Abstract

We present both modeling results and experimental data demonstrating that B$_{2}$O$_{3}$ (boric oxide) can be used as an effective SBS-suppressive optical fiber codopant due to a very large acoustic damping coefficient. A Ge-containing fiber with ${\sim} {\hbox {6}}$ wt% B$_{2}$O$_{3}$ at room temperature has a Brillouin gain coefficient more than 4 dB lower than that of standard Ge-doped SMF. These B-doped fibers, unlike standard Ge-doped SMF, have Brillouin spectra that broaden with increasing fiber temperature. Modeling parameters (acoustic velocity, spectral width, etc.) for bulk B$_{2}$O$_{3}$ based on a fit-to-data are provided. Modeling results for the B–Ge–Si oxide system indicate that the bulk material gain falls below $0.5 \times 10^{-11}$ m/W at 1534 nm near the 1B$_{2}$O$_{3}$:4SiO$_{2}$ molar composition.

© 2011 IEEE

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  14. P.-C. Law, P. D. Dragic, "Wavelength dependence of the Brillouin spectral width of boron doped germanosilicate optical fibers ," Opt. Exp. 18, 18852-18865 (2010).
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2010 (2)

P.-C. Law, P. D. Dragic, "Wavelength dependence of the Brillouin spectral width of boron doped germanosilicate optical fibers ," Opt. Exp. 18, 18852-18865 (2010).

P. D. Dragic, B. G. Ward, "Accurate modeling of the intrinsic Brillouin linewidth via finite element analysis," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1698-1700 (2010).

2009 (2)

P. D. Dragic, "Estimating the effect of Ge doping on the acoustic damping coefficient via a highly Ge-doped MCVD silica fiber," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 26, 1614-1620 (2009).

P. D. Dragic, "Simplified model for the effect of Ge doping on silica fibre acoustic properties," Electron. Lett. 45, 256-257 (2009).

2008 (1)

A. V. Anan'ev, V. N. Bogdanov, B. Champagnon, M. Ferrari, G. O. Karapetyan, L. V. Maksimov, S. N. Smerdin, V. A. Solovyev, "Origin of Rayleigh scattering and anomaly of elastic properties in vitreous and molten GeO $_{2}$," J. Non-Cryst. Sol. 354, 3049-3058 (2008).

2007 (1)

T. M. Gross, M. Tomozawa, "Fictive temperature of GeO$_{2}$ glass: Its determination by IR method and its effects on density and refractive index," J. Non-Crys. Sol. 353, 4762-4766 (2007).

2005 (1)

A. Kobyakov, S. Kumar, D. Chowdhury, A. B. Ruffin, M. Sauer, S. Bickham, R. Mishra, "Design concept for optical fibers with enhanced SBS threshold," Opt. Exp. 13, 5338-5346 (2005).

1997 (1)

M. Niklès, L. Thévenaz, P. A. Robert, "Brillouin gain spectrum characterization in single-mode optical fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1842-1851 (1997).

1995 (2)

J. E. Masnik, J. Kieffer, J. D. Bass, "The complex mechanical modulus as a structural probe: The case of alkali borate liquids and glasses ," J. Chem. Phys. 103, 9907-9917 (1995).

K. Shiraki, M. Ohashi, M. Tateda, "Suppression of stimulated Brillouin scattering in a fiber by changing the core radius ," Electron. Lett. 31, 668-669 (1995).

1993 (2)

M. Ohashi, M. Tateda, "Design of a strain-free-fiber with nonuniform dopant concentration for stimulated Brillouin scattering suppression," J. Lightw. Technol. 11, 1941-1945 (1993).

C.-K. Jen, C. Neron, A. Shang, K. Abe, L. Bonnell, J. Kushibiki, "Acoustic characterization of silica glasses," J. Amer. Ceram. Soc. 76, 712-716 (1993).

1991 (1)

N. Yoshizawa, T. Horiguchi, T. Kurashima, "Proposal for stimulated Brillouin scattering suppression by fibre cabling," Electron. Lett. 27, 1100-1101 (1991).

1986 (2)

A. Hadjifotiou, G. A. Hill, "Suppression of stimulated Brillouin backscattering by PSK modulation for high-power optical transmission," Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng., Optoelectron. 133, 256-258 (1986).

R. W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, R. M. Derosier, "Spontaneous Brillouin scattering for single-mode fiber characterization," Electron. Lett. 22, 1101-1113 (1986).

1984 (1)

1977 (1)

C. R. Hammond, S. R. Norman, "Silica based binary glass systems—Refractive index behaviour and composition in optical fibres ," Opt. Quantum Electron. 9, 399-409 (1977).

1972 (1)

1969 (1)

A. S. Pine, "Brillouin scattering study of acoustic attenuation in fused quartz," Phys. Rev. 185, 1187-1193 (1969).

Appl. Opt. (2)

Electron. Lett. (4)

K. Shiraki, M. Ohashi, M. Tateda, "Suppression of stimulated Brillouin scattering in a fiber by changing the core radius ," Electron. Lett. 31, 668-669 (1995).

