Abstract

Lowering the operating voltage of electro-optic modulators is desirable for a variety of applications, most notably in analog photonics and digital data communication. In particular for digital systems such as CPUs, it is desirable to develop modulators that are both temperature-insensitive and compatible with typically sub-2 V CMOS electronics; however, drive voltages in silicon-based Mach–Zehnder interferometers (MZIs) currently exceed 1.8 V. Here, we show an MZI modulator based on an electro-optic polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide, with a halfwave voltage of only 0.69 V (corresponding to a 0.62 V$\left(\cdot\right)$cm modulation figure of merit), and a bandwidth of 500 MHz. We also show that there are paths to significantly improve both the bandwidth and drive voltage.

© 2011 IEEE

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2010 (9)

N.-N. Feng, S. Liao, D. Feng, P. Dong, D. Zheng, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, G. Li, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, M. Asghari, "High speed carrier-depletion modulators with 1.4 V-cm V$(\pi)$L integrated on 0.25 micron silicon-on-insulator waveguides," Opt. Exp. 18, 7994-7999 (2010).

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, "Silicon optical modulators," Nature Photon. 4, 518-526 (2010).

S. Manipatruni, K. Preston, L. Chen, M. Lipson, "Ultra-low voltage, ultra-small mode volume silicon microring modulator," Opt. Exp. 18, 18235-18242 (2010).

J. Witzens, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, "Design of transmission line driven slot waveguide Mach–Zehnder interferometers and application to analog optical links," Opt. Exp. 18, 16902-16928 (2010).

C. Y. Lin, X. Wang, S. Chakravarty, B. S. Lee, W. Lai, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, R. T. Chen, "Electro-optic polymer infiltrated silicon photonic crystal slot waveguide modulator with 23 dB slow light enhancement," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 093304-1- 093304-3 (2010).

R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, Y. Liu, R. Bojko, J. Witzens, S. Huang, J. Luo, S. Benight, P. Sullivan, J.-M. Fedeli, M. Fournier, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, "Demonstration of a low V$\pi$L modulator with GHz bandwidth based on electro-optic polymer-clad silicon slot waveguides," Opt. Exp. 18, 15618-15623 (2010).

C. Greenlee, A. Guilmo, A. Opadeyi, R. Himmelhuber, R. A. Norwood, M. Fallahi, J. Luo, S. Huang, X.-H. Zhou, A. K.-Y. Jen, N. Peyghambarian, "Mach–Zehnder interferometry method for decoupling electro-optic and piezoelectric effects in poled polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 041109-1- 041109-3 (2010).

R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, W.-J. Kim, X. Xiong, R. Bojko, J.-M. Fedeli, M. Fournier, M. Hochberg, "Low-loss strip-loaded slot waveguides in silicon-on-insulator," Opt. Exp. 18, 25061-25067 (2010).

S. Huang, T.-D. Kim, J. Luo, S. K. Hau, Z. Shi, X.-H. Zhou, H.-L. Yip, A. K.-Y. Jen, "Highly efficient electro-optic polymers through improved poling using a thin TiO2-modified transparent electrode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 243311-1- 243311-3 (2010).

2009 (4)

J. Macario, P. Yao, R. Shireen, C. A. Schuetz, S. Shi, D. W. Prather, "Development of electro-optic phase modulator for 94 GHz imaging system," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 5698 -5703 (2009).

J. Leuthold, W. Freude, J.-M. Brosi, R. Baets, P. Dumon, I. Biaggio, M. L. Scimeca, F. Diederich, B. Frank, C. Koos, "Silicon organic hybrid technology—A platform for practical nonlinear optics," Proc. IEEE 97, 1304-1316 (2009).

J. Wülbern, J. Hampe, A. Petrov, M. Eich, J. Luo, A. Jen, A. Falco, T. Krauss, J. Bruns, "Electro-optic modulation in slotted resonant photonic crystal heterostructures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 241107-1- 241107-3 (2009).

P. Dong, S. Liao, D. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, R. Shafiiha, C.-C. Kung, W. Qian, G. Li, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, M. Asghari, "Low Vpp, ultralow-energy, compact, high-speed silicon electro-optic modulator," Opt. Exp. 17, 22484-22490 (2009).

2008 (3)

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, "Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electroabsorption modulators," Nature Photon. 2, 433-437 (2008).

K. Aoki, A. Ide, J. Kondo, Y. Iwata, A. Hamajima, T. Ejiri, O. Mitomi, M. Minakata, "Low half-wave voltage x-cut thin LiNbO$_{3}$ sheet optical phase modulator with asymmetric coplanar waveguide electrode," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1811-1813 (2008).

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T. D. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, "Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half wave voltage of 0.25 V ," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 163303-1- 163303-3 (2008).

