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of optical DQPSK systems with postdetection filtering ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 908-910 (2009).

P. Serena, N. Rossi, M. Bertolini, A. Bononi, "Stratified sampling Monte Carlo algorithm
for efficient BER estimation in long-haul optical transmission systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 2404-2411 (2009 ).

E. Forestieri, M. Secondini, "On the error probability evaluation
in lightwave systems with optical amplification," J.
Lightw. Technol. 27, 706 -717 (2009).

L. Gerardi, M. Secondini, E. Forestieri, "Pattern perturbation method
for multicanonical monte carlo simulations in optical communications ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1934-1936 (2007).

O. V. Sinkin, V. S. Grigoryan, C. R. Menyuk, "Accurate probabilistic treatment
of bit-pattern-dependent nonlinear distortions in ber calculations for wdm
rz systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 2959-2967 (2007 ).

W. Pellegrini, J. Zweck, C. R. Menyuk, R. Holzlohner, "Computation of bit error rates for a dense
wdm system using the noise covariance matrix and multicanonical monte carlo
methods," IEEE Photon. Techn. Lett. 17 , 1644-1646 (2005 ).

R. S. Luís, A. V. T. Cartaxo, "Analytical characterization
of spm impact on xpm-induced degradation in dispersion-compensated wdm systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 1503-1513 (2005).

P. Serena, A. Bononi, J.-C. Antona, S. Bigo, "Parametric gain in the strongly nonlinear
regime and its impact on 10-Gb/s NRZ systems with forward-error correction," J. Lightw Technol. 23, 2352-2363 (2005 ).

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R. Holzlohner, C. R. Menyuk, W. L. Kath, V. S. Grigoryan, "A covariance matrix method
to compute bit error rates in a highly nonlinear dispersion-managed soliton
system," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 688-690 (2003 ).

G. O. Roberts, J. S. Rosenthal, "Optimal scaling for various
Metropolis Hastings algorithms," Statist. Sci. 16, 351-367 (2001).

G. Bosco, A. Carena, V. Curri, R. Gaudino, P. Poggiolini, S. Benedetto, "A novel analytical approach to the evaluation
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equation," J. Comp. Phys. 55, 203-230 (1984).

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by fast computing machines," J. Chem. Phys. 21, 1087-1092 (1953).

L. A. Shepp, "Radon-Nikodym derivatives of
Gaussian measures," Ann. Math. Statist. 37, 321-354 (1966 ).

W. K. Hastings, "Monte Carlo sampling methods
using Markov chains and their applications," Biometrika 57, 97-109 (1970).

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P. J. Smith, M. Shafi, H. Gao, "Quick simulation: A review of importance sampling techniques
in communication systems ," IEEE J. Sel. Areas
Commun. 15, 597-613 (1997).

K.-P. Ho, "Error probability of DPSK signals
with cross-phase modulation induced nonlinear phase noise ," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 10, 421-427 (2004).

W. Pellegrini, J. Zweck, C. R. Menyuk, R. Holzlohner, "Computation of bit error rates for a dense
wdm system using the noise covariance matrix and multicanonical monte carlo
methods," IEEE Photon. Techn. Lett. 17 , 1644-1646 (2005 ).

M. Secondini, M. Frezzini, E. Forestieri, "Analytical performance evaluation
of optical DQPSK systems with postdetection filtering ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 908-910 (2009).

R. Holzlohner, C. R. Menyuk, W. L. Kath, V. S. Grigoryan, "A covariance matrix method
to compute bit error rates in a highly nonlinear dispersion-managed soliton
system," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 688-690 (2003 ).

L. Gerardi, M. Secondini, E. Forestieri, "Pattern perturbation method
for multicanonical monte carlo simulations in optical communications ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1934-1936 (2007).

G. Bosco, A. Carena, V. Curri, R. Gaudino, P. Poggiolini, S. Benedetto, "A novel analytical approach to the evaluation
of the impact of fiber parametric gain on the bit error rate," IEEE Trans. Commun. 49, 2154-2163 (2001).

E. Forestieri, M. Secondini, "On the error probability evaluation
in lightwave systems with optical amplification," J.
Lightw. Technol. 27, 706 -717 (2009).

N. Metropolis, A. W. Rosenbluth, M. N. Rosenbluth, A. H. Teller, E. Teller, "Equation of state calculations
by fast computing machines," J. Chem. Phys. 21, 1087-1092 (1953).

T. R. Taha, M. J. Ablowitz, "Analytical and numerical aspects
of certain nonlinear evolution equation. II. numerical, nonlinear schrödinger
equation," J. Comp. Phys. 55, 203-230 (1984).

P. Serena, A. Bononi, J.-C. Antona, S. Bigo, "Parametric gain in the strongly nonlinear
regime and its impact on 10-Gb/s NRZ systems with forward-error correction," J. Lightw Technol. 23, 2352-2363 (2005 ).

P. Serena, N. Rossi, M. Bertolini, A. Bononi, "Stratified sampling Monte Carlo algorithm
for efficient BER estimation in long-haul optical transmission systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 2404-2411 (2009 ).

R. S. Luís, A. V. T. Cartaxo, "Analytical characterization
of spm impact on xpm-induced degradation in dispersion-compensated wdm systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 1503-1513 (2005).

O. V. Sinkin, V. S. Grigoryan, C. R. Menyuk, "Accurate probabilistic treatment
of bit-pattern-dependent nonlinear distortions in ber calculations for wdm
rz systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 2959-2967 (2007 ).

B. A. Berg, T. Neuhaus, "Multicanonical ensemble: A
new approach to simulate first-order phase transitions," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 9-12 (1992).

R. Hardin, F. D. Tappert, "Applications of the split-step
Fourier method to the numerical solution of nonlinear and variable coefficient
wave equations," SIAM Rev. Chronicle 15, 423 (1973).

G. O. Roberts, J. S. Rosenthal, "Optimal scaling for various
Metropolis Hastings algorithms," Statist. Sci. 16, 351-367 (2001).

J. F. C. Kingman, S. J. Taylor, Introduction to Measure and Probability (Cambridge
Univ. Press, 1966).

M. Secondini, D. Fertonani, G. Colavolpe, E. Forestieri, "Performance evaluation of viterbi
decoders by multicanonical monte carlo simulations ," Proc.
IEEE Int. Symp. Inf. Theory (2009) pp. 1363-1367.