Abstract

Fictive temperature $(T_{f})$ of pure silica cores was determined for a series of polymer-clad optical fibers via reflectance FTIR spectroscopy. The core diameters of the studied fibers were in the range 125–1500 $\mu$m. The fictive temperature was found to decrease gradually with increasing core diameter, which correlates with the anticipated fiber cooling rate. For a 1500 $\mu$m fiber, the radial distribution of the fictive temperature was examined. No dependence of $T_{f}$ was observed upon the distance from the fiber axis, indicating that the heat conduction inside the silica fiber was much faster than the heat convection away from its surface, even for fibers with diameters greater than 125 $\mu$m.

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  1. B. J. Skutnik, "Hard plastic claddings: Nearing two decades of performance," Optical Polymers. Fibers and Waveguides (2001) pp. 129-137.
  2. X. Sun, J. Li, A. Hokansson, "Study of optical fiber damage under tight bend with high optical power at 2140 nm," Proc. SPIE (2007).
  3. V. Ruddy, G. Shaw, "Mode coupling in large-diameter polymer clad silica fibers," Appl. Opt. 34, 1003-1006 (1995).
  4. U. C. Paek, "Free drawing and polymer coating of silica glass optical fibers," Trans. ASME 121, 774-788 (1999).
  5. S. R. Choudhury, Y. Jaluria, T. Vaskopoulos, C. E. Polymeropoulos, "Forced convective cooling of optical fiber during drawing process," Trans. ASME 116, 790-794 (1994).
  6. A. Agarwal, K. M. Davis, M. Tomozawa, "A simple IR spectroscopic method for determining fictive temperature of silica glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 185, 191-198 (1995).
  7. A. D. Yablon, M. F. Yan, D. J. DiGiovanni, M. E. Lines, S. L. Jones, D. N. Ridgway, G. A. Sandels, I. A. White, P. Wisk, F. V. DiMarcello, E. M. Monberg, J. Jasapara, "Frozen-in viscoelasticity for novel beam expanders and high-power connectors," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 16-23 (2004).
  8. A. Q. Tool, "Relation between inelastic deformability and thermal expansion of glass in its annealing range," J. Amer. Ceram. Soc. 29, 240-253 (1946).
  9. J. C. Mauro, R. J. Loucks, P. K. Gupta, "Fictive temperature and glassy state," J. Amer. Ceram. Soc. 92, 75-86 (2009).
  10. K. Tsujikawa, K. Tajima, M. Ohashi, "Rayleigh scattering reduction method for silica-based optical fiber," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 1528-1532 (2000).
  11. J. E. Shelby, "Density of vitreous silica," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 349, 331-336 (2004).
  12. Y. Yue, R. von der Ohe, S. L. Jensen, "Fictive temperature, cooling rate, and viscosity of glasses," J. Chem. Phys. 120, 8053-8059 (2004).
  13. K. Tsujikawa, K. Tajima, "Method for predicting Rayleigh scattering loss of silica-based optical fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 2122-2128 (2007).
  14. D.-L. Kim, M. Tomozawa, "Fictive temperature of silica glass optical fibers—Re-examination," J. Non-Cryst. Solids. 286, 132-138 (2001).
  15. P. Helander, "Measurement of fictive temperature of silica glass optical fibers," J. Mater. Sci. 39, 3799-3800 (2004).
  16. U. Haken, O. Humbach, S. Ortner, H. Fabian, "Refractive index of silica glass: Influence of fictive temperature," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 265, 9-18 (2000).
  17. M. Lancry, E. Regnier, B. Poumellec, Optical Fibre, New Developments (In-Tech, 2009) pp. 125-160.
  18. U. C. Paek, C. R. Kurkjian, "Calculation of cooling rate and induced stresses in drawing of optical fibers," J. Amer. Ceram. Soc. 58, 330-335 (1975).
  19. Y.-L. Peng, A. Agarwal, M. Tomozawa, T. Blanchet, "Radial distribution of fictive temperatures in silica optical fibers," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 217, 272-277 (1997).
  20. M. Lancry, I. Flammer, D. Simons, B. Poumellec, C. Depecker, M. Douay, "Fictive temperature distribution in highly Ge-doped multimode optical fibers," J. Non-Cryst. Solids. 353, 473-476 (2007).
  21. M. Lancry, I. Flammer, C. Depecker, B. Poumellec, D. Simons, P. Nouchi, M. Douay, "Fictive temperature mapping in highly Ge-doped multimode optical fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 1198-1205 (2007).
