Abstract

A specific modeling method is investigated in order to predict the large-signal modulation behavior of integrated electroabsorption modulators (EAMs) for high-speed applications in optical networks. The equivalent dynamic model includes the main nonlinearity of the EAM and takes into account the electrical and optical characteristics of the optoelectronic device. The developed specific design process is a suitable and powerful tool for simulating over wide dc bias and frequency ranges, scattering parameters, small-signal modulation response, and large-signal eye-diagram performance. Moreover, 3-D electromagnetic simulations are associated with circuit simulations to carry out for the RF input line of the EAM. This simulation model can be easily integrated in a global optical communication system simulator to estimate the temporal behavior of the modulated output optical power and then digital performances.

© 2011 IEEE

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  1. IEEE P802.3ba 40 Gb/s and 100 Gb/s Ethernet Task Force http://www.ieee802.org/3/ba.
  2. O. Mitomi, I. Kotaka, K. Wakita, S. Nojimaj, K. Kawano, Y. Kawamura, H. Asai, "40-GHz bandwidth ingaas/inalas multiple quantum well optical intensity modulator," Appl. Opt. 31, 2030-2035 (1992).
  3. M. Aoki, M. Suzuki, H. Sano, T. Kawano, T. Ido, T. Taniwatari, K. Uomi, A. Takai, "InGaAs/InGaAsP MQW electroabsorption modulator integrated with a DFB laser fabricated by bandgap energy control selective area MOCVD," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2088-2096 (1993).
  4. T. Ido, H. Sano, D. J. Moss, S. Tanaka, A. Takai, "Strained ingaas/inalas MQW electroabsorption modulators with large bandwidth and low driving voltage," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1207-1209 (1994).
  5. S. Dellier, F. Blache, D. Carpentier, C. Kazmierski, M. Le Pallec, D. Campovecchio, "40-GHz optical-pulse generator based on electroabsorption modulator driven by low-power MMIC," Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 47, 158-160 (2005).
  6. H. F. Chou, J. E. Bowers, "High-Speed OTDM and WDM networks using traveling-wave electroabsorption modulators," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 13, 58-69 (2007).
  7. P. Sricham, P. Rangsee, D.-R. Worasucheep, "A 2.5 gb/s electro-absorption modulator integrated laser optical transmitter in long-haul dense wavelength division multiplexing transmission," Proc. Int. Conf. Elect. Eng./Electron., Comput., Telecommun. Inf. Technol. (2008) pp. 253-256.
  8. H. Yamamoto, M. Hirai, O. Kagaya, K. Nogawa, K. Naoe, N. Sasada, M. Okayasu, "Compact and low consumption 1.55-$\mu$m electro-absorption modulator integrated DFB-LD TOSA for 10-gbit/s 40-km transmission," Conf. Opt. Fiber Commun., (2009) pp. 1-3.
  9. W. Kobayashi, M. Aria, T. Tamanaka, N. Fujiwara, T. Fujisawa, T. Tadokoro, K. Tsuzuki, Y. Kondo, F. Kano, "Design and fabrication of 10-/40-gb/s, uncooled electroabsorption modulator integrated DFB laser with butt-joint structure," J. Lightw Technol. 28, 164-171 (2010).
  10. M. Chacinski, U. Westergren, B. Stoltz, L. Thylen, R. Schatz, S. Hammerfeldt, "Monolithically integrated 100 GHz DFB-TWEAM," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 3410-3414 (2009).
  11. G. Lim, "Electro-absorption modulator integrated lasers with enhanced signal injection efficiency," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 685-691 (2008).
  12. R. Lewén, S. Irmscher, U. Eriksson, "Microwave CAD circuit modeling of a traveling-wave electroabsorption modulator," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 51, 1117-1128 (2003).
  13. R. Lewén, S. Irmscher, U. Westergren, L. Thylén, U. Eriksson, "Segmented transmission-line electroabsorption modulators," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 172-179 (2004).
  14. G. L. Li, P. K. L. Yu, W. S. C. Chang, K. K. Loi, C. K. Sun, S. A. Pappert, "Concise RF equivalent circuit model for electroabsorption modulators," Electron. Lett. 36, 818-820 (2000).
