Abstract

In this paper, the hybrid coupling between long-range surface plasmon polariton (LRSPP) waveguide mode and dielectric waveguide mode has been studied theoretically and experimentally in detail by considering its dependence on the structure parameters and wavelength. It is demonstrated that extremely high coupling efficiency $({ > } 99\hbox{\%})$ has been achieved for TM polarization, while no coupling could happen for TE polarization between these two kinds of waveguides. Based on this hybrid coupler, a polarization splitter with pure TM-mode output from one arm and TE-mode output from the other arm with high TE/TM extinction ratio has been realized. Additionally, this kind of coupling between different waveguides is very significant for providing an effective approach to connect the LRSPP-based devices with the conventional dielectric devices.

© 2011 IEEE

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |

  1. H. Raether, Surface Plasmons (Springer-Verlag, 1988).
  2. A. V. Zayats, I. I. Smolyaninov, A. A. Maradudin, "Nano-optics of surface plasmon polaritons," Phys. Rep. 408, 131-314 (2005).
  3. W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon subwavelength optics," Nature 424, 824-830 (2003).
  4. E. Ozbay, "Plasmonics: Merging photonics and electronics at nanoscale dimensions," Science 311, 189-193 (2006).
  5. S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, T. W. Ebbesen, "Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators," Nature 440, 508-511 (2006).
  6. X. Guo, M. Qiu, J. Bao, B. J. Wiley, Q. Yang, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, H. Yu, L. Tong, "Direct coupling of plasmonic and photonic nanowires for hybrid nanophotonic components and circuits," Nano. Lett. 9, 4515-4519 (2009).
  7. Z. Li, F. Hao, Y. Huang, Y. Fang, P. Nordlander, H. Xu, "Directional light emission from propagating surface plasmons of silver nanowires," Nano. Lett. 9, 4383-4386 (2009).
  8. Y. Fang, Z. Li, Y. Huang, S. Zhang, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, H. Xu, "Branched silver nanowires as controllable plasmon routers," Nano. Lett. 10, 1950-1954 (2010).
  9. X. D. Hoa, A. G. Kirk, M. Tabrizian, "Towards integrated and sensitive surface plasmon resonance biosensors: A review of recent progress," Biosens. Bioelectron. 23, 151-160 (2007).
  10. P. Berini, "Bulk and surface sensitivities of surface plasmon waveguides," New J. Phys. 10, 105010-1-105010-37 (2008).
  11. N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, X. Zhang, "Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens," Science 308, 534-537 (2005).
  12. X. Luo, T. Ishihara, "Surface plasmon resonant interference nanolithography technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4780-4782 (2004).
  13. P. Berini, "Long-range surface plasmon polaritons," Adv. Opt. Photon 1, 484-588 (2009).
  14. P. Berini, "Plasmon-polariton waves guided by thin lossy metal films of finite width: Bound modes of symmetric structures," Phys. Rev. B 61, 10484-10503 (2000).
  15. R. Charbonneau, P. Berini, E. Berolo, E. Lisicka, "Experimental observation of plasmon-polariton waves supported by a thin metal film of finite width," Opt. Lett. 25, 844-846 (2000).
  16. T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, I. Salakhutdinov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Polymer-based surface-plasmon-polariton stripe waveguides at telecommunication wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 668-670 (2003).
  17. R. Charbonneau, C. Scales, I. Breukelaar, S. Fafard, N. Lahoud, G. Mattiussi, P. Berini, "Passive integrated optics elements based on long-range surface plasmon polaritons," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 477-494 (2006).
  18. A. Boltasseva, T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, K. Kjaer, M. S. Larsen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Integrated optical components utilizing long-range surface plasmon polaritons," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 413-422 (2005).
  19. T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Surface plasmon polariton based modulators and switches operating at telecom wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5833-5835 (2004).
  20. R. Slavík, J. Homola, "Ultrahigh resolution long range surface plasmon-based sensor," Sens. Actuators B 123, 10-12 (2006).
  21. F. Liu, Y. Rao, Y. Huang, W. Zhang, J. Peng, "Coupling between long range surface plasmon polariton mode and dielectric waveguide mode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 141101-1-141101-3 (2007).
  22. F. Liu, Y. Rao, X. Tang, R. Wan, Y. Huang, W. Zhang, J. Peng, "Hybrid three-arm coupler with long range surface plasmon polariton and dielectric waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 241120-1-241120-3 (2007).
  23. F. Liu, R. Wan, Y. Rao, Y. Zheng, Y. Huang, W. Zhang, J. Peng, "Hybrid three-arm coupler consisted of long range surface plasmon polariton and dielectric waveguides," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 3872-3882 (2008).
  24. F. Liu, R. Wan, Y. Huang, J. Peng, "Refractive index dependence of the coupling characteristics between long range surface plasmon polariton and dielectric waveguide mode," Opt. Lett. 34, 2697-2699 (2009).
  25. R. Wan, F. Liu, X. Tang, Y. Huang, J. Peng, "Vertical coupling between short range surface plasmon polariton mode and dielectric waveguide mode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 141104-1-141104-3 (2009).
  26. R. Wan, F. Liu, Y. Huang, "Ultra-thin layer sensing based on hybrid coupler with short range surface plasmon polariton and dielectric waveguide," Opt. Lett. 35, 244-246 (2010).
  27. A. Degiron, S. Y. Cho, T. Tyler, N. M. Jokerst, D. R. Smith, "Directional coupling between dielectric and long-range plasmon waveguides," New J. Phys. 11, 015002-015011 (2009).
  28. S. Y. Park, J. T. Kim, J. S. Shin, S. Y. Shin, "Hybrid vertical directional coupling between a long range surface plasmon polariton waveguide and a dielectric waveguide," Opt. Commun. 282, 4513-4517 (2009).
  29. F. Liu, R. Wan, Y. Li, Y. Huang, Y. Miura, D. Ohnishi, J. Peng, "Extremely high efficient coupling between long range surface plasmon polariton and dielectric waveguide mode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 091104-1-091104-3 (2009).
  30. I. Breukelaar, R. Charbonneau, P. Berini, "Long-range surface plasmon-polariton mode cutoff and radiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 051119-1-051119-3 (2006).
  31. E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, 1985) pp. 286-297.
  32. FEMLAB Electromagnetics Module Manual Ottawa-Carleton Inst. Elect. Comput. Eng., Sweden (2003) 3.0 ed. COMSOL AB.
  33. I. G. Breukelaar, Surface plasmon-polaritons in thin metal strips and slabs: Waveguiding and mode cutoff Master Thesis Ottawa Univ. (2004) Chapter 4, p. 76.
  34. Q. Li, M. Qiu, "Structurally-tolerant vertical directional coupling between metal-insulator-metal plasmonic waveguide and silicon dielectric waveguide," Opt. Exp. 18, 15531-15543 (2010).
  35. K. Okamoto, Fundamentals of Optical Waveguides (Academic, 2000).
  36. W. P. Huang, "Coupled-mode theory for optical waveguides: An overview," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 11, 963-983 (1994).
  37. The $\beta_{\rm SRSPPr}$ is far away from $\beta_{\rm SiN}$, which leads to no influence when considering the coupling between LRSPP mode and SiN waveguide mode in this paper.

