Abstract

A paper on long-haul analog photonics is presented using theory and experimental results. Various analog fiber-optic modulation formats are reviewed, including intensity modulation with direct detection, phase modulation with interferometric demodulation, and suppressed–carried techniques. Modulation linearization methods are reviewed. The limitations of and requirements for photodiode detectors are described.

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2010 ()

U. Gliese, K. C. Colladay, A. H. Hastings, D. A. Tulchinsky, V. J. Urick, K. J. Williams, "Radio-frequency power conversion efficiency of photodiodes driven with Mach–Zehnder modulators ," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 58, 3359-3371 (2010 ).

2009 (8)

C. S. McDermitt, W. M. Dorsey, M. E. Godinez, F. Bucholtz, M. G. Parent, "Performance of a 16-channel, photonic, phased array antenna calibration system," Electron. Lett. 45, 1249-1250 (2009).

J. Yao, "Microwave photonics," J. Lightw. Technol. 27 , 314-335 (2009).

V. J. Urick, P. S. Devgan, J. D. McKinney, F. Bucholtz, K. J. Williams, "Channelization of radio-frequency signals using an optoelectronic oscillator," Electron. Lett. 45, 1242-1244 (2009).

V. J. Urick, M. E. Godinez, P. S. Devgan, J. D. McKinney, F. Bucholtz, "Analysis of an analog fiber-optic link employing a low-biased Mach–Zehnder modulator followed by an erbium-doped fiber amplifier," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 2013-2019 (2009).

P. S. Devgan, J. F. Diehl, V. J. Urick, C. S. Sunderman, K. J. Williams, "Even-order harmonic cancellation for off-quadrature biased Mach–Zehnder modulator with improved RF metrics using dual-wavelength inputs and dual outputs," Opt. Exp. 17, 9028-9039 (2009).

J. D. McKinney, K. J. Williams, "Sampled analog optical links," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 57, 2093-2099 (2009).

J. M. Wyrwas, M. C. Wu, "Dynamic range of frequency modulated direct-detection analog fiber optic links," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 5552-5562 (2009).

J. D. McKinney, K. Colladay, K. J. Williams, "Linearization of phase-modulated analog optical links employing interferometric demodulation," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 1212-1220 (2009).

2008 (11)

A. Joshi, S. Datta, D. Becker, "GRIN lens coupled top-illuminated highly linear InGaAs photodiodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1500-1502 (2008).

P. F. Driessen, T. E. Darcie, J. Zhang, "Analysis of a class-B microwave-photonic link using optical frequency modulation," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 2740-2747 (2008).

S. R. O'Connor, T. R. Clark, Jr.D. Novak, "Wideband adaptive feedforward photonic link," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 2810-2816 (2008).

B. M. Haas, V. J. Urick, J. D. McKinney, T. E. Murphy, "Dual-wavelength linearization of optically phase-modulated analog microwave signals," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 2748-2753 (2008).

J. Zhang, A. N. Hone, T. E. Darcie, "Phase-modulated microwave-photonic link with optical-phase-locked-loop enhanced interferometric phase detection," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 2549-2556 (2008).

A. Ramaswamy, L. A. Johansson, J. Klamkin, H.-F. Chou, C. Sheldon, M. J. Rodwell, L. A. Coldren, J. E. Bowers, "Integrated coherent receivers for high-linearity microwave photonic links," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 209 -216 (2008).

A. Hastings, V. J. Urick, C. Sunderman, J. F. Diehl, J. D. McKinney, D. Tulchinsky, P. S. Devgan, K. J. Williams, "Suppression of even-order photodiode nonlinearities in multi-octave photonic links," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 2557-2562 (2008).

B. S. Marks, C. R. Menyuk, A. L. Campillo, F. Bucholtz, "Interchannel crosstalk reduction in an analog fiber link using dispersion management," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 267-269 (2008).

J. D. McKinney, D. Peroulis, A. M. Weiner, "Dispersion limitations of ultra-wideband wireless links and their compensation via photonically-enabled arbitrary waveform generation," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 56, 710-719 (2008).

M. E. Godinez, C. S. McDermitt, A. S. Hastings, M. G. Parent, F. Bucholtz, "RF characterization of zero-biased photodiodes," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 3829-3834 (2008).

E. I. Ackerman, W. K. Burns, G. E. Betts, J. X. Chen, J. L. Prince, M. D. Regan, H. V. Roussell, C. H. Cox, III, "RF-over-fiber links with very low noise figure," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 2441-2448 (2008).

2007 (8)

P. S. Devgan, V. J. Urick, J. D. McKinney, K. J. Williams, "Cascaded noise penalty for amplified long-haul analog fiber-optic links," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 55, 1973-1977 (2007).

J. Capmany, D. Novak, "Microwave photonics combines two worlds," Nature Photon. 1, 319-330 (2007).

V. J. Urick, F. Bucholtz, P. S. Devgan, J. D. McKinney, K. J. Williams, "Phase modulation with interferometric detection as an alternative to intensity modulation with direct detection for analog-photonic links," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 55, 1978-1985 (2007).

