Abstract

Chirp characteristics of Silicon Mach–Zehnder Interferometer (MZI) modulators with forward-biased p-i-n and reverse-biased p-n structures are investigated by performing small-signal simulation, respectively. Simulation result shows that the chirp parameter is negative and influenced by the carrier absorption effect, the amplitude, and the frequency of applied sinusoidal modulating signals. Chirp performance at 10 GHz modulation frequency can be obtained by utilizing p-n depletion mode structure. Finally, a way to further lower the absolute value of the chirp parameter is provided by operating the MZI in a push–pull configuration.

© 2011 IEEE

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  1. F. Koyama, K. Lga, "Frequency chirping in external modulators," J. Lightw. Technol. 6, 87-93 (1988).
  2. T. Kawanishi, K. Kogo, S. Oikawa, M. Izutsu, "Direct measurement of chirp parameters of high-speed Mach–Zehnder-type optical modulators," Opt. Commun. 195, 399-404 (2001).
  3. H. Kim, A. H. Gnauck, "Chirp characteristics of dual-drive Mach–Zehnder modulator with a finite dc extinction ration," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 298-300 (2002).
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  5. N. Courjal, J. Dudley, H. Porte, "Extinction-ratio-independent method for chirp measurements of Mach–Zehnder modulators," Opt. Exp. 12, 442-448 (2004).
  6. A. Enokihara, T. Kawanishi, H. Murata, Y. Okamura, M. Izutsu, "Measurement of small chirp-parameter for Mach–Zehnder-type optical modulator," Opt. Commun. 282, 4229-4232 (2009).
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  14. R. A. Soref, B. R. Bennett, "Electrooptical effects in silicon," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 123-129 (1987).
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  17. http://www.silvaco.com.
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  19. G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, "Silicon optical modulators," Nature Photon. 4, 518-526 (2010).

2010 (4)

C. E. Rogers, J. L. Carini, J. A. Pechkis, P. L. Gould, "Characterization and compensation of the residual chirp in a Mach–Zehnder-type electro-optical intensity modulator," Opt. Exp. 18, 1166-1176 (2010).

L. Zhang, Y. Li, J. Y. Yang, M. Song, R. G. Beausoleil, A. E. Willner, "Silicon-based microring resonator modulators for intensity modulation," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 149-158 (2010).

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, A. L. Lentine, "Low-voltage, compact, depletion-mode, silicon Mach–Zehnder modulator," J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 159-164 (2010).

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, "Silicon optical modulators," Nature Photon. 4, 518-526 (2010).

2009 (3)

H. F. Zhou, Y. Zhao, W. Wang, J. Yang, M. Wang, X. Jiang, "Performance influence of carrier absorption to the Mach–Zehnder-interference based silicon optical switches," Opt. Exp. 17, 7043-7051 (2009).

A. Enokihara, T. Kawanishi, H. Murata, Y. Okamura, M. Izutsu, "Measurement of small chirp-parameter for Mach–Zehnder-type optical modulator," Opt. Commun. 282, 4229-4232 (2009).

J. S. Bakos, G. P. Djotyan, P. N. Ignácz, M. Á. Kedves, B. Ráczkevi, Z. Sörlei, J. Szigeti, "Generation of frequency-chirped laser pulses by an electro-optic amplitude modulator," Opt. Lasers Eng. 47, 19-23 (2009).

2007 (2)

W. M. Green, M. J. Rooks, L. Sekaric, Y. A. Vlasov, "Ultra-compact, low RF power, 10 Gb/s silicon Mach–Zehnder modulator," Opt. Exp. 15, 17106-17113 (2007).

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, M. Paniccia, "40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high-speed applications," Electron. Lett. 43, 1196-1197 (2007).

2005 (2)

F. Gardes, G. Reed, N. Emerson, C. Png, "A sub-micron depletion-type photonic modulator in silicon on insulator," Opt. Exp. 13, 8845-8854 (2005).

L. Ling, D. Samara-Rubio, M. Morse, A. Liu, D. Hodge, "High speed silicon Mach–Zehnder modulator," Opt. Exp. 13, 3129-3135 (2005).

2004 (1)

N. Courjal, J. Dudley, H. Porte, "Extinction-ratio-independent method for chirp measurements of Mach–Zehnder modulators," Opt. Exp. 12, 442-448 (2004).