  15. F. Cappelluti, G. Ghione, "Self-consistent time-domain large-signal model of high-speed traveling-wave electroabsorption modulators," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 51, 1096-1104 (2003).
  16. G. E. Betts, X. B. Xie, I. Shubin, W. S. C. Chang, P. K. L. Yu, "Gain limit in analog links using electroabsorption modulators," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2065-2067 (2006).
  17. S. Hur, S. Nam, H. Lee, S. Hwang, Y. Oh, J. Jeong, "Performance evaluation of electroabsorption modulators as optical transceivers in radio-over-fiber systems by FDTD method," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4953-4958 (2006).
  18. T. Yamanaki, H. Fukano, T. Saitoh, "Lightwave-microwave unified analysis of electroabsorption modulators integrated with RF coplanar waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2562-2564 (2005).
  19. Agilent Advanced Design System Software http://www.home.agilent.com/ Available:.
  20. R. Funada, H. Harada, Y. Shoji, R. Kimura, Y. Nishiguchi, M. Lei, C. Choi, F. Kojima, C. W. Pyo, Z. Lan, I. Lakkis, M. Umehira, S. Kato, "A design of single carrier based PHY for IEEE 802.15.3c standard," Proc. 18th Annu. IEEE Int. Symp. Pers., Indoor Mobile Radio Commun. (2007) pp. 1-5.
  21. M. Shirai, H. Arimoto, K. Watanabe, A. Taike, K. Shinoda, J. Shimizu, H. Sato, T. Ido, T. Tsuchiya, M. Aoki, S. Tsuji, N. Sasada, S. Tada, M. Okayasu, "40 gbit/s electroabsorption modulators with impedance-controlled electrodes," Electron. Lett. 39, 733-735 (2003).
  22. H. Fukano, T. Yamanaka, M. Tamura, Y. Kondo, T. Saitoh, "Very low driving-voltage ingaalas/inalas electroabsorption modulators operating at 40 gbit/s," Electron. Lett. 41, 211-212 (2005).
  23. A. Garreau, M.-C. Cuisin, J.-G. Provost, F. Jorge, A. Konczykowska, C. Jany, J. Decobert, O. Drisse, F. Blache, D. Carpentier, E. Derouin, F. Martin, N. Lagay, J. Landreau, C. Kazmierski, "Wide temperature range operation at 43 gbit/s of 1.55 $\mu$m ingaalas electroabsorption modulated laser with single active layer," Int. Conf. Indium Phosphide Related Mater. (2007) pp. 358-360.
  24. G. L. Li, C. K. Sun, W. S. C. Chang, P. K. L. Yu, "Ultrahigh-speed traveling-wave electroabsorption modulator-design and analysis," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47, 1177-1183 (1999).
  25. A. Konczykowska, F. Jorge, C. Kazmierski, F. Blache, J. Godin, "EAM dff-driver optimization for 40 gb/s transmitter," Proc. IEEE MTT-S Int. Microw. Symp. Dig. (2005) pp. 1853-1856.
  26. K.-S. Choi, Y.-H. Kwon, J.-S. Choe, Y.-D. Chung, Y.-S. Kang, J. Kim, "Development of packaging technologies for high-speed ($>40$ gb/s) optical modules," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 1017-1024 (2006).
  27. Ansoft High Frequency Simulation System http://www.ansoft.com/products/hf/hfss/ Available:.
  28. A. D. Freundorfer, "Integrated electro-absorption modulator and gaas HBT driver circuit," Proc. IEEE Can. Conf. Elect. Comput. Eng. (2006) pp. 547-549.
  29. C. Sun, B. Xiong, J. Wang, P. Cai, J. Xu, Q. Zhou, Y. Luo, "Influence of residual facet reflection on the eye-diagram performance of high-speed electroabsorption modulated lasers," J. Lightw Technol. 27, 2970-2976 (2009).
  30. S. Dellier, F. Bache, M. Campovecchio, D. de La Grandie`re, S. Vuye, R. Quéré, J.-R. Burie, "40 GHz MMIC driver of electro-absorption modulator for high-speed optical pulse generation," Proc. IEEE MTT-S Int. Microw. Symp. Dig. (2003) pp. 1347-1350.
  31. C. Algani, A.-L. Billabert, F. Deshours, H. Chettat, C. Rumelhard, F. Blache, G. Alquié, "Main noise influence of the RIN laser diode of an EML transmitter used in an UWB rof link," 40th Eur. Microwave Conf. ParisFrance (2010).
  32. F. Deshours, A. L. Billabert, C. Algani, F. Blache, C. Rumelhard, G. Alquié, "A 40 gbps electro-absorption modulator integrated laser modeling method for optical transmitter in ultra-wide band radio-over-fiber systems," Int. J. Microw. Wireless Technol. 1, 1-9 (2010).

