Abstract

We studied the gain of Raman-assisted fiber optical parametric amplifiers (RA-FOPAs) both theoretically and experimentally. We investigated the relationship between the overall gain and different combinations of Raman and parametric pump powers using contour maps. We derived a normalized phase-matched model to determine the general behavior the peak gains of RA-FOPAs operating in the small signal region. The contour maps of the combined gain enhancement can be used to optimize both indirect and direct Raman gain of the signal/idler in RA-FOPAs. We showed that, in a given fiber, it is possible to optimize the Raman and parametric pump powers in RA-FOPAs for high gain and high efficiency.

© 2011 IEEE

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  13. J. L. Blows, S. E. French, "Low-noise-figure optical parametric amplifier with a continuous-wave frequency-modulated pump," Opt. Lett. 27, 491-493 (2002).
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  22. S. H. Wang, L. Xu, P. K. A. Wai, "Noise characterization of Raman-assisted fiber optical parametric amplifiers," Proc. 14th OptoElectron. Commun. Conf. (2009).
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  26. Highly Non-Linear Fiber Specification Sheet Denmark (2009) Ver. 070401 LGN, OFS Fitel LLC..
  27. Raman Fiber Specification Sheet Denmark (2007) Ver. 041307, OFS Fitel LLC..
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  31. B. Min, W. J. Lee, N. Park, "Efficient formulation of Raman amplifier propagation equations with average power analysis," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1486-1488 (2000).
  32. S. H. Wang, L. Xu, P. K. A. Wai, H. Y. Tam, "All-optical wavelength conversion using multi-pump Raman-assisted four-wave mixing," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (2007).
  33. A. Koybyakov, M. Mehendale, M. Vasilyev, S. Tsuda, A. F. Evans, "Stimulated brillouin scattering in the Raman-pumped fibers: A theoretical approach," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 1635-1643 (2002).
  34. G. Cappellini, S. Trillo, "Third-order three-wave mixing in single-mode fibers: Exact solutions and spatial instability effects," J. Soc. Amer. B 8, 824-838 (1991).
  35. R. W. Hellwarth, "Third-order optical susceptibilities of liquids and solids," Prog. Quantam Electron. 5, 1-68 (1977).

2007 (1)

T. Torounidis, P. A. Andrekson, "Broadband single-pumped fiber-optic parametric amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 650-652 (2007).

2006 (1)

T. Torounidis, P. A. Andrekson, B. Olsson, "Fiber-optical parametric amplifier with 70-dB gain," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1194-1196 (2006).

2005 (3)

P. Kylemark, P. O. Hedekvist, H. Sunnerud, M. Karlsson, P. A. Andrekson, "Correction to ‘Noise characteristics of fiber optical parametric amplifiers’," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 2192 (2005).

H. S. Seo, W. J. Chung, J. T. Ahn, "A novel hybrid silica wideband amplifier covering S+C +L bands with 105-nm bandwidth," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1830-1832 (2005).

J. F. L. Freitas, N. B. Costa e Silva, S. R. Lüthi, A. S. L. Gomes, "Raman enhanced parametric amplifier based S-C band wavelength converter: Experiment and simulations," Opt. Commun. 255, 314-318 (2005).

2004 (1)

2003 (3)

K. K. Y. Wong, K. Shimizu, M. E. Marhic, K. Uesaka, G. Kalogerakis, L. G. Kazovsky, "Continuous-wave fiber optical parametric wavelength converter with 40-dB conversion efficiency and a 3.8-dB noise figure," Opt. Lett. 28, 692-694 (2003).

Q. Lin, G. P. Agrawal, "Vector theory of stimulated Raman scattering and its application to fiber-based Raman amplifiers," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B. 20, 1616-1631 (2003).

H. S. Seo, Y. G. Choi, B. J. Park, D. H. Cho, K. H. Kim, "Simultaneous amplification by Er ions and SRS in an Er-doped germane—silica fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. 15, 1198-1200 (2003).

