Abstract

The operating principle and theory of a fiber laser bender hydrophone is presented. We report experimental results for a micro-engineered silicon fiber laser hydrophone. The hydrophone has a flat pressure responsivity of 107 dB re Hz/Pa over a bandwidth exceeding 5 kHz, corresponding to ocean noise limited acoustic sensitivity. The first structural resonance of the hydrophone is 9 kHz in water and the acceleration rejection is in excess of 0 dB re ms$^{{-}2}$/Pa up to 5 kHz.

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  1. J. Bucaro, H. Dardy, E. Carome, "Fiber-optic hydrophone," J. Acoust. Soc. Amer. 62, 1302-1304 (1977).
  2. J. Cole, R. Johnson, P. Bhuta, "Fiber-optic detection of sound," J. Acoust. Soc. Amer. 62, 1136-1138 (1977).
  3. T. Giallorenzi, J. Bucaro, A. Dandridge, G. Sigel, JrJ. Cole, S. Rashleigh, R. Priest, "Optical fiber sensor technology," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 626-665 (1982).
  4. P. Nash, "Review of interferometric optical fibre hydrophone technology," IEE Proc. Radar, Sonar, Navig. 143, 204-209 (1996).
  5. C. Kirkendall, A. Dandridge, "Overview of high performance fibre-optic sensing," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 37, R197-R216 (2004).
  6. C. Kirkendall, J. Cole, A. Tveten, A. Dandridge, "Progress in fiber optic acoustic and seismic sensing," Proc. Opt. Fiber Sens. OSA Tech. Dig. (2006).
  7. K. H. Wanser, "Fundamental phase noise limit in optical fibres due to temperature fluctuations," Electron. Lett. 28, 53-54 (1992).
  8. K. Koo, A. Kersey, "Fibre laser sensor with ultrahigh strain resolution using interferometric interrogation," Electron. Lett. 31, 1180-1182 (1995).
  9. S. Foster, G. Cranch, A. Tikhomirov, "Experimental evidence for the thermal origin of $1/f$ frequency noise in erbium doped fiber lasers," Phys. Rev. A 79, 053802 (2009).
  10. G. Cranch, G. Flockhart, C. Kirkendall, "Distributed feedback fiber laser strain sensors," IEEE Sens. J. 8, 1161-1171 (2008).
  11. K. Koo, A. Kersey, "Bragg grating-based laser sensors systems with interferometric interrogation and wavelength division multiplexing," J. Lightw. Tech. 13, 1243-1249 (1995).
  12. S. Foster, A. Tikhomirov, M. Englund, H. Inglis, G. Edvell, M. Milnes, "A 16 channel fibre laser sensor array," Proc. Opt. Fiber Sens. OSA Tech. Dig. (2006).
  13. D. Hill, P. Nash, D. Jackson, D. Webb, S. 'Neill, I. Bennion, I. Zhang, "A fibre laser hydrophone array," Proc. SPIE (1999) pp. 55-66.
  14. D. Hill, P. Nash, "In-water acoustic response of a coated DFB fibre laser sensor," Proc. 14th Int. Conf. Opt. Fiber Sens. (2000) pp. 33-66.
  15. L. Hansen, F. Kullander, "Modelling of hydrophone based on a DFB fiber laser," Proc. XXI ICTAM (2004).
  16. F. Kullander, “Fiber laser technology for underwater sensors,” FOI-Swedish Defence Research Agency Report no. FOI-R-0726-SE (2002).
  17. W. Zhang, Y. Liu, F. Li, H. Xiao, "Fiber laser hydrophone based on double diaphragms: Theory and experiment," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 1349-1352 (2008).
  18. L. Ma, Y. Hu, H. Luo, Z. Hu, "DFB fiber laser hydrophone with flat frequency response and enhanced acoustic pressure sensitivity," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1280-1282 (2009).
  19. S. Foster, A. Tikhomirov, M. Milnes, J. van Vetzen, G. Hardy, "A fibre laser hydrophone," Proc. SPIE (2005) pp. 627-630.
  20. S. Goodman, A. Tikhomirov, S. Foster, "Pressure compensated distributed feedback fibre laser hydrophone," Proc. SPIE (2008).
  21. S. Goodman, S. Foster, J. van Velzen, H. Mendis, "Field demonstration of a DFB fibre laser hydrophone seabed array of jervis bay, Australia," Proc. SPIE (2009).
  22. S. Foster, A. Tikhomirov, "Experimental and theoretical characterization of the mode profile of single-mode DFB fiber lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 762-766 (2005).
  23. W. Weaver, Jr.S. P. Timoshenko, D. H. Young, Vibration Problems in Engineering (Wiley, 1990).
  24. L. Kinsler, A. Frey, A. Coppens, J. Senders, Fundamentals of Acoustics (Wiley, 1982).
  25. H. Levine, "On the radiation impedance of a rectangular piston," J. Sound Vib. 89, 447-445 (1983).
  26. Benthos Undersea Systems Technology (1994) RDA Hydrophone Data-sheet, Benthos Inc..
  27. D. Cato, "Ambient sea noise in Australian waters," 5th Int. Congress on Sound and Vibration AdelaideSA (1997).