2010

W. Kobayashi, M. Aria, T. Tamanaka, N. Fujiwara, T. Fujisawa, T. Tadokoro, K. Tsuzuki, Y. Kondo, F. Kano, "Design and fabrication of 10-/40-gb/s, uncooled electroabsorption modulator integrated DFB laser with butt-joint structure," J. Lightw Technol. 28, 164-171 (2010).

F. Deshours, A. L. Billabert, C. Algani, F. Blache, C. Rumelhard, G. Alquié, "A 40 gbps electro-absorption modulator integrated laser modeling method for optical transmitter in ultra-wide band radio-over-fiber systems," Int. J. Microw. Wireless Technol. 1, 1-9 (2010).

2009

C. Sun, B. Xiong, J. Wang, P. Cai, J. Xu, Q. Zhou, Y. Luo, "Influence of residual facet reflection on the eye-diagram performance of high-speed electroabsorption modulated lasers," J. Lightw Technol. 27, 2970-2976 (2009).

M. Chacinski, U. Westergren, B. Stoltz, L. Thylen, R. Schatz, S. Hammerfeldt, "Monolithically integrated 100 GHz DFB-TWEAM," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 3410-3414 (2009).

2008

G. Lim, "Electro-absorption modulator integrated lasers with enhanced signal injection efficiency," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 685-691 (2008).

2007

H. F. Chou, J. E. Bowers, "High-Speed OTDM and WDM networks using traveling-wave electroabsorption modulators," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 13, 58-69 (2007).

2006

G. E. Betts, X. B. Xie, I. Shubin, W. S. C. Chang, P. K. L. Yu, "Gain limit in analog links using electroabsorption modulators," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2065-2067 (2006).

S. Hur, S. Nam, H. Lee, S. Hwang, Y. Oh, J. Jeong, "Performance evaluation of electroabsorption modulators as optical transceivers in radio-over-fiber systems by FDTD method," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4953-4958 (2006).

K.-S. Choi, Y.-H. Kwon, J.-S. Choe, Y.-D. Chung, Y.-S. Kang, J. Kim, "Development of packaging technologies for high-speed ($>40$ gb/s) optical modules," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 1017-1024 (2006).

2005

H. Fukano, T. Yamanaka, M. Tamura, Y. Kondo, T. Saitoh, "Very low driving-voltage ingaalas/inalas electroabsorption modulators operating at 40 gbit/s," Electron. Lett. 41, 211-212 (2005).

T. Yamanaki, H. Fukano, T. Saitoh, "Lightwave-microwave unified analysis of electroabsorption modulators integrated with RF coplanar waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2562-2564 (2005).

S. Dellier, F. Blache, D. Carpentier, C. Kazmierski, M. Le Pallec, D. Campovecchio, "40-GHz optical-pulse generator based on electroabsorption modulator driven by low-power MMIC," Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 47, 158-160 (2005).

2004

R. Lewén, S. Irmscher, U. Westergren, L. Thylén, U. Eriksson, "Segmented transmission-line electroabsorption modulators," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 172-179 (2004).

2003

F. Cappelluti, G. Ghione, "Self-consistent time-domain large-signal model of high-speed traveling-wave electroabsorption modulators," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 51, 1096-1104 (2003).

M. Shirai, H. Arimoto, K. Watanabe, A. Taike, K. Shinoda, J. Shimizu, H. Sato, T. Ido, T. Tsuchiya, M. Aoki, S. Tsuji, N. Sasada, S. Tada, M. Okayasu, "40 gbit/s electroabsorption modulators with impedance-controlled electrodes," Electron. Lett. 39, 733-735 (2003).

R. Lewén, S. Irmscher, U. Eriksson, "Microwave CAD circuit modeling of a traveling-wave electroabsorption modulator," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 51, 1117-1128 (2003).

2000

G. L. Li, P. K. L. Yu, W. S. C. Chang, K. K. Loi, C. K. Sun, S. A. Pappert, "Concise RF equivalent circuit model for electroabsorption modulators," Electron. Lett. 36, 818-820 (2000).

1999

G. L. Li, C. K. Sun, W. S. C. Chang, P. K. L. Yu, "Ultrahigh-speed traveling-wave electroabsorption modulator-design and analysis," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47, 1177-1183 (1999).

1994

T. Ido, H. Sano, D. J. Moss, S. Tanaka, A. Takai, "Strained ingaas/inalas MQW electroabsorption modulators with large bandwidth and low driving voltage," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1207-1209 (1994).