2010 (3)

Y. Fang, Z. Li, Y. Huang, S. Zhang, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, H. Xu, "Branched silver nanowires as controllable plasmon routers," Nano. Lett. 10, 1950-1954 (2010).

R. Wan, F. Liu, Y. Huang, "Ultra-thin layer sensing based on hybrid coupler with short range surface plasmon polariton and dielectric waveguide," Opt. Lett. 35, 244-246 (2010).

Q. Li, M. Qiu, "Structurally-tolerant vertical directional coupling between metal-insulator-metal plasmonic waveguide and silicon dielectric waveguide," Opt. Exp. 18, 15531-15543 (2010).

2009 (8)

A. Degiron, S. Y. Cho, T. Tyler, N. M. Jokerst, D. R. Smith, "Directional coupling between dielectric and long-range plasmon waveguides," New J. Phys. 11, 015002-015011 (2009).

S. Y. Park, J. T. Kim, J. S. Shin, S. Y. Shin, "Hybrid vertical directional coupling between a long range surface plasmon polariton waveguide and a dielectric waveguide," Opt. Commun. 282, 4513-4517 (2009).

F. Liu, R. Wan, Y. Li, Y. Huang, Y. Miura, D. Ohnishi, J. Peng, "Extremely high efficient coupling between long range surface plasmon polariton and dielectric waveguide mode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 091104-1-091104-3 (2009).

F. Liu, R. Wan, Y. Huang, J. Peng, "Refractive index dependence of the coupling characteristics between long range surface plasmon polariton and dielectric waveguide mode," Opt. Lett. 34, 2697-2699 (2009).

R. Wan, F. Liu, X. Tang, Y. Huang, J. Peng, "Vertical coupling between short range surface plasmon polariton mode and dielectric waveguide mode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 141104-1-141104-3 (2009).

X. Guo, M. Qiu, J. Bao, B. J. Wiley, Q. Yang, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, H. Yu, L. Tong, "Direct coupling of plasmonic and photonic nanowires for hybrid nanophotonic components and circuits," Nano. Lett. 9, 4515-4519 (2009).