2002 (5)

D. A. Chestnut, C. J. S. de Matos, J. R. Taylor, "Raman-assisted fiber optical parametric amplifier and wavelength converter in highly nonlinear fiber," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 19, 1901-1904 (2002).

C. J. McKinstrie, S. Radic, A. R. Chraplyvy, "Parametric amplifiers driven by two pump waves," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 8, 538-547 (2002).

J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Li, P. Hedekvist, "Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 8, 506-520 (2002).

A. Koybyakov, M. Mehendale, M. Vasilyev, S. Tsuda, A. F. Evans, "Stimulated brillouin scattering in the Raman-pumped fibers: A theoretical approach," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 1635-1643 (2002).

J. L. Blows, S. E. French, "Low-noise-figure optical parametric amplifier with a continuous-wave frequency-modulated pump," Opt. Lett. 27, 491-493 (2002).

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

B. Min, W. J. Lee, N. Park, "Efficient formulation of Raman amplifier propagation equations with average power analysis," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1486-1488 (2000).

1999 (3)

H. Kidorf, K. Rottwitt, M. Nissov, M. Ma, E. Rabarijaona, "Pump interactions in a 100-nm bandwidth Raman amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 530-532 (1999).

R. C. Alferness, P. A. Bonenfant, C. J. Newton, K. A. Sparks, E. L. Varma, "A practical vision for optical transport networking," Bell Labs Tech. J. 3-18 (1999).

H. Masuda, S. Kawai, K. I. Suzuki, "Optical SNR enhance amplification in long-distance re-circulating loop WDM transmission experiment using 1580 nm band hybrid amplifier," Electron. Lett. 35, 411-412 (1999).

1996 (1)

P. K. A. Wai, C. R. Menyak, "Polarization mode dispersion, decorrelation, and diffusion in optical fibers with randomly varying birefringence," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 148-157 (1996).

1991 (1)

G. Cappellini, S. Trillo, "Third-order three-wave mixing in single-mode fibers: Exact solutions and spatial instability effects," J. Soc. Amer. B 8, 824-838 (1991).

1977 (1)

R. W. Hellwarth, "Third-order optical susceptibilities of liquids and solids," Prog. Quantam Electron. 5, 1-68 (1977).

Bell Labs Tech. J. (1)

R. C. Alferness, P. A. Bonenfant, C. J. Newton, K. A. Sparks, E. L. Varma, "A practical vision for optical transport networking," Bell Labs Tech. J. 3-18 (1999).

Electron. Lett. (1)

H. Masuda, S. Kawai, K. I. Suzuki, "Optical SNR enhance amplification in long-distance re-circulating loop WDM transmission experiment using 1580 nm band hybrid amplifier," Electron. Lett. 35, 411-412 (1999).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

H. S. Seo, W. J. Chung, J. T. Ahn, "A novel hybrid silica wideband amplifier covering S+C +L bands with 105-nm bandwidth," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1830-1832 (2005).

B. Min, W. J. Lee, N. Park, "Efficient formulation of Raman amplifier propagation equations with average power analysis," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1486-1488 (2000).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, J. Li, P. Hedekvist, "Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 8, 506-520 (2002).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

C. J. McKinstrie, S. Radic, A. R. Chraplyvy, "Parametric amplifiers driven by two pump waves," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 8, 538-547 (2002).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

T. Torounidis, P. A. Andrekson, "Broadband single-pumped fiber-optic parametric amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 650-652 (2007).

IEEE Photon. Technol. (1)

H. S. Seo, Y. G. Choi, B. J. Park, D. H. Cho, K. H. Kim, "Simultaneous amplification by Er ions and SRS in an Er-doped germane—silica fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. 15, 1198-1200 (2003).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

H. Kidorf, K. Rottwitt, M. Nissov, M. Ma, E. Rabarijaona, "Pump interactions in a 100-nm bandwidth Raman amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 530-532 (1999).