1993

M. Aoki, M. Suzuki, H. Sano, T. Kawano, T. Ido, T. Taniwatari, K. Uomi, A. Takai, "InGaAs/InGaAsP MQW electroabsorption modulator integrated with a DFB laser fabricated by bandgap energy control selective area MOCVD," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2088-2096 (1993).

1992

O. Mitomi, I. Kotaka, K. Wakita, S. Nojimaj, K. Kawano, Y. Kawamura, H. Asai, "40-GHz bandwidth ingaas/inalas multiple quantum well optical intensity modulator," Appl. Opt. 31, 2030-2035 (1992).

Appl. Opt.

O. Mitomi, I. Kotaka, K. Wakita, S. Nojimaj, K. Kawano, Y. Kawamura, H. Asai, "40-GHz bandwidth ingaas/inalas multiple quantum well optical intensity modulator," Appl. Opt. 31, 2030-2035 (1992).

Electron. Lett.

G. L. Li, P. K. L. Yu, W. S. C. Chang, K. K. Loi, C. K. Sun, S. A. Pappert, "Concise RF equivalent circuit model for electroabsorption modulators," Electron. Lett. 36, 818-820 (2000).

M. Shirai, H. Arimoto, K. Watanabe, A. Taike, K. Shinoda, J. Shimizu, H. Sato, T. Ido, T. Tsuchiya, M. Aoki, S. Tsuji, N. Sasada, S. Tada, M. Okayasu, "40 gbit/s electroabsorption modulators with impedance-controlled electrodes," Electron. Lett. 39, 733-735 (2003).

H. Fukano, T. Yamanaka, M. Tamura, Y. Kondo, T. Saitoh, "Very low driving-voltage ingaalas/inalas electroabsorption modulators operating at 40 gbit/s," Electron. Lett. 41, 211-212 (2005).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

M. Aoki, M. Suzuki, H. Sano, T. Kawano, T. Ido, T. Taniwatari, K. Uomi, A. Takai, "InGaAs/InGaAsP MQW electroabsorption modulator integrated with a DFB laser fabricated by bandgap energy control selective area MOCVD," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2088-2096 (1993).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron.

H. F. Chou, J. E. Bowers, "High-Speed OTDM and WDM networks using traveling-wave electroabsorption modulators," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 13, 58-69 (2007).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

T. Ido, H. Sano, D. J. Moss, S. Tanaka, A. Takai, "Strained ingaas/inalas MQW electroabsorption modulators with large bandwidth and low driving voltage," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1207-1209 (1994).

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.

R. Lewén, S. Irmscher, U. Eriksson, "Microwave CAD circuit modeling of a traveling-wave electroabsorption modulator," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 51, 1117-1128 (2003).

G. L. Li, C. K. Sun, W. S. C. Chang, P. K. L. Yu, "Ultrahigh-speed traveling-wave electroabsorption modulator-design and analysis," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47, 1177-1183 (1999).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron.

K.-S. Choi, Y.-H. Kwon, J.-S. Choe, Y.-D. Chung, Y.-S. Kang, J. Kim, "Development of packaging technologies for high-speed ($>40$ gb/s) optical modules," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 1017-1024 (2006).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

G. E. Betts, X. B. Xie, I. Shubin, W. S. C. Chang, P. K. L. Yu, "Gain limit in analog links using electroabsorption modulators," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2065-2067 (2006).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

T. Yamanaki, H. Fukano, T. Saitoh, "Lightwave-microwave unified analysis of electroabsorption modulators integrated with RF coplanar waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2562-2564 (2005).

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.

F. Cappelluti, G. Ghione, "Self-consistent time-domain large-signal model of high-speed traveling-wave electroabsorption modulators," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 51, 1096-1104 (2003).

Int. J. Microw. Wireless Technol.

F. Deshours, A. L. Billabert, C. Algani, F. Blache, C. Rumelhard, G. Alquié, "A 40 gbps electro-absorption modulator integrated laser modeling method for optical transmitter in ultra-wide band radio-over-fiber systems," Int. J. Microw. Wireless Technol. 1, 1-9 (2010).

J. Lightw Technol.

C. Sun, B. Xiong, J. Wang, P. Cai, J. Xu, Q. Zhou, Y. Luo, "Influence of residual facet reflection on the eye-diagram performance of high-speed electroabsorption modulated lasers," J. Lightw Technol. 27, 2970-2976 (2009).