T. Ismail, C. Liu, J. E. Mitchell, A. J. Seeds, "High-dynamic-range wireless-over-fiber link using feedforward linearization," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 3274-3282 (2007).

T. E. Darcie, Z. Jinye, P. F. Driessen, E. Jae-Jeong, "Class-B microwave-photonic link using optical frequency modulation and linear frequency discriminators," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 157-164 (2007).

A. Karim, J. Devenport, "Noise figure reduction in externally modulated analog fiber-optic links," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 312-314 (2007).

M. M. Sisto, S. LaRochelle, L. A. Rusch, P. Giaccari, "Erbium amplifier dynamics in wireless analog optical links with modulator bias optimization," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 408-410 (2007).

C. Lim, A. Nirmalathas, K. Lee, D. Novak, R. Waterhouse, "Intermodulation distortion improvement for fiber-radio applications incorporating OSSB ${+}$C modulation in an optical integrated-access environment," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 1602-1612 (2007).

2006 (21)

M. M. Sisto, S. LaRochelle, L. A. Rusch, "Carrier-to-noise ratio optimization by modulator bias control in radio-over-fiber links," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1840-1842 (2006).

X. J. Meng, A. Karim, "Microwave photonic link with carrier suppression for increased dynamic range," Fiber Integr. Opt. 25, 161-174 (2006).

T. E. Darcie, P. F. Driessen, "Class-AB techniques for high-dynamic-range microwave-photonic links," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 929-931 (2006).

A. L. Campillo, F. Bucholtz, "Chromatic dispersion effects in analog polarization-modulated links," Appl. Opt. 45, 2742-2748 (2006).

V. J. Urick, M. S. Rogge, P. F. Knapp, L. Swingen, F. Bucholtz, "Wideband predistortion linearization for externally-modulated long-haul analog fiber optic-links," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 54, 1458-1463 (2006).

M. Karlsson, H. Sunnerud, "Effects of nonlinearities on PMD-induced system impairments," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4127-4137 (2006).

C. R. Menyuk, B. S. Marks, "Interaction of polarization mode dispersion and nonlinearity in optical fiber transmission systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 2806-2826 (2006).

M. Brodsky, N. J. Frigo, M. Boroditsky, M. Tur, "Polarization mode dispersion of installed fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4584-4599 (2006).

A. L. Campillo, "Interchannel nonlinear crosstalk in analog polarization modulated WDM systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 1186-1193 (2006).

B. S. Marks, C. R. Menyuk, A. L. Campillo, F. Bucholtz, "Analysis of interchannel crosstalk in a dispersion-managed analog transmission link," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 2305-2310 (2006).

V. J. Urick, M. S. Rogge, F. Bucholtz, K. J. Williams, "Wideband (0.045-6.25 GHz) 40-km analog fiber-optic link with ultrahigh (${ > }40$ dB) all-photonic gain," Electron. Lett. 42, 71-72 (2006).

C. H. Cox, III, E. I. Ackerman, G. E. Betts, J. L. Prince, "Limits on the performance of RF-over-fiber links and their impact on device design," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 54, 906-920 (2006).

A. J. Seeds, K. J. Williams, "Microwave photonics," J. Lightw. Technol. 24 , 4628-4641 (2006).

R. A. Minasian, "Photonic signal processing of microwave signals," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 54, 832-846 (2006).

J. Capmany, B. Ortega, D. Pastor, "A tutorial on microwave photonic filters," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 201-229 (2006).

J. D. McKinney, A. M. Weiner, "Compensation of the effects of antenna dispersion on UWB waveforms via optical pulse shaping techniques," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 54, 1681-1686 (2006).

V. J. Urick, F. Bucholtz, K. J. Williams, "Noise penalty of highly-saturated erbium-doped fiber amplifiers in analog links," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 749-751 (2006).

V. J. Urick, F. Bucholtz, K. J. Williams, "Correction to ‘noise penalty of highly-saturated erbium-doped fiber amplifiers in analog links’," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1475 (2006).

V. J. Urick, M. S. Rogge, F. Bucholtz, K. J. Williams, "The performance of analog photonic links employing highly-compressed erbium-doped fiber amplifiers ," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 54, 3141-3145 (2006).

A. Kobyakov, S. Darmanyan, M. Sauer, D. Chowdhury, "High-gain Brillouin amplification: An analytical approach," Opt. Lett. 31, 1960-1962 (2006).

C. Lim, M. Attygalle, A. Nirmalathas, D. Novak, R. Waterhouse, "Analysis of optical carrier-to-sideband ratio for improving transmission performance in fiber-radio links," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 54, 2181-2187 (2006).

2005 (9)

V. J. Urick, F. Bucholtz, "Compensation of arbitrary chromatic dispersion in analogs links using a modulation-diversity receiver," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 893-895 (2005).

M. C. Boggio, J. D. Marconi, H. L. Fragnito, "Experimental and numerical investigation of the SBS-threshold increase in an optical fiber by applying strain distributions," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 3808-3814 (2005).

A. B. Ruffin, M.-J. Li, X. Chen, A. Kobyakov, F. Annunziata, "Brillouin gain analysis for fibers with different refractive indicies," Opt. Lett. 30, 3123-3125 (2005).