  22. C. Martinet, V. Martinez, C. Coussa, B. Champagnon, M. Tomozawa, "Radial distribution of the fictive temperature in pure silica optical fibers by micro-Raman spectroscopy," J. Appl. Phys. 103, (2008) Art. ID 083506.
  23. D. J. Wissuchek, C. W. Ponader, J. J. Price, "Analysis of residual stress in optical fiber," Proc. SPIE 3848, 34-43 (1999).
  24. D. L. Kim, M. Tomozawa, S. Dubois, G. Orcel, "Fictive temperature measurement of single-mode optical-fiber core and cladding," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 1155-1158 (2001).
  25. K. Saito, M. Yamaguchi, H. Kakiuchida, A. J. Ikushima, K. Ohsono, Y. Kurosawa, "Limit of the Rayleigh scattering loss in silica fiber," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 5175-5177 (2003).
  26. A. A. Stolov, D. A. Simoff, "Micro attenuated total reflection spectra of bulk silica glass: Effects of experimental conditions and glass thermal history on appearance of a surface polariton in the Si-O stretching region," Appl. Spectrosc. 62, 624-633 (2008).
  27. T. Hirose, K. Saito, A. J. Ikushima, "Structural relaxation in sputter-deposited silica glass," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 2198-2203 (2006).
  28. A. Koike, M. Tomozawa, "IR investigation of density changes of silica glass and soda-lime silicate glass caused by microhardness indentation," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 353, 2318-2327 (2007).
  29. A. E. Geissberger, F. L. Galeener, "Raman studies of vitreous SiO$_{2}$ versus fictive temperature," Phys. Rev. B 28, 3266-3271 (1983).
  30. M. Tomozawa, Y.-K. Lee, Y.-L. Peng, "Effect of uniaxial stresses on silica glass structure investigated by IR spectroscopy," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 242, 104-109 (1998).
  31. M. Tomozawa, R. Hepburn, "Surface structural relaxation of silica glass: A possible mechanism of mechanical fatigue," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 345–346, 449-460 (2004).
  32. B. C. Trasferetti, C. U. Davanzo, "S- and p-polarized infrared specular reflectance of vitrous silica at oblique incidences: Detection of LO mode," Appl. Spectrosc. 54, 502-507 (2000).
  33. C. Moynihan, A. J. Easteal, M. A. DeBolt, "Dependence of fictive temperature of glass on cooling rate," J. Amer. Ceram. Soc. 59, 12-16 (1976).
  34. P. G. Simpkins, P. A. Blythe, "Laws for fiber temperature prediction during drawing," Trans. ASME 119, 652-655 (1997).
  35. P. Tandon, "Effects of stress on the structural relaxation behavior of glasses," J. Non.-Cryst. Solids 351, 2210-2216 (2005).
  36. B. Velde, R. Coutry, "High-pressure infrared spectra of silica glass and quartz," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 94, 238-250 (1987).
  37. R. A. B. Devine, "Ion implantation- and radiation-induced structural modifications in amorphous SiO$_{2}$," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 152, 50-58 (1993).
  38. C. Martinet, R. A. B. Devine, "Analysis of the vibrational mode spectra of amorphous SiO$_{2}$ films," J. Appl. Phys. 77, 4343-4348 (1995).
  39. C. Z. Tan, J. Arndt, H. S. Xie, "Optical properties of densified silica glasses," Physica B 252, 28-33 (1998).
  40. A. K. Varshneya, Fundamentals of Inorganic Glasses (Academic, 1994) pp. 236.
  41. K. Saito, M. Yamaguchi, A. J. Ikushima, K. Ohsono, Y. Kurosawa, "Approach for reducing the Rayleigh scattering loss in optical fibers," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 1733-1735 (2004).

2009

J. C. Mauro, R. J. Loucks, P. K. Gupta, "Fictive temperature and glassy state," J. Amer. Ceram. Soc. 92, 75-86 (2009).

2008

C. Martinet, V. Martinez, C. Coussa, B. Champagnon, M. Tomozawa, "Radial distribution of the fictive temperature in pure silica optical fibers by micro-Raman spectroscopy," J. Appl. Phys. 103, (2008) Art. ID 083506.

A. A. Stolov, D. A. Simoff, "Micro attenuated total reflection spectra of bulk silica glass: Effects of experimental conditions and glass thermal history on appearance of a surface polariton in the Si-O stretching region," Appl. Spectrosc. 62, 624-633 (2008).

