B. Spinnler, "Reach-dependent capacity in optical networks enabled by OFDM," Proc. OFC (2009).
  16. A. Klekamp, O. Rival, A. Morea, R. Dischler, F. Buchali, "Transparent WDM network with bitrate tunable optical OFDM transponders," Proc. OFC (2010).
  17. A. Nag, M. Tornatore, B. Mukherjee, "Optical network design with mixed line rates and multiple modulation formats," J. Lightw. Tehcnol. 28, 466-476 (2010).
  18. K. Christodoulopoulos, K. Manousakis, E. Varvarigos, "Offline routing and wavelength assignment in transparent WDM networks," IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 18, 1557-1570 (2010).
  19. C. Papadimitriou, K. Steiglitz, Combinatorial Optimization: Algorithms and Complexity (Dover, 1998).
  20. K. Christodoulopoulos, I. Tomkos, E. Varvarigos, "Spectrally/bitrate flexible optical network planning," Proc. ECOC (2010).
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  22. LINDO API http://www.lindo.com/.

2010 (3)

M. Jinno, B. Kozicki, H. Takara, A. Watanabe, Y. Sone, T. Tanaka, A. Hirano, "Distance-adaptive spectrum resource allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network," IEEE Commun. Mag. 48, 138-145 (2010).

A. Nag, M. Tornatore, B. Mukherjee, "Optical network design with mixed line rates and multiple modulation formats," J. Lightw. Tehcnol. 28, 466-476 (2010).

K. Christodoulopoulos, K. Manousakis, E. Varvarigos, "Offline routing and wavelength assignment in transparent WDM networks," IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 18, 1557-1570 (2010).

2009 (3)

W. Wei, J. Hu, D. Qian, P. N. Ji, T. Wang, X. Liu, C. Qiao, "PONIARD: A programmable optical networking infrastructure for advanced research and development of future internet," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 233-242 (2009).

J. Armstrong, "OFDM for optical communications," J. Ligthw. Technol. 27, 189-204 (2009).

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, Y. Sone, S. Matsuoka, "Spectrum-efficient and scalable elastic optical path network: Architecture, benefits, and enabling technologies," IEEE Commun. Mag. 47, 66-73 (2009).

2008 (1)

J. Berthold, A. A. M. Saleh, L. Blair, J. M. Simmons, "Optical networking: Past, present, and future," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 1104-1118 (2008).

2007 (2)

W. Shieh, X. Yi, Y. Tang, "Transmission experiment of multi-gigabit coherent optical OFDMsystems over 1000 km SSMF fiber," Electron. Lett. 43, 183-185 (2007).

A. Lowery, L. B. Du, J. Armstrong, "Performance of optical OFDM in ultralong-haul WDM lightwave systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 131-138 (2007).

2006 (1)

S. Yoo, "Optical packet and burst switching technologies for the future photonic internet," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4469-4492 (2006).

2005 (1)

R. Ryf, Y. Su, L. Moller, S. Chandrasekhar, L. Xiang, D. Neilson, C. Giles, "Wavelength blocking filter with flexible data rates and channel spacing," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 54-61 (2005).

2004 (1)

Y. Chen, C. Qiao, X. Yu, "Optical burst switching: A new area in optical networking research," IEEE Network 18, 16-23 (2004).

Electron. Lett. (1)

W. Shieh, X. Yi, Y. Tang, "Transmission experiment of multi-gigabit coherent optical OFDMsystems over 1000 km SSMF fiber," Electron. Lett. 43, 183-185 (2007).

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

M. Jinno, B. Kozicki, H. Takara, A. Watanabe, Y. Sone, T. Tanaka, A. Hirano, "Distance-adaptive spectrum resource allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network," IEEE Commun. Mag. 48, 138-145 (2010).

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, Y. Sone, S. Matsuoka, "Spectrum-efficient and scalable elastic optical path network: Architecture, benefits, and enabling technologies," IEEE Commun. Mag. 47, 66-73 (2009).

IEEE Network (1)

Y. Chen, C. Qiao, X. Yu, "Optical burst switching: A new area in optical networking research," IEEE Network 18, 16-23 (2004).

IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. (1)

K. Christodoulopoulos, K. Manousakis, E. Varvarigos, "Offline routing and wavelength assignment in transparent WDM networks," IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 18, 1557-1570 (2010).

J. Lightw. Tehcnol. (1)

A. Nag, M. Tornatore, B. Mukherjee, "Optical network design with mixed line rates and multiple modulation formats," J. Lightw. Tehcnol. 28, 466-476 (2010).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

S. Yoo, "Optical packet and burst switching technologies for the future photonic internet," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4469-4492 (2006).

J. Lightw. Technol. (4)

J. Berthold, A. A. M. Saleh, L. Blair, J. M. Simmons, "Optical networking: Past, present, and future," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 1104-1118 (2008).

A. Lowery, L. B. Du, J. Armstrong, "Performance of optical OFDM in ultralong-haul WDM lightwave systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 131-138 (2007).

R. Ryf, Y. Su, L. Moller, S. Chandrasekhar, L. Xiang, D. Neilson, C. Giles, "Wavelength blocking filter with flexible data rates and channel spacing," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 54-61 (2005).

W. Wei, J. Hu, D. Qian, P. N. Ji, T. Wang, X. Liu, C. Qiao, "PONIARD: A programmable optical networking infrastructure for advanced research and development of future internet," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 233-242 (2009).

J. Ligthw. Technol. (1)

J. Armstrong, "OFDM for optical communications," J. Ligthw. Technol. 27, 189-204 (2009).

Other (10)

K. Yonenaga, F. Inuzuka, S. Yamamoto, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, T. Yoshimatsu, A. Takada, M. Jinno, "Bit-rate-flexible all-optical OFDM transceiver using variable multi-carrier source and DQPSK/DPSK mixed multiplexing," Proc. OFC (2009).

B. Kozicki, H. Takara, T. Yoshimatsu, K. Yonenaga, M. Jinno, "Filtering characteristics of highly-spectrum efficient spectrum-sliced elastic optical path (SLICE) network," Proc. OFC (2009).

Q. Yang, Y. Ma, W. Shieh, "107 Gb/s coherent optical OFDM reception using orthogonal band multiplexing," Proc. NFOEC (2008).

A. Bocoi, M. Schuster, F. Rambach, M. Kiese, C. Bunge, B. Spinnler, "Reach-dependent capacity in optical networks enabled by OFDM," Proc. OFC (2009).

A. Klekamp, O. Rival, A. Morea, R. Dischler, F. Buchali, "Transparent WDM network with bitrate tunable optical OFDM transponders," Proc. OFC (2010).

W. Zheng, Y. Jin, W. Sun, W. Guo, W. Hu, "On the spectrum-efficiency of bandwidth-variable optical OFDM transport networks," Proc. OFC (2010).

C. Papadimitriou, K. Steiglitz, Combinatorial Optimization: Algorithms and Complexity (Dover, 1998).

K. Christodoulopoulos, I. Tomkos, E. Varvarigos, "Spectrally/bitrate flexible optical network planning," Proc. ECOC (2010).

K. Christodoulopoulos, I. Tomkos, E. Varvarigos, "Routing and spectrum allocation in OFDM-based optical networks with elastic bandwidth allocation," Proc. IEEE Globecom (2010).

LINDO API http://www.lindo.com/.

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