I. Lin, J. D. McKinney, A. M. Weiner, "Photonic synthesis of broadband microwave arbitrary waveforms applicable to ultra-wideband communication," IEEE Microw. Wireless Compon. Lett. 15, 226-228 (2005).

W. Zhou, G. Blasche, "Injection-locked dual optoelectronic oscillator with ultra-low phase noise and ultra-low spurious level," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 53, 929-933 (2005).

G. C. Tavik, C. L. Hilterbrick, J. B. Evins, J. J. Alter, J. G. Crnkovich, Jr.J. W. de Graaf, W. Habicht II, G. P. Hrin, S. A. Lessin, D. C. Wu, S. M. Hagewood, "The advanced multifunction RF concept," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 53, 1009-1020 (2005).

J. Capmany, B. Ortega, D. Pastor, S. Sales, "Discrete-time optical processing of microwave signals," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 702-723 (2005).

S. Montebugnoli, M. Boschi, F. Perini, P. Faccin, G. Brunori, E. Pirazzini, "Large antenna array remoting using radio-over-fiber techniques for radio astronomical application ," Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 46, 48-54 (2005).

A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, "Optical phase-shift-keyed transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 115-130 (2005).

2004 (5)

D. A. Tulchinsky, X. Li, N. Li, S. Demiguel, J. C. Campbell, K. J. Williams, "High-saturation current wide-bandwidth photodetectors," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 702-708 (2004).

T. H. Stievater, K. J. Williams, "Thermally induced nonlinearities in high-speed p-i-n photodetectors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 239-241 (2004).

A. L. Campillo, E. E. Funk, D. A. Tulchinsky, J. L. Dexter, K. J. Williams, "Phase performance of an eight-channel wavelength-division-multiplexed analog-delay line ," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 440-447 (2004).

J. Bromage, "Raman amplification for fiber communications systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 79-93 (2004).

V. J. Urick, J. X. Qiu, F. Bucholtz, C. McDermitt, K. J. Williams, "4 Gbit/s transmission over a single-channel Raman-amplified 105 km link," Electron. Lett. 40, 495-496 (2004).

2003 (4)

J. D. McKinney, D. S. Seo, A. M. Weiner, "Photonically assisted generation of continuous arbitrary millimetre electromagnetic waveforms," Electron. Lett. 39, 309-311 (2003).

J. Chou, Y. Han, B. Jalali, "Adaptive RF-photonic arbitrary waveform generator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 581-583 (2003).

G. A. Cranch, A. Dandridge, C. K. Kirkendall, "Suppression of double Rayleigh scattering-induced excess noise in remotely interrogated fiber-optic interferometric sensors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1582-1584 (2003).

C. Xie, L. F. Mollenauer, "Performance degradation induced by polarization-dependent loss in optical fiber transmission systems with and without polarization-mode dispersion," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 1953-1957 (2003).

2002 (7)

H. Kim, A. H. Gnauck, "Chirp characteristics of dual-drive Mach–Zehnder modulator with a finite DC extinction ratio," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 298-300 (2002).

J. D. McKinney, D. E. Leaird, A. M. Weiner, "Millimeter-wave arbitrary waveform generation with a direct space-to-time pulse shaper," Opt. Lett. 27, 1345-1347 (2002).

A. J. Seeds, "Microwave photonics," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 50, 877-887 (2002).

L. H. Slooff, A. van Blaaderen, A. Polman, G. A. Hebbink, S. I. Klink, F. C. J. M. Van Veggel, D. N. Reinhoudt, J. W. Hofstraat, "Rare-earth doped polymers for planar optical amplifiers," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 3955-3980 (2002).

A. J. Kenyon, "Recent developments in rare-earth doped materials for optoelectronics," Progr. Quantum Electron. 26, 225-284 (2002).

H. Lu, "Performance comparison between DCF and RDF dispersion compensation in fiber optical CATV systems," IEEE Trans. Broadcast. 48, 370-373 (2002).

Z. Pan, Y. W. Song, C. Yu, Y. Wang, Q. Yu, J. Popelek, H. Li, A. E. Willner, "Tunable chromatic dispersion compensation in 40-Gb/s systems using nonlinearly chirped fiber Bragg gratings," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 2239-2246 (2002).

2001 (5)

J. L. Corral, J. Marti, J. M. Fuster, "General expressions for IM/DD dispersive analog optical links with external modulation or optical up-conversion in a Mach–Zehnder electrooptical modulator," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 49, 1968-1976 (2001).

J. Hansryd, F. Dross, M. Westlund, P. A. Andrekson, S. N. Knudsen, "Increase of the SBS threshold in a short highly nonlinear fiber by applying a temperature distribution," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 1691-1697 (2001).

A. Loayssa, D. Benito, M. J. Garde, "Single-sideband suppressed-carrier modulation using a single-electrode electrooptic modulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 869-871 (2001).

C. R. S. Fludger, R. J. Mears, "Electrical measurements of multipath interference in distributed Raman amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 536-545 (2001).

