Abstract

Micro-optical devices embedded in transparent materials are usually manufactured focusing a pulsed laser in bulk fused silica. Under this condition, pulsewidth becomes the most important parameter that rules the size of the inscriptions. Ultrafast pulses (pico- and femtosecond pulses) avoid thermal effects and the results present a high efficiency. Nevertheless, nanosecond lasers are more available due the reduced costs. Therefore, a study of the optical behavior of embedded elements micromachined by nanosecond pulses is required. In this study, we show that this regime of pulses can still be used for engraving diffractive optical elements in transparent materials, regardless of the thermal damage. A Fresnel zone plate and a far-field beam shaper have been manufactured as an example of the functionality of these devices.

© 2011 IEEE

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2010

I. Moreno, A. Martínez-García, L. Nieradko, J. Albero, C. Gorecki, "Low cost production of computer-generated holograms: From design to optical evaluation ," J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rap. Public. 5, 1-9 (2010).

2009

S.-H. Cho, W.-S. Chang, K.-R. Kim, J.-W. Hong, "Femtosecond laser embedded grating micromachining of flexible PDMS plates," Opt. Commun. 282, 1317-1321 (2009).

2007

B. Hopp, T. Smausz, M. Bereznat, "Processing of transparent materials using visible nanosecond laser pulses," App. Phys. A 87, 77-79 (2007).

2006

2005

Y. Li, Y. Dou, R. An, H. Yang, Q. Gong, "Permanent computer-generated holograms ebedded in silica glass by femtosecond laser pulses ," Opt. Exp. 13, 2433-2438 (2005).

T. J. Suleski, "Fabrication trends for free-space microoptics," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 633-646 (2005).

2004

V. Mizeikis, K. K. Seet, S. Juodkazis, H. Misawa, "Three-dimensional woodpile photonic crystal templates for the infrared spectral range ," Opt. Lett. 29, 2061-2063 (2004).

O. Efimov, S. Juodkazis, H. Misawa, "Intrinsic single- and multiple-pulse laser-induced damage in silicate glasses in the femtosecond-to-nanosecond region," Phys. Rev. A 69, 042903-1-042903-7 (2004).

2003

S. Juodkazis, A. V. Rode, E. G. Gamaly, S. Matsuo, H. Misawa, "Recording and reading of three-dimensional optical memory in glasses," Appl. Phys. B 77, 361-368 (2003).

2002

W. Watanabe, D. Kuroda, K. Itoh, "Fabrication of Fresnel zone plate embedded in silica glass by femtosecond laser pulses ," Opt. Exp. 10, 978-983 (2002).

E. G. Gamaly, A. V. Rode, B. Luther-Davies, "Ablation of solids by femtosecond laser: Ablation mechanism and ablation thresholds for metals and dielectrics," Phys. Plasmas 9, 949-957 (2002).

2001

1996

E. N. Glezer, M. Milosavljevic, L. Huang, R. J. Finlay, T. H. Her, J. P. Callan, E. Mazur, "Three-dimensional optical storage inside transparent materials," Opt. Lett. 21, 2023-2025 (1996).

T. Tanaka, S. Kawata, "Comparison of recording densities in three-dimensional optical storage systems: Multilayered bit recording versus angularly multiplexed holographic recording," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 13, 935-943 (1996).

1989

F. Wyrowski, "Iterative quantization of digital amplitude holograms," App. Opt. 28, 3864-3870 (1989).

App. Phys. A

B. Hopp, T. Smausz, M. Bereznat, "Processing of transparent materials using visible nanosecond laser pulses," App. Phys. A 87, 77-79 (2007).

App. Opt.

F. Wyrowski, "Iterative quantization of digital amplitude holograms," App. Opt. 28, 3864-3870 (1989).

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. B

S. Juodkazis, A. V. Rode, E. G. Gamaly, S. Matsuo, H. Misawa, "Recording and reading of three-dimensional optical memory in glasses," Appl. Phys. B 77, 361-368 (2003).

J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rap. Public.

I. Moreno, A. Martínez-García, L. Nieradko, J. Albero, C. Gorecki, "Low cost production of computer-generated holograms: From design to optical evaluation ," J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rap. Public. 5, 1-9 (2010).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A

T. Tanaka, S. Kawata, "Comparison of recording densities in three-dimensional optical storage systems: Multilayered bit recording versus angularly multiplexed holographic recording," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 13, 935-943 (1996).

J. Lightw. Technol.

T. J. Suleski, "Fabrication trends for free-space microoptics," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 633-646 (2005).

Opt. Commun.

S.-H. Cho, W.-S. Chang, K.-R. Kim, J.-W. Hong, "Femtosecond laser embedded grating micromachining of flexible PDMS plates," Opt. Commun. 282, 1317-1321 (2009).

Opt. Exp.

W. Watanabe, D. Kuroda, K. Itoh, "Fabrication of Fresnel zone plate embedded in silica glass by femtosecond laser pulses ," Opt. Exp. 10, 978-983 (2002).

Opt. Exp.

Y. Li, Y. Dou, R. An, H. Yang, Q. Gong, "Permanent computer-generated holograms ebedded in silica glass by femtosecond laser pulses ," Opt. Exp. 13, 2433-2438 (2005).

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Plasmas

E. G. Gamaly, A. V. Rode, B. Luther-Davies, "Ablation of solids by femtosecond laser: Ablation mechanism and ablation thresholds for metals and dielectrics," Phys. Plasmas 9, 949-957 (2002).

Phys. Rev. A

O. Efimov, S. Juodkazis, H. Misawa, "Intrinsic single- and multiple-pulse laser-induced damage in silicate glasses in the femtosecond-to-nanosecond region," Phys. Rev. A 69, 042903-1-042903-7 (2004).

Other

E. Hecht, Optics (Addison Wesley, 2002).

P. Gibbon, Short Pulse Laser Interactions With Matter (Imperial College Press, 2005).

J. Turunen, F. Wyrowski, Diffractive Optics for Industrial and Commercial Applications (Akademie-Verlag, 1997).

H. P. Herzig, Micro-Optics. Elements, Systems and Applications (Taylor & Francis, 1997).

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