Abstract

A simplified quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) feedforward carrier recovery algorithm is proposed. By introducing a new two-stage estimation structure and sliding-block approach, the required computational effort can be significantly reduced with a tolerable performance deterioration compared with the original algorithm. In order to choose the size of the sliding block properly, an analytical model is proposed that takes the optical SNR (OSNR) and the laser-linewidth-times symbol-rate product into account. The model reveals different influence of OSNR and the laser-linewidth-times symbol-rate product on the performance of any carrier recovery algorithm. The performance of the simplified algorithm is evaluated by Monte Carlo simulations for square 16-, 64-, and 256-QAM. The simulation results show that the computational effort for each symbol can be significantly reduced at the cost of a 11% reduction of laser linewidth tolerance.

© 2011 IEEE

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  1. T. Pfau, S. Hoffmann, R. Noé, "Hardware-efficient coherent digital receiver concept with feedforward carrier recovery for M-QAM constellations," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 989-999 (2009).
  2. S. Savory, "Digital filters for coherent optical receivers," Opt. Exp. 16, 804-817 (2008).
  3. E. Ip, J. Kahn, "Digital equalization of chromatic dispersion and polarization mode dispersion," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 2033-2043 (2007).
  4. M. G. Taylor, "Coherent detection method using DSP for demodulation of signal and subsequent equalization of propagation impairments," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 674-676 (2004).
  5. K.-P. Ho, J. M. Kahn, "Electronic compensation technique to mitigate nonlinear phase noise," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 779-783 (2004).
  6. E. Ip, J. M. Kahn, "Compensation of dispersion and nonlinear impairments using digital backpropagation," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 3416-3425 (2008).
  7. R. Noé, "Phase noise tolerant synchronous QPSK/BPSK baseband-type intradyne receiver concept with feed-forward carrier recovery," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 802-808 (2005).
  8. S. Hoffmann, R. Peveling, T. Pfau, O. Adamczyk, R. Eickhoff, R. Noé, "Multiplier-free real-time phase tracking for coherent QPSK receivers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 137-139 (2009).
  9. S. Zhang, P. Y. Kam, C. Yu, J. Chen, "Laser linewidth tolerance of decision-aided maximum likelihood phase estimation in coherent optical M-ary PSK and QAM systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1075-1077 (2009).
  10. I. Fatadin, D. Ives, S. J. Savory, "Laser linewidth tolerance for 16-QAM coherent optical systems using QPSK partitioning," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 631-633 (2010).
  11. M. Seimetz, "Laser linewidth limitations for optical systems with high order modulation employing feed forward digital carrier phase estimation," Optical Fiber Communication/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. San DiegoCA (2008) Paper OTuM2.
  12. T. Pfau, R. Noé, "Phase-noise-tolerant two-stage carrier recovery concept for higher order QAM formats," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 16, 1210-1216 (2010).
  13. X. Zhou, "An improved feed-forward carrier recovery algorithm for coherent receivers with M-QAM modulation format," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1051-1053 (2010).
  14. P. J. Black, T. H.-Y. Meng, "A 1-Gb/s, four-state, sliding block Viterbi decoder," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 32, 797-805 (1997).
  15. W. Weber, "Differential encoding for multiple amplitude and phase shift keying systems," IEEE Trans. Commun. COM-26, 385-391 (1978).
  16. S. Tretter, "Estimating the frequency of a noisy sinusoid by linear regression," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 31, 832-835 (1985).
  17. M. G. Taylor, "Phase estimation methods for optical coherent detection using digital signal processing," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 901-914 (2009).

2010 (3)

I. Fatadin, D. Ives, S. J. Savory, "Laser linewidth tolerance for 16-QAM coherent optical systems using QPSK partitioning," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 631-633 (2010).

T. Pfau, R. Noé, "Phase-noise-tolerant two-stage carrier recovery concept for higher order QAM formats," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 16, 1210-1216 (2010).

X. Zhou, "An improved feed-forward carrier recovery algorithm for coherent receivers with M-QAM modulation format," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1051-1053 (2010).

2009 (4)

M. G. Taylor, "Phase estimation methods for optical coherent detection using digital signal processing," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 901-914 (2009).

T. Pfau, S. Hoffmann, R. Noé, "Hardware-efficient coherent digital receiver concept with feedforward carrier recovery for M-QAM constellations," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 989-999 (2009).

S. Hoffmann, R. Peveling, T. Pfau, O. Adamczyk, R. Eickhoff, R. Noé, "Multiplier-free real-time phase tracking for coherent QPSK receivers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 137-139 (2009).