2007

A. Koike, M. Tomozawa, "IR investigation of density changes of silica glass and soda-lime silicate glass caused by microhardness indentation," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 353, 2318-2327 (2007).

K. Tsujikawa, K. Tajima, "Method for predicting Rayleigh scattering loss of silica-based optical fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 2122-2128 (2007).

M. Lancry, I. Flammer, D. Simons, B. Poumellec, C. Depecker, M. Douay, "Fictive temperature distribution in highly Ge-doped multimode optical fibers," J. Non-Cryst. Solids. 353, 473-476 (2007).

M. Lancry, I. Flammer, C. Depecker, B. Poumellec, D. Simons, P. Nouchi, M. Douay, "Fictive temperature mapping in highly Ge-doped multimode optical fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 1198-1205 (2007).

2006

T. Hirose, K. Saito, A. J. Ikushima, "Structural relaxation in sputter-deposited silica glass," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 2198-2203 (2006).

2005

P. Tandon, "Effects of stress on the structural relaxation behavior of glasses," J. Non.-Cryst. Solids 351, 2210-2216 (2005).

2004

M. Tomozawa, R. Hepburn, "Surface structural relaxation of silica glass: A possible mechanism of mechanical fatigue," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 345–346, 449-460 (2004).

P. Helander, "Measurement of fictive temperature of silica glass optical fibers," J. Mater. Sci. 39, 3799-3800 (2004).

J. E. Shelby, "Density of vitreous silica," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 349, 331-336 (2004).

Y. Yue, R. von der Ohe, S. L. Jensen, "Fictive temperature, cooling rate, and viscosity of glasses," J. Chem. Phys. 120, 8053-8059 (2004).

A. D. Yablon, M. F. Yan, D. J. DiGiovanni, M. E. Lines, S. L. Jones, D. N. Ridgway, G. A. Sandels, I. A. White, P. Wisk, F. V. DiMarcello, E. M. Monberg, J. Jasapara, "Frozen-in viscoelasticity for novel beam expanders and high-power connectors," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 16-23 (2004).

K. Saito, M. Yamaguchi, A. J. Ikushima, K. Ohsono, Y. Kurosawa, "Approach for reducing the Rayleigh scattering loss in optical fibers," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 1733-1735 (2004).

2003

K. Saito, M. Yamaguchi, H. Kakiuchida, A. J. Ikushima, K. Ohsono, Y. Kurosawa, "Limit of the Rayleigh scattering loss in silica fiber," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 5175-5177 (2003).

2001

D. L. Kim, M. Tomozawa, S. Dubois, G. Orcel, "Fictive temperature measurement of single-mode optical-fiber core and cladding," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 1155-1158 (2001).

D.-L. Kim, M. Tomozawa, "Fictive temperature of silica glass optical fibers—Re-examination," J. Non-Cryst. Solids. 286, 132-138 (2001).

2000

U. Haken, O. Humbach, S. Ortner, H. Fabian, "Refractive index of silica glass: Influence of fictive temperature," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 265, 9-18 (2000).

K. Tsujikawa, K. Tajima, M. Ohashi, "Rayleigh scattering reduction method for silica-based optical fiber," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 1528-1532 (2000).

B. C. Trasferetti, C. U. Davanzo, "S- and p-polarized infrared specular reflectance of vitrous silica at oblique incidences: Detection of LO mode," Appl. Spectrosc. 54, 502-507 (2000).

1999

D. J. Wissuchek, C. W. Ponader, J. J. Price, "Analysis of residual stress in optical fiber," Proc. SPIE 3848, 34-43 (1999).

U. C. Paek, "Free drawing and polymer coating of silica glass optical fibers," Trans. ASME 121, 774-788 (1999).

1998

M. Tomozawa, Y.-K. Lee, Y.-L. Peng, "Effect of uniaxial stresses on silica glass structure investigated by IR spectroscopy," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 242, 104-109 (1998).

C. Z. Tan, J. Arndt, H. S. Xie, "Optical properties of densified silica glasses," Physica B 252, 28-33 (1998).

1997

P. G. Simpkins, P. A. Blythe, "Laws for fiber temperature prediction during drawing," Trans. ASME 119, 652-655 (1997).

Y.-L. Peng, A. Agarwal, M. Tomozawa, T. Blanchet, "Radial distribution of fictive temperatures in silica optical fibers," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 217, 272-277 (1997).