W. Kobayashi, M. Aria, T. Tamanaka, N. Fujiwara, T. Fujisawa, T. Tadokoro, K. Tsuzuki, Y. Kondo, F. Kano, "Design and fabrication of 10-/40-gb/s, uncooled electroabsorption modulator integrated DFB laser with butt-joint structure," J. Lightw Technol. 28, 164-171 (2010).

J. Lightw. Technol.

M. Chacinski, U. Westergren, B. Stoltz, L. Thylen, R. Schatz, S. Hammerfeldt, "Monolithically integrated 100 GHz DFB-TWEAM," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 3410-3414 (2009).

G. Lim, "Electro-absorption modulator integrated lasers with enhanced signal injection efficiency," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 685-691 (2008).

R. Lewén, S. Irmscher, U. Westergren, L. Thylén, U. Eriksson, "Segmented transmission-line electroabsorption modulators," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 172-179 (2004).

S. Hur, S. Nam, H. Lee, S. Hwang, Y. Oh, J. Jeong, "Performance evaluation of electroabsorption modulators as optical transceivers in radio-over-fiber systems by FDTD method," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4953-4958 (2006).

Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett.

S. Dellier, F. Blache, D. Carpentier, C. Kazmierski, M. Le Pallec, D. Campovecchio, "40-GHz optical-pulse generator based on electroabsorption modulator driven by low-power MMIC," Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 47, 158-160 (2005).

Other

P. Sricham, P. Rangsee, D.-R. Worasucheep, "A 2.5 gb/s electro-absorption modulator integrated laser optical transmitter in long-haul dense wavelength division multiplexing transmission," Proc. Int. Conf. Elect. Eng./Electron., Comput., Telecommun. Inf. Technol. (2008) pp. 253-256.

H. Yamamoto, M. Hirai, O. Kagaya, K. Nogawa, K. Naoe, N. Sasada, M. Okayasu, "Compact and low consumption 1.55-$\mu$m electro-absorption modulator integrated DFB-LD TOSA for 10-gbit/s 40-km transmission," Conf. Opt. Fiber Commun., (2009) pp. 1-3.

Agilent Advanced Design System Software http://www.home.agilent.com/ Available:.

R. Funada, H. Harada, Y. Shoji, R. Kimura, Y. Nishiguchi, M. Lei, C. Choi, F. Kojima, C. W. Pyo, Z. Lan, I. Lakkis, M. Umehira, S. Kato, "A design of single carrier based PHY for IEEE 802.15.3c standard," Proc. 18th Annu. IEEE Int. Symp. Pers., Indoor Mobile Radio Commun. (2007) pp. 1-5.

S. Dellier, F. Bache, M. Campovecchio, D. de La Grandie`re, S. Vuye, R. Quéré, J.-R. Burie, "40 GHz MMIC driver of electro-absorption modulator for high-speed optical pulse generation," Proc. IEEE MTT-S Int. Microw. Symp. Dig. (2003) pp. 1347-1350.

C. Algani, A.-L. Billabert, F. Deshours, H. Chettat, C. Rumelhard, F. Blache, G. Alquié, "Main noise influence of the RIN laser diode of an EML transmitter used in an UWB rof link," 40th Eur. Microwave Conf. ParisFrance (2010).

Ansoft High Frequency Simulation System http://www.ansoft.com/products/hf/hfss/ Available:.

A. D. Freundorfer, "Integrated electro-absorption modulator and gaas HBT driver circuit," Proc. IEEE Can. Conf. Elect. Comput. Eng. (2006) pp. 547-549.

A. Konczykowska, F. Jorge, C. Kazmierski, F. Blache, J. Godin, "EAM dff-driver optimization for 40 gb/s transmitter," Proc. IEEE MTT-S Int. Microw. Symp. Dig. (2005) pp. 1853-1856.

A. Garreau, M.-C. Cuisin, J.-G. Provost, F. Jorge, A. Konczykowska, C. Jany, J. Decobert, O. Drisse, F. Blache, D. Carpentier, E. Derouin, F. Martin, N. Lagay, J. Landreau, C. Kazmierski, "Wide temperature range operation at 43 gbit/s of 1.55 $\mu$m ingaalas electroabsorption modulated laser with single active layer," Int. Conf. Indium Phosphide Related Mater. (2007) pp. 358-360.

IEEE P802.3ba 40 Gb/s and 100 Gb/s Ethernet Task Force http://www.ieee802.org/3/ba.

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