Abstract

A custom 90-nm bulk digital CMOS switch driver is codesigned and integrated with a silicon photonic switch. A photonic device model is created within the electronic design environment, facilitating driver optimization and performance evaluation prior to fabrication. The fabricated drivers implemented in two variations produce transition times as low as 50 ps and generate open eye diagrams using supply voltages ranging from 0.8 to 5 V. The driver is hybrid integrated with a broadband low-power silicon photonic 2$\,\times\,$2 switch, based on a modified Mach–Zehnder interferometer. The switch has demonstrated operation over 100nm of spectral bandwidth with less than ${-}17$-dB crosstalk, greater than 25 $^\circ$C tolerance to temperature variations, and compatibility with 1-V driving signals. The integration demonstrates the interoperability of the switch and driver, which together achieve transition times below 4 ns and average power consumption of 2 mW. Finally, throughput bandwidth of 160 Gb/s is demonstrated for all switch configurations via eye diagrams and bit error rate curves.

© 2011 IEEE

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  1. K. J. Barker, "On the feasibility of optical circuit switching for high performance computing systems ," Proc. Supercomputing (SC) (2005) pp. 16.
  2. J. Shalf, S. Kamil, L. Oliker, D. Skinner, "Analyzing ultrascale application communication requirements for a reconfigurable hybrid interconnect ," Proc. Supercomputing (SC) (2005) pp. 17.
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  4. A. Shacham, K. Bergman, L. P. Carloni, "Photonic networks-on-chip for future generations of chip multi-processors," IEEE Trans. Comput. 57, 1246 -1260 (2008).
  5. C. Li, L. Zhou, A. W. Poon, "Silicon microring carrier-injection-based modulators/switches with tunable extinction ratios and OR-logic switching by using waveguide cross-coupling," Opt. Exp. 15, 5069-5076 (2007).
  6. M. R. Watts, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, "Maximally confined high-speed second-order silicon microdisk switches ," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC) San Diego CA (2008) Paper PDP14.
  7. J. Van Campenhout, W. M. Green, S. Assefa, Y. A. Vlasov, "Low-power, 2$\times\,$2 silicon electro-optic switch with 110-nm bandwidth for broadband reconfigurable optical networks," Opt. Exp. 17, 24020-24029 (2009).
  8. A. Biberman, H. L. R. Lira, K. Padmaraju, N. Ophir, M. Lipson, K. Bergman, "Broadband CMOS-compatible silicon photonic electro-optic switch," Lasers Electro-Opt. (CLEO) San JoseCA (2010) Paper CPDA11.
  9. J. Van Campenhout, W. M. Green, S. Assefa, Y. A. Vlasov, "Digital noise-tolerant silicon nanophotonic switch," Conf. Lasers Electro-Opt. (CLEO) San JoseCA (2010) Paper CPDA12.
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  11. G. Li, "Ultralow-power high-performance Si photonic transmitter," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC) San DiegoCA (2010) Paper OMI2.
  12. G. Masini, G. Capellini, J. Witzens, C. Gunn, "A four-channel, 10 Gbps monolithic optical receiver in 130 nm CMOS with integrated Ge waveguide photodetectors," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC) AnaheimCA (2007) Paper PDP31.
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  15. B. G. Lee, "Comparison of ring resonator and Mach–Zehnder photonic switches integrated with digital CMOS drivers," Proc. Annu. Meeting IEEE Photon. Soc. (PHO) (2010) pp. 327-328.
  16. R. Soref, B. Bennett, "Electrooptical effects in silicon," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 123-129 (1987).
  17. P. W. Tuinenga, SPICE: A Guide to Circuit Simulation and Analysis Using PSpice (Prentice-Hall, 1992) pp. 154-160.
  18. J. Van Campenhout, W. M. J. Green, X. Liu, S. Assefa, R. M. Osgood, Y. A. Vlasov, "Silicon-nitride surface passivation of submicrometer silicon waveguides for low-power optical switches," Opt. Lett. 34, 1534-1536 (2009).
  19. J. V. Campenhout, W. M. J. Green, Y. A. Vlasov, "Design of a digital, ultra-broadband electro-optic switch for reconfigurable optical networks-on-chip ," Opt. Exp. 17, 23793-23808 (2009).

2010 (1)

X. Zheng, "A sub-picojoule-per-bit CMOS photonic receiver for densely integrated systems," Opt. Exp. 18, 204-211 (2010).

2009 (3)

J. Van Campenhout, W. M. J. Green, X. Liu, S. Assefa, R. M. Osgood, Y. A. Vlasov, "Silicon-nitride surface passivation of submicrometer silicon waveguides for low-power optical switches," Opt. Lett. 34, 1534-1536 (2009).

J. V. Campenhout, W. M. J. Green, Y. A. Vlasov, "Design of a digital, ultra-broadband electro-optic switch for reconfigurable optical networks-on-chip ," Opt. Exp. 17, 23793-23808 (2009).