2007 (6)

Y. Enami, D. Mathine, C. T. DeRose, R. A. Norwood, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, N. Peyghambarian, "Hybrid cross-linkable polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with 0.65 V half wave voltage at 1550 nm ," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 093505-1- 093505-3 (2007).

H.-F. Chou, A. Ramaswamy, D. Zibar, L. A. Johansson, J. E. Bowers, M. Rodwell, L. A. Coldren, "Highly linear coherent receiver with feedback," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 940-942 (2007).

W. M. J. Green, M. J. Rooks, L. Sekaric, Y. A. Vlasov, "Ultra-compact, low RF power, 10 Gb/s silicon Mach–Zehnder modulator," Opt. Exp. 15, 17106-17113 (2007).

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, M. Paniccia, "40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high-speed applications," Electron. Lett. 43, 20072253- (2007).

M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, G. Wang, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, L. Dalton, A. Scherer, "Towards a millivolt optical modulator with nano-slot waveguides," Opt. Exp. 15, 8401-8410 (2007).

B. Bortnik, Y.-C. Hung, H. Tazawa, B.-J. Seo, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, W. H. Steier, H. R. Fetterman, "Electrooptic polymer ring resonator modulation up to 165 GHz," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 104-110 (2007).

2006 (1)

G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, "High efficiency silicon-on-insulator grating coupler based on a polySilicon overlay ," Opt. Exp. 14, 11622-11630 (2006).

2005 (1)

T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, G. Wang, R. Lawson, Y. Liao, P. Sullivan, L. Dalton, A. Jen, A. Scherer, "Optical modulation and detection in slotted silicon waveguides," Opt. Exp. 13, 5216-5226 (2005).

2004 (2)

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor ," Nature 427, 615- 618 (2004).

V. R. Almeida, Q. Xu, C. A. Barrios, M. Lipson, "Guiding and confining light in void nanostructure," Opt. Lett. 29, 1209-1211 (2004).

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

M. Loncar, D. Nedeljkovic, T. Doll, J. Vuckovic, A. Scherer, "Waveguiding in planar photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1937-1939 (2000).

1987 (1)

R. Soref, B. Bennett, "Electrooptical effects in silicon," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 123-129 (1987).

Electron. Lett. (1)

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, M. Paniccia, "40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high-speed applications," Electron. Lett. 43, 20072253- (2007).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

Y. Enami, D. Mathine, C. T. DeRose, R. A. Norwood, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, N. Peyghambarian, "Hybrid cross-linkable polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with 0.65 V half wave voltage at 1550 nm ," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 093505-1- 093505-3 (2007).

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T. D. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, "Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half wave voltage of 0.25 V ," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 163303-1- 163303-3 (2008).

R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, W.-J. Kim, B. Boyko, R. Bojko, A. Spott, A. Pomerene, C. Hill, W. Reinhardt, M. Hochberg, "Low-loss asymmetric strip-loaded slot waveguides in silicon-on-insulator," Appl. Phys. Lett. .

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. Wülbern, J. Hampe, A. Petrov, M. Eich, J. Luo, A. Jen, A. Falco, T. Krauss, J. Bruns, "Electro-optic modulation in slotted resonant photonic crystal heterostructures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 241107-1- 241107-3 (2009).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

C. Y. Lin, X. Wang, S. Chakravarty, B. S. Lee, W. Lai, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, R. T. Chen, "Electro-optic polymer infiltrated silicon photonic crystal slot waveguide modulator with 23 dB slow light enhancement," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 093304-1- 093304-3 (2010).

C. Greenlee, A. Guilmo, A. Opadeyi, R. Himmelhuber, R. A. Norwood, M. Fallahi, J. Luo, S. Huang, X.-H. Zhou, A. K.-Y. Jen, N. Peyghambarian, "Mach–Zehnder interferometry method for decoupling electro-optic and piezoelectric effects in poled polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 041109-1- 041109-3 (2010).

S. Huang, T.-D. Kim, J. Luo, S. K. Hau, Z. Shi, X.-H. Zhou, H.-L. Yip, A. K.-Y. Jen, "Highly efficient electro-optic polymers through improved poling using a thin TiO2-modified transparent electrode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 243311-1- 243311-3 (2010).

M. Loncar, D. Nedeljkovic, T. Doll, J. Vuckovic, A. Scherer, "Waveguiding in planar photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1937-1939 (2000).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. Soref, B. Bennett, "Electrooptical effects in silicon," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 123-129 (1987).

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

B. Bortnik, Y.-C. Hung, H. Tazawa, B.-J. Seo, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, W. H. Steier, H. R. Fetterman, "Electrooptic polymer ring resonator modulation up to 165 GHz," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 104-110 (2007).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

Y. Liu, T. Baehr-Jones, A. Pomerene, M. Hochberg, "Efficient ridge to strip-loaded slot mode converter in silicon-on-insulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. .