2009 (2)

S. Foster, G. Cranch, A. Tikhomirov, "Experimental evidence for the thermal origin of $1/f$ frequency noise in erbium doped fiber lasers," Phys. Rev. A 79, 053802 (2009).

L. Ma, Y. Hu, H. Luo, Z. Hu, "DFB fiber laser hydrophone with flat frequency response and enhanced acoustic pressure sensitivity," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1280-1282 (2009).

2008 (2)

W. Zhang, Y. Liu, F. Li, H. Xiao, "Fiber laser hydrophone based on double diaphragms: Theory and experiment," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 1349-1352 (2008).

G. Cranch, G. Flockhart, C. Kirkendall, "Distributed feedback fiber laser strain sensors," IEEE Sens. J. 8, 1161-1171 (2008).

2005 (1)

S. Foster, A. Tikhomirov, "Experimental and theoretical characterization of the mode profile of single-mode DFB fiber lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 762-766 (2005).

2004 (1)

C. Kirkendall, A. Dandridge, "Overview of high performance fibre-optic sensing," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 37, R197-R216 (2004).

1996 (1)

P. Nash, "Review of interferometric optical fibre hydrophone technology," IEE Proc. Radar, Sonar, Navig. 143, 204-209 (1996).

1995 (2)

K. Koo, A. Kersey, "Bragg grating-based laser sensors systems with interferometric interrogation and wavelength division multiplexing," J. Lightw. Tech. 13, 1243-1249 (1995).

K. Koo, A. Kersey, "Fibre laser sensor with ultrahigh strain resolution using interferometric interrogation," Electron. Lett. 31, 1180-1182 (1995).

1992 (1)

K. H. Wanser, "Fundamental phase noise limit in optical fibres due to temperature fluctuations," Electron. Lett. 28, 53-54 (1992).

1983 (1)

H. Levine, "On the radiation impedance of a rectangular piston," J. Sound Vib. 89, 447-445 (1983).

1982 (1)

T. Giallorenzi, J. Bucaro, A. Dandridge, G. Sigel, JrJ. Cole, S. Rashleigh, R. Priest, "Optical fiber sensor technology," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 626-665 (1982).

1977 (2)

J. Bucaro, H. Dardy, E. Carome, "Fiber-optic hydrophone," J. Acoust. Soc. Amer. 62, 1302-1304 (1977).

J. Cole, R. Johnson, P. Bhuta, "Fiber-optic detection of sound," J. Acoust. Soc. Amer. 62, 1136-1138 (1977).

Electron. Lett. (2)

K. H. Wanser, "Fundamental phase noise limit in optical fibres due to temperature fluctuations," Electron. Lett. 28, 53-54 (1992).

K. Koo, A. Kersey, "Fibre laser sensor with ultrahigh strain resolution using interferometric interrogation," Electron. Lett. 31, 1180-1182 (1995).