J. Van Campenhout, W. M. Green, S. Assefa, Y. A. Vlasov, "Low-power, 2$\times\,$2 silicon electro-optic switch with 110-nm bandwidth for broadband reconfigurable optical networks," Opt. Exp. 17, 24020-24029 (2009).

2008 (1)

A. Shacham, K. Bergman, L. P. Carloni, "Photonic networks-on-chip for future generations of chip multi-processors," IEEE Trans. Comput. 57, 1246 -1260 (2008).

2007 (1)

C. Li, L. Zhou, A. W. Poon, "Silicon microring carrier-injection-based modulators/switches with tunable extinction ratios and OR-logic switching by using waveguide cross-coupling," Opt. Exp. 15, 5069-5076 (2007).

1987 (1)

R. Soref, B. Bennett, "Electrooptical effects in silicon," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 123-129 (1987).

IEEE Trans. Comput. (1)

A. Shacham, K. Bergman, L. P. Carloni, "Photonic networks-on-chip for future generations of chip multi-processors," IEEE Trans. Comput. 57, 1246 -1260 (2008).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. Soref, B. Bennett, "Electrooptical effects in silicon," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 123-129 (1987).

Opt. Exp. (1)

X. Zheng, "A sub-picojoule-per-bit CMOS photonic receiver for densely integrated systems," Opt. Exp. 18, 204-211 (2010).

Opt. Lett. (1)

J. Van Campenhout, W. M. J. Green, X. Liu, S. Assefa, R. M. Osgood, Y. A. Vlasov, "Silicon-nitride surface passivation of submicrometer silicon waveguides for low-power optical switches," Opt. Lett. 34, 1534-1536 (2009).

Opt. Exp. (3)

J. V. Campenhout, W. M. J. Green, Y. A. Vlasov, "Design of a digital, ultra-broadband electro-optic switch for reconfigurable optical networks-on-chip ," Opt. Exp. 17, 23793-23808 (2009).

C. Li, L. Zhou, A. W. Poon, "Silicon microring carrier-injection-based modulators/switches with tunable extinction ratios and OR-logic switching by using waveguide cross-coupling," Opt. Exp. 15, 5069-5076 (2007).

J. Van Campenhout, W. M. Green, S. Assefa, Y. A. Vlasov, "Low-power, 2$\times\,$2 silicon electro-optic switch with 110-nm bandwidth for broadband reconfigurable optical networks," Opt. Exp. 17, 24020-24029 (2009).

Other (12)

A. Biberman, H. L. R. Lira, K. Padmaraju, N. Ophir, M. Lipson, K. Bergman, "Broadband CMOS-compatible silicon photonic electro-optic switch," Lasers Electro-Opt. (CLEO) San JoseCA (2010) Paper CPDA11.

J. Van Campenhout, W. M. Green, S. Assefa, Y. A. Vlasov, "Digital noise-tolerant silicon nanophotonic switch," Conf. Lasers Electro-Opt. (CLEO) San JoseCA (2010) Paper CPDA12.

T. Pinguet, V. Sadagopan, A. Mekis, B. Analui, D. Kucharski, S. Gloeckner, "A 1550 nm, 10 Gbps optical modulator with integrated driver in 130 nm CMOS," Proc. Group IV Photon. (2007) pp. 1-3.

G. Li, "Ultralow-power high-performance Si photonic transmitter," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC) San DiegoCA (2010) Paper OMI2.

G. Masini, G. Capellini, J. Witzens, C. Gunn, "A four-channel, 10 Gbps monolithic optical receiver in 130 nm CMOS with integrated Ge waveguide photodetectors," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC) AnaheimCA (2007) Paper PDP31.

M. R. Watts, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, "Maximally confined high-speed second-order silicon microdisk switches ," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC) San Diego CA (2008) Paper PDP14.

K. J. Barker, "On the feasibility of optical circuit switching for high performance computing systems ," Proc. Supercomputing (SC) (2005) pp. 16.

J. Shalf, S. Kamil, L. Oliker, D. Skinner, "Analyzing ultrascale application communication requirements for a reconfigurable hybrid interconnect ," Proc. Supercomputing (SC) (2005) pp. 17.

L. Schares, "A reconfigurable interconnect fabric with optical circuit switch and software optimizer for stream computing systems," Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC) 2009 San DiegoCA () Paper OTuA1.

B. G. Lee, J. Van Campenhout, A. V. Rylyakov, C. L. Schow, W. M. J. Green, S. Assefa, M. Yang, F. E. Doany, C. V. Jahnes, R. A. John, J. A. Kash, Y. A. Vlasov, "Broadband silicon photonic switch integrated with CMOS drive electronics," Conf. Lasers Electro-Opt. (CLEO) San JoseCA (2010) Paper CThJ1.

B. G. Lee, "Comparison of ring resonator and Mach–Zehnder photonic switches integrated with digital CMOS drivers," Proc. Annu. Meeting IEEE Photon. Soc. (PHO) (2010) pp. 327-328.

P. W. Tuinenga, SPICE: A Guide to Circuit Simulation and Analysis Using PSpice (Prentice-Hall, 1992) pp. 154-160.

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