1995

V. Ruddy, G. Shaw, "Mode coupling in large-diameter polymer clad silica fibers," Appl. Opt. 34, 1003-1006 (1995).

A. Agarwal, K. M. Davis, M. Tomozawa, "A simple IR spectroscopic method for determining fictive temperature of silica glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 185, 191-198 (1995).

C. Martinet, R. A. B. Devine, "Analysis of the vibrational mode spectra of amorphous SiO$_{2}$ films," J. Appl. Phys. 77, 4343-4348 (1995).

1994

S. R. Choudhury, Y. Jaluria, T. Vaskopoulos, C. E. Polymeropoulos, "Forced convective cooling of optical fiber during drawing process," Trans. ASME 116, 790-794 (1994).

1993

R. A. B. Devine, "Ion implantation- and radiation-induced structural modifications in amorphous SiO$_{2}$," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 152, 50-58 (1993).

1987

B. Velde, R. Coutry, "High-pressure infrared spectra of silica glass and quartz," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 94, 238-250 (1987).

1983

A. E. Geissberger, F. L. Galeener, "Raman studies of vitreous SiO$_{2}$ versus fictive temperature," Phys. Rev. B 28, 3266-3271 (1983).

1976

C. Moynihan, A. J. Easteal, M. A. DeBolt, "Dependence of fictive temperature of glass on cooling rate," J. Amer. Ceram. Soc. 59, 12-16 (1976).

1975

U. C. Paek, C. R. Kurkjian, "Calculation of cooling rate and induced stresses in drawing of optical fibers," J. Amer. Ceram. Soc. 58, 330-335 (1975).

1946

A. Q. Tool, "Relation between inelastic deformability and thermal expansion of glass in its annealing range," J. Amer. Ceram. Soc. 29, 240-253 (1946).

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

K. Saito, M. Yamaguchi, H. Kakiuchida, A. J. Ikushima, K. Ohsono, Y. Kurosawa, "Limit of the Rayleigh scattering loss in silica fiber," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 5175-5177 (2003).

Appl. Spectrosc.

J. Amer. Ceram. Soc.

C. Moynihan, A. J. Easteal, M. A. DeBolt, "Dependence of fictive temperature of glass on cooling rate," J. Amer. Ceram. Soc. 59, 12-16 (1976).

A. Q. Tool, "Relation between inelastic deformability and thermal expansion of glass in its annealing range," J. Amer. Ceram. Soc. 29, 240-253 (1946).

J. C. Mauro, R. J. Loucks, P. K. Gupta, "Fictive temperature and glassy state," J. Amer. Ceram. Soc. 92, 75-86 (2009).

U. C. Paek, C. R. Kurkjian, "Calculation of cooling rate and induced stresses in drawing of optical fibers," J. Amer. Ceram. Soc. 58, 330-335 (1975).

J. Appl. Phys.

C. Martinet, R. A. B. Devine, "Analysis of the vibrational mode spectra of amorphous SiO$_{2}$ films," J. Appl. Phys. 77, 4343-4348 (1995).

C. Martinet, V. Martinez, C. Coussa, B. Champagnon, M. Tomozawa, "Radial distribution of the fictive temperature in pure silica optical fibers by micro-Raman spectroscopy," J. Appl. Phys. 103, (2008) Art. ID 083506.

K. Saito, M. Yamaguchi, A. J. Ikushima, K. Ohsono, Y. Kurosawa, "Approach for reducing the Rayleigh scattering loss in optical fibers," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 1733-1735 (2004).

J. Chem. Phys.

Y. Yue, R. von der Ohe, S. L. Jensen, "Fictive temperature, cooling rate, and viscosity of glasses," J. Chem. Phys. 120, 8053-8059 (2004).

J. Lightw. Technol.

K. Tsujikawa, K. Tajima, "Method for predicting Rayleigh scattering loss of silica-based optical fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 2122-2128 (2007).

A. D. Yablon, M. F. Yan, D. J. DiGiovanni, M. E. Lines, S. L. Jones, D. N. Ridgway, G. A. Sandels, I. A. White, P. Wisk, F. V. DiMarcello, E. M. Monberg, J. Jasapara, "Frozen-in viscoelasticity for novel beam expanders and high-power connectors," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 16-23 (2004).

K. Tsujikawa, K. Tajima, M. Ohashi, "Rayleigh scattering reduction method for silica-based optical fiber," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 1528-1532 (2000).