IEE Proc. Radar, Sonar, Navig. (1)

P. Nash, "Review of interferometric optical fibre hydrophone technology," IEE Proc. Radar, Sonar, Navig. 143, 204-209 (1996).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

L. Ma, Y. Hu, H. Luo, Z. Hu, "DFB fiber laser hydrophone with flat frequency response and enhanced acoustic pressure sensitivity," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1280-1282 (2009).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

T. Giallorenzi, J. Bucaro, A. Dandridge, G. Sigel, JrJ. Cole, S. Rashleigh, R. Priest, "Optical fiber sensor technology," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 626-665 (1982).

S. Foster, A. Tikhomirov, "Experimental and theoretical characterization of the mode profile of single-mode DFB fiber lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 762-766 (2005).

IEEE Sens. J. (1)

G. Cranch, G. Flockhart, C. Kirkendall, "Distributed feedback fiber laser strain sensors," IEEE Sens. J. 8, 1161-1171 (2008).

J. Acoust. Soc. Amer. (2)

J. Bucaro, H. Dardy, E. Carome, "Fiber-optic hydrophone," J. Acoust. Soc. Amer. 62, 1302-1304 (1977).

J. Cole, R. Johnson, P. Bhuta, "Fiber-optic detection of sound," J. Acoust. Soc. Amer. 62, 1136-1138 (1977).

J. Lightw. Tech. (1)

K. Koo, A. Kersey, "Bragg grating-based laser sensors systems with interferometric interrogation and wavelength division multiplexing," J. Lightw. Tech. 13, 1243-1249 (1995).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

W. Zhang, Y. Liu, F. Li, H. Xiao, "Fiber laser hydrophone based on double diaphragms: Theory and experiment," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 1349-1352 (2008).

J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. (1)

C. Kirkendall, A. Dandridge, "Overview of high performance fibre-optic sensing," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 37, R197-R216 (2004).

J. Sound Vib. (1)

H. Levine, "On the radiation impedance of a rectangular piston," J. Sound Vib. 89, 447-445 (1983).

Phys. Rev. A (1)

S. Foster, G. Cranch, A. Tikhomirov, "Experimental evidence for the thermal origin of $1/f$ frequency noise in erbium doped fiber lasers," Phys. Rev. A 79, 053802 (2009).

Other (13)

S. Foster, A. Tikhomirov, M. Milnes, J. van Vetzen, G. Hardy, "A fibre laser hydrophone," Proc. SPIE (2005) pp. 627-630.

S. Goodman, A. Tikhomirov, S. Foster, "Pressure compensated distributed feedback fibre laser hydrophone," Proc. SPIE (2008).

S. Goodman, S. Foster, J. van Velzen, H. Mendis, "Field demonstration of a DFB fibre laser hydrophone seabed array of jervis bay, Australia," Proc. SPIE (2009).

C. Kirkendall, J. Cole, A. Tveten, A. Dandridge, "Progress in fiber optic acoustic and seismic sensing," Proc. Opt. Fiber Sens. OSA Tech. Dig. (2006).

S. Foster, A. Tikhomirov, M. Englund, H. Inglis, G. Edvell, M. Milnes, "A 16 channel fibre laser sensor array," Proc. Opt. Fiber Sens. OSA Tech. Dig. (2006).

D. Hill, P. Nash, D. Jackson, D. Webb, S. 'Neill, I. Bennion, I. Zhang, "A fibre laser hydrophone array," Proc. SPIE (1999) pp. 55-66.

D. Hill, P. Nash, "In-water acoustic response of a coated DFB fibre laser sensor," Proc. 14th Int. Conf. Opt. Fiber Sens. (2000) pp. 33-66.

L. Hansen, F. Kullander, "Modelling of hydrophone based on a DFB fiber laser," Proc. XXI ICTAM (2004).

F. Kullander, “Fiber laser technology for underwater sensors,” FOI-Swedish Defence Research Agency Report no. FOI-R-0726-SE (2002).

Benthos Undersea Systems Technology (1994) RDA Hydrophone Data-sheet, Benthos Inc..

D. Cato, "Ambient sea noise in Australian waters," 5th Int. Congress on Sound and Vibration AdelaideSA (1997).

W. Weaver, Jr.S. P. Timoshenko, D. H. Young, Vibration Problems in Engineering (Wiley, 1990).

L. Kinsler, A. Frey, A. Coppens, J. Senders, Fundamentals of Acoustics (Wiley, 1982).

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