M. T. Abuelma'Atti, "Large signal analysis of the Mach–Zehnder modulator with variable bias," Proc. Natl. Sci. Counc. ROC(A) 25, 254-258 (2001).

2000 (3)

H. Jiang, D. S. Shin, G. L. Li, T. A. Vang, D. C. Scott, P. K. L. Yu, "The frequency behavior of the third-order intercept point in a waveguide photodiode," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 540-542 (2000).

W. K. Marshall, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, "Laser phase noise to intensity noise conversion by lowest-order group-velocity dispersion in optical fiber: Exact theory," Opt. Lett. 25, 165-167 (2000).

S. D. White, "Implementation of a photonic automatic gain control system for correcting gain variations in the green bank telescope fiber optic system," Rev. Sci. Instr. 71 , 3196-3199 (2000).

1999 (10)

S. G. Park, A. M. Weiner, M. R. Melloch, C. W. Siders, J. L. W. Siders, A. J. Taylor, "High-power narrowband terahertz generation using large-aperture photoconductors," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1257-1268 (1999).

M. Sieben, J. Conradi, D. E. Dodds, "Optical single sideband transmission at 10 Gb/s using only electrical dispersion compensation," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 1742-1749 (1999).

S. Shen, A. M. Weiner, "Complete dispersion compensation for 400-fs pulse transmission over 10-km fiber link using dispersion compensating fiber and spectral phase equalizer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 827-829 (1999).

K. J. Williams, R. D. Esman, "Design considerations for high-current photodetectors," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 1443-1454 (1999).

R. Taylor, S. Forrest, "Optically coherent direct modulated FM analog link with phase noise canceling circuit ," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 556-562 (1999).

A. C. Lindsay, "An analysis of coherent carrier suppression techniques for microwave photonic links," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47, 1194-1200 (1999).

E. I. Ackerman, "Broad-band linearization of a Mach–Zehnder electrooptic modulator," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47, 2271 -2279 (1999).

M. R. Phillips, D. M. Ott, "Crosstalk due to optical fiber nonlinearities in WDM CATV lightwave systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 1782-1792 (1999).

G. J. Foschini, R. M. Jopson, L. E. Nelson, H. Kogelnik, "The statistics of PMD-induced chromatic fiber dispersion," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 1560-1565 (1999).

L. E. Nelson, R. M. Jopson, H. Kogelnik, G. J. Foschini, "Measurement of depolarization and scaling associated with second-order polarization mode dispersion in optical fibers," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11, 1614-1616 (1999).

1998 (6)

G. Yabre, "Analog direct-modulation behavior of semiconductor laser transmitters using optical FM demodulation," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 411-418 (1998).

K. J. Williams, R. D. Esman, "Photodiode DC and microwave nonlinearity at high currents due to carrier recombination nonlinearities ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1015-1017 (1998).

H. Jiang, P. K. L. Yu, "Equivalent circuit analysis of harmonic distortion in photodiodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1608-1610 (1998).

M. Y. Frankel, R. D. Esman, "Optical single-sideband suppressed-carrier modulator for wideband signal processing ," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 859-863 (1998).

H. A. Haus, "The noise figure of optical amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1602-1604 (1998).

J. E. Roman, L. T. Nichols, K. J. Williams, R. D. Esman, G. C. Tavik, M. Livingston, M. G. Parent, "Fiber-optic remoting for ultrahigh dynamic range radar," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 46, 2317-2323 (1998).

1997 (4)

M. Y. Frankel, P. J. Matthews, R. D. Esman, "Fiber-optic true time steering of an ultrawide-band receive array," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 45, 1522-1526 (1997).

G. H. Smith, D. Novak, Z. Ahmed, "Technique for optical SSB generation to overcome dispersion penalties in fibre-radio systems ," Electron. Lett. 33, 74-75 (1997).

Y. Kuhara, Y. Fujimura, N. Nishsyama, H. Terauchi, N. Yamabayashi, "Characterization and theoretical analysis of second-order intermodulation distortion of InGaAs/InP p-i-n photodiode modules for fiber-optic CATV," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 636-641 (1997).

M. J. LaGasse, S. Thaniyavarn, "Bias-free high-dynamic-range phase-modulated fiber-optic link," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 681-683 (1997).

1996 (7)

K. J. Williams, R. D. Esman, M. Dagenais, "Nonlinearities in p-i-n microwave photodetectors," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 84-96 (1996).

G. C. Wilson, T. H. Wood, J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, J. E. Johnson, T. Tanbun-Ek, P. A. Morton, "SBS and MPI suppression in analogue systems with integrated electroabsorption modulator/DFB laser transmitters," Electron. Lett. 32, 1502-1504 (1996).

K. Shiraki, M. Ohashi, M. Tateda, "SBS threshold of a fiber with a Brillouin frequency shift distribution," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 50-57 (1996).

K. Shiraki, M. Ohashi, M. Tateda, "Performance of strain-free stimulated Brillouin scattering suppression fiber," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 549-554 (1996).

D. Dolfi, P. Joffre, J. Antoine, J.-P. Huignard, D. Philippet, P. Granger, "Experimental demonstration of a phased-array antenna optically controlled with phase and time delays ," Appl. Opt. 35, 5293-5300 (1996).