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

H.-F. Chou, A. Ramaswamy, D. Zibar, L. A. Johansson, J. E. Bowers, M. Rodwell, L. A. Coldren, "Highly linear coherent receiver with feedback," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 940-942 (2007).

K. Aoki, A. Ide, J. Kondo, Y. Iwata, A. Hamajima, T. Ejiri, O. Mitomi, M. Minakata, "Low half-wave voltage x-cut thin LiNbO$_{3}$ sheet optical phase modulator with asymmetric coplanar waveguide electrode," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1811-1813 (2008).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

J. Macario, P. Yao, R. Shireen, C. A. Schuetz, S. Shi, D. W. Prather, "Development of electro-optic phase modulator for 94 GHz imaging system," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 5698 -5703 (2009).

Nature Photon. (1)

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, "Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electroabsorption modulators," Nature Photon. 2, 433-437 (2008).

Nature (1)

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor ," Nature 427, 615- 618 (2004).

Nature Photon. (1)

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, "Silicon optical modulators," Nature Photon. 4, 518-526 (2010).

Opt. Exp. (3)

W. M. J. Green, M. J. Rooks, L. Sekaric, Y. A. Vlasov, "Ultra-compact, low RF power, 10 Gb/s silicon Mach–Zehnder modulator," Opt. Exp. 15, 17106-17113 (2007).

G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, "High efficiency silicon-on-insulator grating coupler based on a polySilicon overlay ," Opt. Exp. 14, 11622-11630 (2006).

R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, Y. Liu, R. Bojko, J. Witzens, S. Huang, J. Luo, S. Benight, P. Sullivan, J.-M. Fedeli, M. Fournier, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, "Demonstration of a low V$\pi$L modulator with GHz bandwidth based on electro-optic polymer-clad silicon slot waveguides," Opt. Exp. 18, 15618-15623 (2010).

Opt. Exp. (7)

R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, W.-J. Kim, X. Xiong, R. Bojko, J.-M. Fedeli, M. Fournier, M. Hochberg, "Low-loss strip-loaded slot waveguides in silicon-on-insulator," Opt. Exp. 18, 25061-25067 (2010).

M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, G. Wang, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, L. Dalton, A. Scherer, "Towards a millivolt optical modulator with nano-slot waveguides," Opt. Exp. 15, 8401-8410 (2007).

N.-N. Feng, S. Liao, D. Feng, P. Dong, D. Zheng, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, G. Li, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, M. Asghari, "High speed carrier-depletion modulators with 1.4 V-cm V$(\pi)$L integrated on 0.25 micron silicon-on-insulator waveguides," Opt. Exp. 18, 7994-7999 (2010).

P. Dong, S. Liao, D. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, R. Shafiiha, C.-C. Kung, W. Qian, G. Li, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, M. Asghari, "Low Vpp, ultralow-energy, compact, high-speed silicon electro-optic modulator," Opt. Exp. 17, 22484-22490 (2009).

S. Manipatruni, K. Preston, L. Chen, M. Lipson, "Ultra-low voltage, ultra-small mode volume silicon microring modulator," Opt. Exp. 18, 18235-18242 (2010).

J. Witzens, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, "Design of transmission line driven slot waveguide Mach–Zehnder interferometers and application to analog optical links," Opt. Exp. 18, 16902-16928 (2010).

T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, G. Wang, R. Lawson, Y. Liao, P. Sullivan, L. Dalton, A. Jen, A. Scherer, "Optical modulation and detection in slotted silicon waveguides," Opt. Exp. 13, 5216-5226 (2005).

Opt. Lett. (2)

Proc. IEEE (1)

J. Leuthold, W. Freude, J.-M. Brosi, R. Baets, P. Dumon, I. Biaggio, M. L. Scimeca, F. Diederich, B. Frank, C. Koos, "Silicon organic hybrid technology—A platform for practical nonlinear optics," Proc. IEEE 97, 1304-1316 (2009).

Other (5)

D. J. Shin, K. H. Lee, H.-C. Ji, K. W. Na, S. G. Kim, J. K. Bok, Y. S. You, S. S. Kim, I. S. Joe, S. D. Suh, J. Pyo, Y. H. Shin, K. H. Ha, Y. D. Park, C. H. Chung, "Mach–Zehnder silicon modulator on bulk silicon substrate; toward DRAM optical interface ," Group IV Photon. BeijingChina (2010) Paper ThC7.

PhotonicSystems, Part Number PSI-3600-MOD-D1 .

Mach-40 005 Manual, COVEGA Corp., Jessup, MD. http://www.covega.com/Products/pdfs/LN05S%20-%20MACH%2040%20005%20Rev%20E.pdf.

B. G. Streetman, Solid State Electronics Devices (Prentice-Hall, 1995).

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