M. Lancry, I. Flammer, C. Depecker, B. Poumellec, D. Simons, P. Nouchi, M. Douay, "Fictive temperature mapping in highly Ge-doped multimode optical fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 1198-1205 (2007).

D. L. Kim, M. Tomozawa, S. Dubois, G. Orcel, "Fictive temperature measurement of single-mode optical-fiber core and cladding," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 1155-1158 (2001).

J. Mater. Sci.

P. Helander, "Measurement of fictive temperature of silica glass optical fibers," J. Mater. Sci. 39, 3799-3800 (2004).

J. Non-Cryst. Solids

U. Haken, O. Humbach, S. Ortner, H. Fabian, "Refractive index of silica glass: Influence of fictive temperature," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 265, 9-18 (2000).

Y.-L. Peng, A. Agarwal, M. Tomozawa, T. Blanchet, "Radial distribution of fictive temperatures in silica optical fibers," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 217, 272-277 (1997).

A. Agarwal, K. M. Davis, M. Tomozawa, "A simple IR spectroscopic method for determining fictive temperature of silica glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 185, 191-198 (1995).

J. E. Shelby, "Density of vitreous silica," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 349, 331-336 (2004).

T. Hirose, K. Saito, A. J. Ikushima, "Structural relaxation in sputter-deposited silica glass," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 2198-2203 (2006).

A. Koike, M. Tomozawa, "IR investigation of density changes of silica glass and soda-lime silicate glass caused by microhardness indentation," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 353, 2318-2327 (2007).

B. Velde, R. Coutry, "High-pressure infrared spectra of silica glass and quartz," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 94, 238-250 (1987).

R. A. B. Devine, "Ion implantation- and radiation-induced structural modifications in amorphous SiO$_{2}$," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 152, 50-58 (1993).

M. Tomozawa, Y.-K. Lee, Y.-L. Peng, "Effect of uniaxial stresses on silica glass structure investigated by IR spectroscopy," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 242, 104-109 (1998).

M. Tomozawa, R. Hepburn, "Surface structural relaxation of silica glass: A possible mechanism of mechanical fatigue," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 345–346, 449-460 (2004).

J. Non-Cryst. Solids.

D.-L. Kim, M. Tomozawa, "Fictive temperature of silica glass optical fibers—Re-examination," J. Non-Cryst. Solids. 286, 132-138 (2001).

M. Lancry, I. Flammer, D. Simons, B. Poumellec, C. Depecker, M. Douay, "Fictive temperature distribution in highly Ge-doped multimode optical fibers," J. Non-Cryst. Solids. 353, 473-476 (2007).

J. Non.-Cryst. Solids

P. Tandon, "Effects of stress on the structural relaxation behavior of glasses," J. Non.-Cryst. Solids 351, 2210-2216 (2005).

Phys. Rev. B

A. E. Geissberger, F. L. Galeener, "Raman studies of vitreous SiO$_{2}$ versus fictive temperature," Phys. Rev. B 28, 3266-3271 (1983).

Physica B

C. Z. Tan, J. Arndt, H. S. Xie, "Optical properties of densified silica glasses," Physica B 252, 28-33 (1998).

Proc. SPIE

D. J. Wissuchek, C. W. Ponader, J. J. Price, "Analysis of residual stress in optical fiber," Proc. SPIE 3848, 34-43 (1999).

Trans. ASME

P. G. Simpkins, P. A. Blythe, "Laws for fiber temperature prediction during drawing," Trans. ASME 119, 652-655 (1997).

U. C. Paek, "Free drawing and polymer coating of silica glass optical fibers," Trans. ASME 121, 774-788 (1999).

S. R. Choudhury, Y. Jaluria, T. Vaskopoulos, C. E. Polymeropoulos, "Forced convective cooling of optical fiber during drawing process," Trans. ASME 116, 790-794 (1994).

Other

B. J. Skutnik, "Hard plastic claddings: Nearing two decades of performance," Optical Polymers. Fibers and Waveguides (2001) pp. 129-137.

X. Sun, J. Li, A. Hokansson, "Study of optical fiber damage under tight bend with high optical power at 2140 nm," Proc. SPIE (2007).

M. Lancry, E. Regnier, B. Poumellec, Optical Fibre, New Developments (In-Tech, 2009) pp. 125-160.

A. K. Varshneya, Fundamentals of Inorganic Glasses (Academic, 1994) pp. 236.

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