X. S. Yao, G. Lutes, "A high-speed photonic clock and carrier recovery device," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 688-690 (1996).

X. S. Yao, L. Maleki, "Optoelectronic microwave oscillator," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 13, 1725-1735 (1996).

1995 (2)

H. Schmuck, "Comparison of optical millimeter-wave system concepts with regard to chromatic dispersion," Electron. Lett. 31, 1848-1849 (1995).

R. Montgomery, R. DeSalvo, "A novel technique for double sideband suppressed carrier modulation of optical fields," IEEE. Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 434-436 (1995).

1994 (4)

M. J. LaGasse, W. Charczenko, M. C. Hamilton, S. Thaniyavarn, "Optical carrier filtering for high dynamic range fibre optic links," Electron. Lett. 30, 2157-2158 (1994).

K. J. Williams, "Nonlinear mechanisms in microwave photodetectors operated with high intrinsic region electric fields," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1219-1221 (1994).

F. Kalman, J. C. Fan, L. G. Kazovsky, "Dynamic range of coherent analog fiber-optic links," J. Lightw. Technol. 12, 1263 -1277 (1994).

M. Deventer, A. J. Boot, "Polarization properties of stimulated Brillouin scattering in single-mode fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 12, 585-590 (1994).

1993 (4)

C. A. S. de Oliveira, C. K. Jen, A. Shang, C. Saravanos, "Stimulated Brillouin scattering in cascade fibers of different Brillouin frequency shifts," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 10, 969-972 (1993).

M. L. Farwell, W. S. C. Chang, D. R. Huber, "Increased linear dynamic range by low biasing the Mach–Zehnder modulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 779-782 (1993).

E. Ackerman, S. Wanuga, D. Kasemset, A. S. Daryoush, N. R. Samant, "Maximum dynamic range operation of a microwave external modulation fiber-optic link," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 41, 1299-1306 (1993).

R. R. Hayes, D. L. Persechini, "Nonlinearity of p-i-n photodetectors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 70-72 (1993).

1992 (1)

X. P. Mao, R. W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, R. M. Jopson, R. M. Derosier, "Stimulated Brillouin threshold dependence on fiber type and uniformity," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 66 -69 (1992).

1991 (1)

S. Wu, A. Yariv, H. Blauvelt, N. Kwong, "Theoretical and experimental investigation of conversion of phase noise to intensity noise by Rayleigh scattering in optical fibers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 59 , 1156-1158 (1991).

1990 (3)

S. Yamamoto, N. Edagawa, H. Taga, Y. Yoshida, H. Wakabayashi, "Analysis of laser phase to intensity noise conversion by chromatic dispersion in intensity modulation and direct detection optical-fiber transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 8, 1716-1722 (1990).

C. H. Cox, III, G. E. Betts, L. M. Johnson, "An analytical and experimental comparison of direct and external modulation in analog fiber-optic links," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 38, 501-509 (1990).

A. R. Chraplyvy, "Limitations on lightwave communications imposed by optical-fiber nonlinearities," J. Lightw. Technol. 8, 1548-1557 (1990).

1989 (4)

J. Geist, H. Baltes, "High accuracy modeling of photodiode quantum efficiency," Appl. Opt. 28, 3929-3939 (1989).

E. Lichtman, R. G. Waarts, A. A. Friesem, "Stimulated Brillouin scattering excited by a modulated pump wave in single-mode fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 7, 171-174 (1989).

R. W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, "Fibre Brillouin amplifiers," Opt. Quantum Electron. 29, S105-S112 (1989).

N. A. Olsson, "Lightwave systems with optical amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 7, 1071-1082 (1989).

1988 (1)

M. J. O'Mahony, "Semiconductor laser optical amplifiers for use in future fiber systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 6, 531-544 (1988).

1986 (4)

S. B. Poole, D. N. Payne, R. J. Mears, M. E. Fermann, R. I. Laming, "Fabrication and characterization of low-loss optical fibers containing rare-earth ions ," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-4, 870-876 (1986).

N. A. Olsson, J. P. van der Ziel, "Cancellation of fiber loss by semiconductor laser pumped Brillouin amplification at 15 $\mu$m," Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 1329-1330 (1986).

B. Moslehi, "Noise power spectra of optical two-beam interferometers induced by the laser phase noise," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-4, 1704-1710 (1986).

R. Tkach, A. Chraplyvy, "Phase noise and linewidth in an InGaAsP DFB laser," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-4, 1711-1716 (1986).

1984 (1)

G. J. Meslener, "Chromatic dispersion induced distortion of modulated monochromatic light employing direct detection," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 1208-1216 (1984).

1928 (2)

J. B. Johnson, "Thermal agitation of electricity in conductors," Phys. Rev. 32, 97-109 (1928).

H. Nyquist, "Thermal agitation of electric charge in conductors," Phys. Rev. 32, 110-113 (1928).

Appl. Opt. (1)

A. L. Campillo, F. Bucholtz, "Chromatic dispersion effects in analog polarization-modulated links," Appl. Opt. 45, 2742-2748 (2006).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

H. Jiang, P. K. L. Yu, "Equivalent circuit analysis of harmonic distortion in photodiodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1608-1610 (1998).