Z. Li, F. Hao, Y. Huang, Y. Fang, P. Nordlander, H. Xu, "Directional light emission from propagating surface plasmons of silver nanowires," Nano. Lett. 9, 4383-4386 (2009).

P. Berini, "Long-range surface plasmon polaritons," Adv. Opt. Photon 1, 484-588 (2009).

2008 (2)

P. Berini, "Bulk and surface sensitivities of surface plasmon waveguides," New J. Phys. 10, 105010-1-105010-37 (2008).

F. Liu, R. Wan, Y. Rao, Y. Zheng, Y. Huang, W. Zhang, J. Peng, "Hybrid three-arm coupler consisted of long range surface plasmon polariton and dielectric waveguides," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 3872-3882 (2008).

2007 (3)

F. Liu, Y. Rao, Y. Huang, W. Zhang, J. Peng, "Coupling between long range surface plasmon polariton mode and dielectric waveguide mode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 141101-1-141101-3 (2007).

F. Liu, Y. Rao, X. Tang, R. Wan, Y. Huang, W. Zhang, J. Peng, "Hybrid three-arm coupler with long range surface plasmon polariton and dielectric waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 241120-1-241120-3 (2007).

X. D. Hoa, A. G. Kirk, M. Tabrizian, "Towards integrated and sensitive surface plasmon resonance biosensors: A review of recent progress," Biosens. Bioelectron. 23, 151-160 (2007).

2006 (5)

E. Ozbay, "Plasmonics: Merging photonics and electronics at nanoscale dimensions," Science 311, 189-193 (2006).

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, T. W. Ebbesen, "Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators," Nature 440, 508-511 (2006).

R. Charbonneau, C. Scales, I. Breukelaar, S. Fafard, N. Lahoud, G. Mattiussi, P. Berini, "Passive integrated optics elements based on long-range surface plasmon polaritons," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 477-494 (2006).

R. Slavík, J. Homola, "Ultrahigh resolution long range surface plasmon-based sensor," Sens. Actuators B 123, 10-12 (2006).

I. Breukelaar, R. Charbonneau, P. Berini, "Long-range surface plasmon-polariton mode cutoff and radiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 051119-1-051119-3 (2006).

2005 (3)

A. Boltasseva, T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, K. Kjaer, M. S. Larsen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Integrated optical components utilizing long-range surface plasmon polaritons," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 413-422 (2005).

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, X. Zhang, "Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens," Science 308, 534-537 (2005).

A. V. Zayats, I. I. Smolyaninov, A. A. Maradudin, "Nano-optics of surface plasmon polaritons," Phys. Rep. 408, 131-314 (2005).

2004 (2)

X. Luo, T. Ishihara, "Surface plasmon resonant interference nanolithography technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4780-4782 (2004).

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Surface plasmon polariton based modulators and switches operating at telecom wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5833-5835 (2004).

2003 (2)

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, I. Salakhutdinov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Polymer-based surface-plasmon-polariton stripe waveguides at telecommunication wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 668-670 (2003).

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon subwavelength optics," Nature 424, 824-830 (2003).

2000 (2)

P. Berini, "Plasmon-polariton waves guided by thin lossy metal films of finite width: Bound modes of symmetric structures," Phys. Rev. B 61, 10484-10503 (2000).

R. Charbonneau, P. Berini, E. Berolo, E. Lisicka, "Experimental observation of plasmon-polariton waves supported by a thin metal film of finite width," Opt. Lett. 25, 844-846 (2000).

1994 (1)

W. P. Huang, "Coupled-mode theory for optical waveguides: An overview," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 11, 963-983 (1994).

Adv. Opt. Photon (1)

P. Berini, "Long-range surface plasmon polaritons," Adv. Opt. Photon 1, 484-588 (2009).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, I. Salakhutdinov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Polymer-based surface-plasmon-polariton stripe waveguides at telecommunication wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 668-670 (2003).

F. Liu, Y. Rao, X. Tang, R. Wan, Y. Huang, W. Zhang, J. Peng, "Hybrid three-arm coupler with long range surface plasmon polariton and dielectric waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 241120-1-241120-3 (2007).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

F. Liu, R. Wan, Y. Li, Y. Huang, Y. Miura, D. Ohnishi, J. Peng, "Extremely high efficient coupling between long range surface plasmon polariton and dielectric waveguide mode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 091104-1-091104-3 (2009).

I. Breukelaar, R. Charbonneau, P. Berini, "Long-range surface plasmon-polariton mode cutoff and radiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 051119-1-051119-3 (2006).

R. Wan, F. Liu, X. Tang, Y. Huang, J. Peng, "Vertical coupling between short range surface plasmon polariton mode and dielectric waveguide mode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 141104-1-141104-3 (2009).

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Surface plasmon polariton based modulators and switches operating at telecom wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5833-5835 (2004).