S. Zhang, P. Y. Kam, C. Yu, J. Chen, "Laser linewidth tolerance of decision-aided maximum likelihood phase estimation in coherent optical M-ary PSK and QAM systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1075-1077 (2009).

2008 (2)

E. Ip, J. M. Kahn, "Compensation of dispersion and nonlinear impairments using digital backpropagation," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 3416-3425 (2008).

S. Savory, "Digital filters for coherent optical receivers," Opt. Exp. 16, 804-817 (2008).

2007 (1)

E. Ip, J. Kahn, "Digital equalization of chromatic dispersion and polarization mode dispersion," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 2033-2043 (2007).

2005 (1)

R. Noé, "Phase noise tolerant synchronous QPSK/BPSK baseband-type intradyne receiver concept with feed-forward carrier recovery," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 802-808 (2005).

2004 (2)

M. G. Taylor, "Coherent detection method using DSP for demodulation of signal and subsequent equalization of propagation impairments," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 674-676 (2004).

K.-P. Ho, J. M. Kahn, "Electronic compensation technique to mitigate nonlinear phase noise," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 779-783 (2004).

1997 (1)

P. J. Black, T. H.-Y. Meng, "A 1-Gb/s, four-state, sliding block Viterbi decoder," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 32, 797-805 (1997).

1985 (1)

S. Tretter, "Estimating the frequency of a noisy sinusoid by linear regression," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 31, 832-835 (1985).

1978 (1)

W. Weber, "Differential encoding for multiple amplitude and phase shift keying systems," IEEE Trans. Commun. COM-26, 385-391 (1978).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

T. Pfau, R. Noé, "Phase-noise-tolerant two-stage carrier recovery concept for higher order QAM formats," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 16, 1210-1216 (2010).

IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits (1)

P. J. Black, T. H.-Y. Meng, "A 1-Gb/s, four-state, sliding block Viterbi decoder," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 32, 797-805 (1997).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (5)

X. Zhou, "An improved feed-forward carrier recovery algorithm for coherent receivers with M-QAM modulation format," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1051-1053 (2010).

M. G. Taylor, "Coherent detection method using DSP for demodulation of signal and subsequent equalization of propagation impairments," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 674-676 (2004).

S. Hoffmann, R. Peveling, T. Pfau, O. Adamczyk, R. Eickhoff, R. Noé, "Multiplier-free real-time phase tracking for coherent QPSK receivers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 137-139 (2009).

S. Zhang, P. Y. Kam, C. Yu, J. Chen, "Laser linewidth tolerance of decision-aided maximum likelihood phase estimation in coherent optical M-ary PSK and QAM systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1075-1077 (2009).

I. Fatadin, D. Ives, S. J. Savory, "Laser linewidth tolerance for 16-QAM coherent optical systems using QPSK partitioning," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 631-633 (2010).

IEEE Trans. Commun. (1)

W. Weber, "Differential encoding for multiple amplitude and phase shift keying systems," IEEE Trans. Commun. COM-26, 385-391 (1978).

IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory (1)

S. Tretter, "Estimating the frequency of a noisy sinusoid by linear regression," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 31, 832-835 (1985).

J. Lightw. Technol. (6)

M. G. Taylor, "Phase estimation methods for optical coherent detection using digital signal processing," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 901-914 (2009).

T. Pfau, S. Hoffmann, R. Noé, "Hardware-efficient coherent digital receiver concept with feedforward carrier recovery for M-QAM constellations," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 989-999 (2009).

K.-P. Ho, J. M. Kahn, "Electronic compensation technique to mitigate nonlinear phase noise," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 779-783 (2004).

E. Ip, J. M. Kahn, "Compensation of dispersion and nonlinear impairments using digital backpropagation," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 3416-3425 (2008).

R. Noé, "Phase noise tolerant synchronous QPSK/BPSK baseband-type intradyne receiver concept with feed-forward carrier recovery," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 802-808 (2005).

E. Ip, J. Kahn, "Digital equalization of chromatic dispersion and polarization mode dispersion," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 2033-2043 (2007).

Opt. Exp. (1)

S. Savory, "Digital filters for coherent optical receivers," Opt. Exp. 16, 804-817 (2008).

Other (1)

M. Seimetz, "Laser linewidth limitations for optical systems with high order modulation employing feed forward digital carrier phase estimation," Optical Fiber Communication/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. San DiegoCA (2008) Paper OTuM2.

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