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (1)

E. I. Ackerman, "Broad-band linearization of a Mach–Zehnder electrooptic modulator," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47, 2271 -2279 (1999).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

T. H. Stievater, K. J. Williams, "Thermally induced nonlinearities in high-speed p-i-n photodetectors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 239-241 (2004).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

A. Joshi, S. Datta, D. Becker, "GRIN lens coupled top-illuminated highly linear InGaAs photodiodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1500-1502 (2008).

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (1)

M. Y. Frankel, P. J. Matthews, R. D. Esman, "Fiber-optic true time steering of an ultrawide-band receive array," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 45, 1522-1526 (1997).

Opt. Lett. (1)

A. B. Ruffin, M.-J. Li, X. Chen, A. Kobyakov, F. Annunziata, "Brillouin gain analysis for fibers with different refractive indicies," Opt. Lett. 30, 3123-3125 (2005).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

N. A. Olsson, J. P. van der Ziel, "Cancellation of fiber loss by semiconductor laser pumped Brillouin amplification at 15 $\mu$m," Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 1329-1330 (1986).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

K. J. Williams, "Nonlinear mechanisms in microwave photodetectors operated with high intrinsic region electric fields," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1219-1221 (1994).

S. Wu, A. Yariv, H. Blauvelt, N. Kwong, "Theoretical and experimental investigation of conversion of phase noise to intensity noise by Rayleigh scattering in optical fibers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 59 , 1156-1158 (1991).

Electron. Lett. (6)

G. H. Smith, D. Novak, Z. Ahmed, "Technique for optical SSB generation to overcome dispersion penalties in fibre-radio systems ," Electron. Lett. 33, 74-75 (1997).

V. J. Urick, J. X. Qiu, F. Bucholtz, C. McDermitt, K. J. Williams, "4 Gbit/s transmission over a single-channel Raman-amplified 105 km link," Electron. Lett. 40, 495-496 (2004).

H. Schmuck, "Comparison of optical millimeter-wave system concepts with regard to chromatic dispersion," Electron. Lett. 31, 1848-1849 (1995).

C. S. McDermitt, W. M. Dorsey, M. E. Godinez, F. Bucholtz, M. G. Parent, "Performance of a 16-channel, photonic, phased array antenna calibration system," Electron. Lett. 45, 1249-1250 (2009).

V. J. Urick, P. S. Devgan, J. D. McKinney, F. Bucholtz, K. J. Williams, "Channelization of radio-frequency signals using an optoelectronic oscillator," Electron. Lett. 45, 1242-1244 (2009).

M. J. LaGasse, W. Charczenko, M. C. Hamilton, S. Thaniyavarn, "Optical carrier filtering for high dynamic range fibre optic links," Electron. Lett. 30, 2157-2158 (1994).

Electron. Lett. (3)

J. D. McKinney, D. S. Seo, A. M. Weiner, "Photonically assisted generation of continuous arbitrary millimetre electromagnetic waveforms," Electron. Lett. 39, 309-311 (2003).

G. C. Wilson, T. H. Wood, J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, J. E. Johnson, T. Tanbun-Ek, P. A. Morton, "SBS and MPI suppression in analogue systems with integrated electroabsorption modulator/DFB laser transmitters," Electron. Lett. 32, 1502-1504 (1996).

V. J. Urick, M. S. Rogge, F. Bucholtz, K. J. Williams, "Wideband (0.045-6.25 GHz) 40-km analog fiber-optic link with ultrahigh (${ > }40$ dB) all-photonic gain," Electron. Lett. 42, 71-72 (2006).

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X. J. Meng, A. Karim, "Microwave photonic link with carrier suppression for increased dynamic range," Fiber Integr. Opt. 25, 161-174 (2006).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. G. Park, A. M. Weiner, M. R. Melloch, C. W. Siders, J. L. W. Siders, A. J. Taylor, "High-power narrowband terahertz generation using large-aperture photoconductors," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1257-1268 (1999).

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V. J. Urick, F. Bucholtz, K. J. Williams, "Noise penalty of highly-saturated erbium-doped fiber amplifiers in analog links," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 749-751 (2006).

X. P. Mao, R. W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, R. M. Jopson, R. M. Derosier, "Stimulated Brillouin threshold dependence on fiber type and uniformity," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 66 -69 (1992).

M. M. Sisto, S. LaRochelle, L. A. Rusch, "Carrier-to-noise ratio optimization by modulator bias control in radio-over-fiber links," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1840-1842 (2006).

M. L. Farwell, W. S. C. Chang, D. R. Huber, "Increased linear dynamic range by low biasing the Mach–Zehnder modulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 779-782 (1993).

B. S. Marks, C. R. Menyuk, A. L. Campillo, F. Bucholtz, "Interchannel crosstalk reduction in an analog fiber link using dispersion management," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 267-269 (2008).

H. Jiang, D. S. Shin, G. L. Li, T. A. Vang, D. C. Scott, P. K. L. Yu, "The frequency behavior of the third-order intercept point in a waveguide photodiode," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 540-542 (2000).