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

H. Kim, A. H. Gnauck, "Chirp characteristics of dual-drive Mach–Zehnder modulator with a finite dc extinction ration," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 298-300 (2002).

2001 (1)

T. Kawanishi, K. Kogo, S. Oikawa, M. Izutsu, "Direct measurement of chirp parameters of high-speed Mach–Zehnder-type optical modulators," Opt. Commun. 195, 399-404 (2001).

1988 (1)

F. Koyama, K. Lga, "Frequency chirping in external modulators," J. Lightw. Technol. 6, 87-93 (1988).

1987 (1)

R. A. Soref, B. R. Bennett, "Electrooptical effects in silicon," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 123-129 (1987).

1986 (1)

R. A. Soref, P. J. Lorenzo, "All-silicon active and passive guided-wave components for $\lambda =1.3$ and 1.6 $\mu$m," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 873-879 (1986).

Electron. Lett. (1)

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, M. Paniccia, "40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high-speed applications," Electron. Lett. 43, 1196-1197 (2007).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

R. A. Soref, B. R. Bennett, "Electrooptical effects in silicon," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 123-129 (1987).

R. A. Soref, P. J. Lorenzo, "All-silicon active and passive guided-wave components for $\lambda =1.3$ and 1.6 $\mu$m," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 873-879 (1986).

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

L. Zhang, Y. Li, J. Y. Yang, M. Song, R. G. Beausoleil, A. E. Willner, "Silicon-based microring resonator modulators for intensity modulation," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 149-158 (2010).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

H. Kim, A. H. Gnauck, "Chirp characteristics of dual-drive Mach–Zehnder modulator with a finite dc extinction ration," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 298-300 (2002).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

F. Koyama, K. Lga, "Frequency chirping in external modulators," J. Lightw. Technol. 6, 87-93 (1988).

J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, A. L. Lentine, "Low-voltage, compact, depletion-mode, silicon Mach–Zehnder modulator," J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 159-164 (2010).

Nature Photon. (1)

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, "Silicon optical modulators," Nature Photon. 4, 518-526 (2010).

Opt. Commun. (2)

T. Kawanishi, K. Kogo, S. Oikawa, M. Izutsu, "Direct measurement of chirp parameters of high-speed Mach–Zehnder-type optical modulators," Opt. Commun. 195, 399-404 (2001).

A. Enokihara, T. Kawanishi, H. Murata, Y. Okamura, M. Izutsu, "Measurement of small chirp-parameter for Mach–Zehnder-type optical modulator," Opt. Commun. 282, 4229-4232 (2009).

Opt. Exp. (6)

N. Courjal, J. Dudley, H. Porte, "Extinction-ratio-independent method for chirp measurements of Mach–Zehnder modulators," Opt. Exp. 12, 442-448 (2004).

C. E. Rogers, J. L. Carini, J. A. Pechkis, P. L. Gould, "Characterization and compensation of the residual chirp in a Mach–Zehnder-type electro-optical intensity modulator," Opt. Exp. 18, 1166-1176 (2010).

F. Gardes, G. Reed, N. Emerson, C. Png, "A sub-micron depletion-type photonic modulator in silicon on insulator," Opt. Exp. 13, 8845-8854 (2005).

L. Ling, D. Samara-Rubio, M. Morse, A. Liu, D. Hodge, "High speed silicon Mach–Zehnder modulator," Opt. Exp. 13, 3129-3135 (2005).

W. M. Green, M. J. Rooks, L. Sekaric, Y. A. Vlasov, "Ultra-compact, low RF power, 10 Gb/s silicon Mach–Zehnder modulator," Opt. Exp. 15, 17106-17113 (2007).

H. F. Zhou, Y. Zhao, W. Wang, J. Yang, M. Wang, X. Jiang, "Performance influence of carrier absorption to the Mach–Zehnder-interference based silicon optical switches," Opt. Exp. 17, 7043-7051 (2009).

Opt. Lasers Eng. (1)

J. S. Bakos, G. P. Djotyan, P. N. Ignácz, M. Á. Kedves, B. Ráczkevi, Z. Sörlei, J. Szigeti, "Generation of frequency-chirped laser pulses by an electro-optic amplitude modulator," Opt. Lasers Eng. 47, 19-23 (2009).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (1)

http://www.silvaco.com.

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