X. Luo, T. Ishihara, "Surface plasmon resonant interference nanolithography technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4780-4782 (2004).

F. Liu, Y. Rao, Y. Huang, W. Zhang, J. Peng, "Coupling between long range surface plasmon polariton mode and dielectric waveguide mode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 141101-1-141101-3 (2007).

Biosens. Bioelectron. (1)

X. D. Hoa, A. G. Kirk, M. Tabrizian, "Towards integrated and sensitive surface plasmon resonance biosensors: A review of recent progress," Biosens. Bioelectron. 23, 151-160 (2007).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

R. Charbonneau, C. Scales, I. Breukelaar, S. Fafard, N. Lahoud, G. Mattiussi, P. Berini, "Passive integrated optics elements based on long-range surface plasmon polaritons," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 477-494 (2006).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

A. Boltasseva, T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, K. Kjaer, M. S. Larsen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Integrated optical components utilizing long-range surface plasmon polaritons," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 413-422 (2005).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

F. Liu, R. Wan, Y. Rao, Y. Zheng, Y. Huang, W. Zhang, J. Peng, "Hybrid three-arm coupler consisted of long range surface plasmon polariton and dielectric waveguides," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 3872-3882 (2008).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A (1)

W. P. Huang, "Coupled-mode theory for optical waveguides: An overview," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 11, 963-983 (1994).

Nano. Lett. (2)

X. Guo, M. Qiu, J. Bao, B. J. Wiley, Q. Yang, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, H. Yu, L. Tong, "Direct coupling of plasmonic and photonic nanowires for hybrid nanophotonic components and circuits," Nano. Lett. 9, 4515-4519 (2009).

Z. Li, F. Hao, Y. Huang, Y. Fang, P. Nordlander, H. Xu, "Directional light emission from propagating surface plasmons of silver nanowires," Nano. Lett. 9, 4383-4386 (2009).

Nano. Lett. (1)

Y. Fang, Z. Li, Y. Huang, S. Zhang, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, H. Xu, "Branched silver nanowires as controllable plasmon routers," Nano. Lett. 10, 1950-1954 (2010).

Nature (2)

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon subwavelength optics," Nature 424, 824-830 (2003).

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, T. W. Ebbesen, "Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators," Nature 440, 508-511 (2006).

New J. Phys. (2)

P. Berini, "Bulk and surface sensitivities of surface plasmon waveguides," New J. Phys. 10, 105010-1-105010-37 (2008).

A. Degiron, S. Y. Cho, T. Tyler, N. M. Jokerst, D. R. Smith, "Directional coupling between dielectric and long-range plasmon waveguides," New J. Phys. 11, 015002-015011 (2009).

Opt. Commun. (1)

S. Y. Park, J. T. Kim, J. S. Shin, S. Y. Shin, "Hybrid vertical directional coupling between a long range surface plasmon polariton waveguide and a dielectric waveguide," Opt. Commun. 282, 4513-4517 (2009).

Opt. Exp. (1)

Q. Li, M. Qiu, "Structurally-tolerant vertical directional coupling between metal-insulator-metal plasmonic waveguide and silicon dielectric waveguide," Opt. Exp. 18, 15531-15543 (2010).

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rep. (1)

A. V. Zayats, I. I. Smolyaninov, A. A. Maradudin, "Nano-optics of surface plasmon polaritons," Phys. Rep. 408, 131-314 (2005).

Phys. Rev. B (1)

P. Berini, "Plasmon-polariton waves guided by thin lossy metal films of finite width: Bound modes of symmetric structures," Phys. Rev. B 61, 10484-10503 (2000).

Science (2)

E. Ozbay, "Plasmonics: Merging photonics and electronics at nanoscale dimensions," Science 311, 189-193 (2006).

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, X. Zhang, "Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens," Science 308, 534-537 (2005).

Sens. Actuators B (1)

R. Slavík, J. Homola, "Ultrahigh resolution long range surface plasmon-based sensor," Sens. Actuators B 123, 10-12 (2006).

Other (6)

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons (Springer-Verlag, 1988).

K. Okamoto, Fundamentals of Optical Waveguides (Academic, 2000).

The $\beta_{\rm SRSPPr}$ is far away from $\beta_{\rm SiN}$, which leads to no influence when considering the coupling between LRSPP mode and SiN waveguide mode in this paper.

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, 1985) pp. 286-297.

FEMLAB Electromagnetics Module Manual Ottawa-Carleton Inst. Elect. Comput. Eng., Sweden (2003) 3.0 ed. COMSOL AB.

I. G. Breukelaar, Surface plasmon-polaritons in thin metal strips and slabs: Waveguiding and mode cutoff Master Thesis Ottawa Univ. (2004) Chapter 4, p. 76.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.