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (5)

J. L. Corral, J. Marti, J. M. Fuster, "General expressions for IM/DD dispersive analog optical links with external modulation or optical up-conversion in a Mach–Zehnder electrooptical modulator," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 49, 1968-1976 (2001).

E. Ackerman, S. Wanuga, D. Kasemset, A. S. Daryoush, N. R. Samant, "Maximum dynamic range operation of a microwave external modulation fiber-optic link," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 41, 1299-1306 (1993).

A. C. Lindsay, "An analysis of coherent carrier suppression techniques for microwave photonic links," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47, 1194-1200 (1999).

P. S. Devgan, V. J. Urick, J. D. McKinney, K. J. Williams, "Cascaded noise penalty for amplified long-haul analog fiber-optic links," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 55, 1973-1977 (2007).

C. H. Cox, III, E. I. Ackerman, G. E. Betts, J. L. Prince, "Limits on the performance of RF-over-fiber links and their impact on device design," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 54, 906-920 (2006).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

G. J. Meslener, "Chromatic dispersion induced distortion of modulated monochromatic light employing direct detection," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 1208-1216 (1984).

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

D. A. Tulchinsky, X. Li, N. Li, S. Demiguel, J. C. Campbell, K. J. Williams, "High-saturation current wide-bandwidth photodetectors," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 702-708 (2004).

IEEE Microw. Wireless Compon. Lett. (1)

I. Lin, J. D. McKinney, A. M. Weiner, "Photonic synthesis of broadband microwave arbitrary waveforms applicable to ultra-wideband communication," IEEE Microw. Wireless Compon. Lett. 15, 226-228 (2005).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

M. J. LaGasse, S. Thaniyavarn, "Bias-free high-dynamic-range phase-modulated fiber-optic link," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 681-683 (1997).

A. Karim, J. Devenport, "Noise figure reduction in externally modulated analog fiber-optic links," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 312-314 (2007).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

S. Shen, A. M. Weiner, "Complete dispersion compensation for 400-fs pulse transmission over 10-km fiber link using dispersion compensating fiber and spectral phase equalizer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 827-829 (1999).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

T. E. Darcie, P. F. Driessen, "Class-AB techniques for high-dynamic-range microwave-photonic links," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 929-931 (2006).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

R. R. Hayes, D. L. Persechini, "Nonlinearity of p-i-n photodetectors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 70-72 (1993).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (9)

K. J. Williams, R. D. Esman, "Photodiode DC and microwave nonlinearity at high currents due to carrier recombination nonlinearities ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1015-1017 (1998).

V. J. Urick, F. Bucholtz, "Compensation of arbitrary chromatic dispersion in analogs links using a modulation-diversity receiver," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 893-895 (2005).

G. A. Cranch, A. Dandridge, C. K. Kirkendall, "Suppression of double Rayleigh scattering-induced excess noise in remotely interrogated fiber-optic interferometric sensors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1582-1584 (2003).

A. Loayssa, D. Benito, M. J. Garde, "Single-sideband suppressed-carrier modulation using a single-electrode electrooptic modulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 869-871 (2001).

M. M. Sisto, S. LaRochelle, L. A. Rusch, P. Giaccari, "Erbium amplifier dynamics in wireless analog optical links with modulator bias optimization," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 408-410 (2007).

H. Kim, A. H. Gnauck, "Chirp characteristics of dual-drive Mach–Zehnder modulator with a finite DC extinction ratio," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 298-300 (2002).

J. Chou, Y. Han, B. Jalali, "Adaptive RF-photonic arbitrary waveform generator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 581-583 (2003).

V. J. Urick, F. Bucholtz, K. J. Williams, "Correction to ‘noise penalty of highly-saturated erbium-doped fiber amplifiers in analog links’," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1475 (2006).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

H. A. Haus, "The noise figure of optical amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1602-1604 (1998).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (9)

X. S. Yao, G. Lutes, "A high-speed photonic clock and carrier recovery device," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 688-690 (1996).

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

L. E. Nelson, R. M. Jopson, H. Kogelnik, G. J. Foschini, "Measurement of depolarization and scaling associated with second-order polarization mode dispersion in optical fibers," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11, 1614-1616 (1999).

IEEE Trans. Broadcast. (1)

H. Lu, "Performance comparison between DCF and RDF dispersion compensation in fiber optical CATV systems," IEEE Trans. Broadcast. 48, 370-373 (2002).

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (1)

V. J. Urick, F. Bucholtz, P. S. Devgan, J. D. McKinney, K. J. Williams, "Phase modulation with interferometric detection as an alternative to intensity modulation with direct detection for analog-photonic links," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 55, 1978-1985 (2007).

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (2)

R. A. Minasian, "Photonic signal processing of microwave signals," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 54, 832-846 (2006).

J. E. Roman, L. T. Nichols, K. J. Williams, R. D. Esman, G. C. Tavik, M. Livingston, M. G. Parent, "Fiber-optic remoting for ultrahigh dynamic range radar," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 46, 2317-2323 (1998).