N. Yoshizawa, T. Horiguchi, T. Kurashima, "Proposal for stimulated Brillouin scattering suppression by fibre cabling," Electron. Lett. 27, 1100-1101 (1991).

P. D. Dragic, "Simplified model for the effect of Ge doping on silica fibre acoustic properties," Electron. Lett. 45, 256-257 (2009).

R. W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, R. M. Derosier, "Spontaneous Brillouin scattering for single-mode fiber characterization," Electron. Lett. 22, 1101-1113 (1986).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

P. D. Dragic, B. G. Ward, "Accurate modeling of the intrinsic Brillouin linewidth via finite element analysis," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1698-1700 (2010).

J. Amer. Ceram. Soc. (1)

C.-K. Jen, C. Neron, A. Shang, K. Abe, L. Bonnell, J. Kushibiki, "Acoustic characterization of silica glasses," J. Amer. Ceram. Soc. 76, 712-716 (1993).

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

J. E. Masnik, J. Kieffer, J. D. Bass, "The complex mechanical modulus as a structural probe: The case of alkali borate liquids and glasses ," J. Chem. Phys. 103, 9907-9917 (1995).

J. Lightw. Technol. (2)

M. Ohashi, M. Tateda, "Design of a strain-free-fiber with nonuniform dopant concentration for stimulated Brillouin scattering suppression," J. Lightw. Technol. 11, 1941-1945 (1993).

M. Niklès, L. Thévenaz, P. A. Robert, "Brillouin gain spectrum characterization in single-mode optical fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1842-1851 (1997).

J. Non-Crys. Sol. (1)

T. M. Gross, M. Tomozawa, "Fictive temperature of GeO$_{2}$ glass: Its determination by IR method and its effects on density and refractive index," J. Non-Crys. Sol. 353, 4762-4766 (2007).

J. Non-Cryst. Sol. (1)

A. V. Anan'ev, V. N. Bogdanov, B. Champagnon, M. Ferrari, G. O. Karapetyan, L. V. Maksimov, S. N. Smerdin, V. A. Solovyev, "Origin of Rayleigh scattering and anomaly of elastic properties in vitreous and molten GeO $_{2}$," J. Non-Cryst. Sol. 354, 3049-3058 (2008).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B (1)

P. D. Dragic, "Estimating the effect of Ge doping on the acoustic damping coefficient via a highly Ge-doped MCVD silica fiber," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 26, 1614-1620 (2009).

Opt. Exp. (2)

A. Kobyakov, S. Kumar, D. Chowdhury, A. B. Ruffin, M. Sauer, S. Bickham, R. Mishra, "Design concept for optical fibers with enhanced SBS threshold," Opt. Exp. 13, 5338-5346 (2005).

P.-C. Law, P. D. Dragic, "Wavelength dependence of the Brillouin spectral width of boron doped germanosilicate optical fibers ," Opt. Exp. 18, 18852-18865 (2010).

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

C. R. Hammond, S. R. Norman, "Silica based binary glass systems—Refractive index behaviour and composition in optical fibres ," Opt. Quantum Electron. 9, 399-409 (1977).

Phys. Rev. (1)

A. S. Pine, "Brillouin scattering study of acoustic attenuation in fused quartz," Phys. Rev. 185, 1187-1193 (1969).

Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng., Optoelectron. (1)

A. Hadjifotiou, G. A. Hill, "Suppression of stimulated Brillouin backscattering by PSK modulation for high-power optical transmission," Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng., Optoelectron. 133, 256-258 (1986).

Other (6)

P. D. Dragic, "Novel dual-Brillouin-frequency optical fiber for distributed temperature sensing," Proc. SPIE (2009) pp. 719710-1-719710-10.

P. D. Dragic, C.-H. Liu, G. C. Papen, A. Galvanauskas, "Optical fiber with an acoustic guiding layer for stimulated Brillouin scattering suppression ," Proc, CLEO/QELS Tech. Dig. (2005) pp. 1984-1986.

M.-J. Li, X. Chen, J. Wang, A. B. Ruffin, D. T. Walton, S. Li, D. A. Nolan, S. Gray, L. A. Zenteno, "Fiber designs for reducing stimulated Brillouin scattering," Proc. OFC-NFOEC 2006 .

C. Headley, J. B. Clayton, W. A. Reed, L. Eskildsen, P. B. Hansen, "Technique for obtaining a 2.5 dB increase in the stimulated Brillouin scattering threshold of Ge-doped fibers by varying fiber draw tension," OFC Tech. Digest (1997) pp. 186-187.

W. Zou, Z. He, A. D. Yablon, K. Hotate, "Effect of draw-induced residual elastic and inelastic strains on Brillouin frequency shift in optical fibers," OFC/NFOEC 2007 AnaheimCA Paper OTuC3.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, 1995).

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