T. Torounidis, P. A. Andrekson, B. Olsson, "Fiber-optical parametric amplifier with 70-dB gain," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1194-1196 (2006).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

A. Koybyakov, M. Mehendale, M. Vasilyev, S. Tsuda, A. F. Evans, "Stimulated brillouin scattering in the Raman-pumped fibers: A theoretical approach," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 1635-1643 (2002).

J. Lightw. Technol. (2)

P. Kylemark, P. O. Hedekvist, H. Sunnerud, M. Karlsson, P. A. Andrekson, "Correction to ‘Noise characteristics of fiber optical parametric amplifiers’," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 2192 (2005).

P. K. A. Wai, C. R. Menyak, "Polarization mode dispersion, decorrelation, and diffusion in optical fibers with randomly varying birefringence," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 148-157 (1996).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B (1)

D. A. Chestnut, C. J. S. de Matos, J. R. Taylor, "Raman-assisted fiber optical parametric amplifier and wavelength converter in highly nonlinear fiber," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 19, 1901-1904 (2002).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B. (1)

Q. Lin, G. P. Agrawal, "Vector theory of stimulated Raman scattering and its application to fiber-based Raman amplifiers," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B. 20, 1616-1631 (2003).

J. Soc. Amer. B (1)

G. Cappellini, S. Trillo, "Third-order three-wave mixing in single-mode fibers: Exact solutions and spatial instability effects," J. Soc. Amer. B 8, 824-838 (1991).

Opt. Commun. (1)

J. F. L. Freitas, N. B. Costa e Silva, S. R. Lüthi, A. S. L. Gomes, "Raman enhanced parametric amplifier based S-C band wavelength converter: Experiment and simulations," Opt. Commun. 255, 314-318 (2005).

Opt. Lett. (4)

Prog. Quantam Electron. (1)

R. W. Hellwarth, "Third-order optical susceptibilities of liquids and solids," Prog. Quantam Electron. 5, 1-68 (1977).

Other (13)

S. H. Wang, L. Xu, P. K. A. Wai, H. Y. Tam, "All-optical wavelength conversion using multi-pump Raman-assisted four-wave mixing," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (2007).

S. H. Wang, L. Xu, P. K. A. Wai, "Noise characterization of Raman-assisted fiber optical parametric amplifiers," Proc. 14th OptoElectron. Commun. Conf. (2009).

S. H. Wang, L. Xu, P. K. A. Wai, H. Y. Tam, "6.4-dB enhancement of the gain of a Raman-assisted fiber optical parametric amplifier over the sum of the gains of individual amplifiers," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (2008).

TrueWave® RS Fiber LWP Specification Sheet Denmark (2009) OFS Fitel LLC..

Highly Non-Linear Fiber Specification Sheet Denmark (2009) Ver. 070401 LGN, OFS Fitel LLC..

Raman Fiber Specification Sheet Denmark (2007) Ver. 041307, OFS Fitel LLC..

M. N. Islam, Raman Amplifiers for Telecommunications 1: Physical Principles (Springer, 2004).

C. Headley, G. P. Agrawal, Raman Amplification in Fiber Optical Communication Systems (Elsevier, 2005).

Global Bandwidth Research Service Exclusive Summery pp. 2 (2010.) http://www.telegeo graphy.com/product-info/gb/ Telegeography research, PriMetrica, Inc..

D. Mazzarese, "AllWave FLEX ZWP fiber white paper," OFS Technical Resource (2006).

C. R. Davidson, C. J. Chen, M. Nissov, A. Pilipetskii, N. Ramanujam, H. D. Kidorf, B. Pedersen, M. A. Mills, C. Lin, M. I. Hayee, J. X. Cai, A. B. Puc, P. C. Corbett, R. Menges, H. Li, A. Elyamani, "1800 Gb/stransmission of one hundred and eighty 10 Gb/sWDM channels over 7000 km using the full EDFA C-band," Proc. Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. (2000).

E. Desurvire, Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifiers, Principle and Application (Wiley, 1994).

M. J. Connelly, Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers (Kluwer, 2002).

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