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (11)

U. Gliese, K. C. Colladay, A. H. Hastings, D. A. Tulchinsky, V. J. Urick, K. J. Williams, "Radio-frequency power conversion efficiency of photodiodes driven with Mach–Zehnder modulators ," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 58, 3359-3371 (2010 ).

A. J. Seeds, "Microwave photonics," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 50, 877-887 (2002).

J. D. McKinney, A. M. Weiner, "Compensation of the effects of antenna dispersion on UWB waveforms via optical pulse shaping techniques," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 54, 1681-1686 (2006).

G. C. Tavik, C. L. Hilterbrick, J. B. Evins, J. J. Alter, J. G. Crnkovich, Jr.J. W. de Graaf, W. Habicht II, G. P. Hrin, S. A. Lessin, D. C. Wu, S. M. Hagewood, "The advanced multifunction RF concept," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 53, 1009-1020 (2005).

W. Zhou, G. Blasche, "Injection-locked dual optoelectronic oscillator with ultra-low phase noise and ultra-low spurious level," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 53, 929-933 (2005).

J. D. McKinney, D. Peroulis, A. M. Weiner, "Dispersion limitations of ultra-wideband wireless links and their compensation via photonically-enabled arbitrary waveform generation," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 56, 710-719 (2008).

V. J. Urick, M. S. Rogge, F. Bucholtz, K. J. Williams, "The performance of analog photonic links employing highly-compressed erbium-doped fiber amplifiers ," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 54, 3141-3145 (2006).

C. H. Cox, III, G. E. Betts, L. M. Johnson, "An analytical and experimental comparison of direct and external modulation in analog fiber-optic links," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 38, 501-509 (1990).

J. D. McKinney, K. J. Williams, "Sampled analog optical links," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 57, 2093-2099 (2009).

C. Lim, M. Attygalle, A. Nirmalathas, D. Novak, R. Waterhouse, "Analysis of optical carrier-to-sideband ratio for improving transmission performance in fiber-radio links," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 54, 2181-2187 (2006).

V. J. Urick, M. S. Rogge, P. F. Knapp, L. Swingen, F. Bucholtz, "Wideband predistortion linearization for externally-modulated long-haul analog fiber optic-links," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 54, 1458-1463 (2006).

IEEE. Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

R. Montgomery, R. DeSalvo, "A novel technique for double sideband suppressed carrier modulation of optical fields," IEEE. Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 434-436 (1995).

J. Lightw. Technol. (17)

C. Lim, A. Nirmalathas, K. Lee, D. Novak, R. Waterhouse, "Intermodulation distortion improvement for fiber-radio applications incorporating OSSB ${+}$C modulation in an optical integrated-access environment," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 1602-1612 (2007).

P. F. Driessen, T. E. Darcie, J. Zhang, "Analysis of a class-B microwave-photonic link using optical frequency modulation," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 2740-2747 (2008).

B. M. Haas, V. J. Urick, J. D. McKinney, T. E. Murphy, "Dual-wavelength linearization of optically phase-modulated analog microwave signals," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 2748-2753 (2008).

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K. Shiraki, M. Ohashi, M. Tateda, "Performance of strain-free stimulated Brillouin scattering suppression fiber," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 549-554 (1996).

M. Deventer, A. J. Boot, "Polarization properties of stimulated Brillouin scattering in single-mode fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 12, 585-590 (1994).

M. Y. Frankel, R. D. Esman, "Optical single-sideband suppressed-carrier modulator for wideband signal processing ," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 859-863 (1998).

A. L. Campillo, "Interchannel nonlinear crosstalk in analog polarization modulated WDM systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 1186-1193 (2006).

B. S. Marks, C. R. Menyuk, A. L. Campillo, F. Bucholtz, "Analysis of interchannel crosstalk in a dispersion-managed analog transmission link," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 2305-2310 (2006).

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J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B (1)

C. A. S. de Oliveira, C. K. Jen, A. Shang, C. Saravanos, "Stimulated Brillouin scattering in cascade fibers of different Brillouin frequency shifts," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 10, 969-972 (1993).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

L. H. Slooff, A. van Blaaderen, A. Polman, G. A. Hebbink, S. I. Klink, F. C. J. M. Van Veggel, D. N. Reinhoudt, J. W. Hofstraat, "Rare-earth doped polymers for planar optical amplifiers," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 3955-3980 (2002).

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M. Karlsson, H. Sunnerud, "Effects of nonlinearities on PMD-induced system impairments," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4127-4137 (2006).

T. Ismail, C. Liu, J. E. Mitchell, A. J. Seeds, "High-dynamic-range wireless-over-fiber link using feedforward linearization," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 3274-3282 (2007).

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J. D. McKinney, K. Colladay, K. J. Williams, "Linearization of phase-modulated analog optical links employing interferometric demodulation," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 1212-1220 (2009).

T. E. Darcie, Z. Jinye, P. F. Driessen, E. Jae-Jeong, "Class-B microwave-photonic link using optical frequency modulation and linear frequency discriminators," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 157-164 (2007).

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S. R. O'Connor, T. R. Clark, Jr.D. Novak, "Wideband adaptive feedforward photonic link," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 2810-2816 (2008).

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