Abstract

The performance of relatively complex photonic integrated circuits (PICs) is now reaching such high levels that the long sought goal of realizing low-cost, –size, -weight, and -power chips to replace hybrid solutions seems to have been achieved for some applications. This tutorial traces some of the evolution of this technology that has led to an array of high-functionality InP-based PICs useful in optical sensing and communication applications. Examples of recent high-performance PICs that have arisen out of these developments are presented.Fundamental to much of this work was the development of integration strategies to compatibly combine a variety of components in a relatively simple fabrication process. For the UCSB work, this was initially based upon the creation of a single-chip widely tunable semiconductor laser that required the integration of gain, reflector, phase-tuning and absorber sections. As it provided most of the elements needed for many more complex PICs, their creation followed somewhat naturally by adding more of these same elements outside of the laser cavity using the same processing steps. Of course, additional elements were needed for some of the PICs to be discussed, but in most cases, these have been added without adding significant processing complexity. Generally, the integration philosophy has been to avoid patterned epitaxial growths, to use post-growth processing, such as quantum-well intermixing to provide multiple bandgaps, rather than multiple epitaxial regrowths, and to focus on processes that could be performed with vendor growth and implant facilities so that only basic clean room processing facilities are required.

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2010 (4)

S. C. Nicholes, M. L. Mašanović, B. Jevremović, E. Lively, L. A. Coldren, D. J. Blumenthal, "An 8$\, \times \,$8 InP monolithic tunable optical router (MOTOR) packet forwarding Chip," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 641-650 (2010).

E. J. Norberg, R. S. Guzzon, S. C. Nicholes, J. S. Parker, L. A. Coldren, "Programmable photonic lattice filters in InGaAsP-InP," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 109-111 (2010).

S. Ristic, A. Bhardwaj, M. J. Rodwell, L. A. Coldren, L. A. Johansson, "An optical phase-locked loop photonic integrated circuit," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 526-538 (2010).

R.-J. Essiambre, G. Kramer, P. J. Winzer, G. J. Foschini, B. Goebel, "Capacity limits of optical fiber networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 662-701 (2010).

2009 (2)

M. L. Mashanovitch, E. Burmeister, M. M. Dummer, B. Koch, S. C. Nicholes, J. S. Barton, B. Jevremovic, K. Nguyen, V. Lal, J. E. Bowers, L. A. Coldren, D. J. Blumenthal, "Advanced photonic integrated technologies for optical routing and switching," Proc. SPIE 7219, (2009).

M. Dummer, J. Klamkin, A. Tauke-Pedretti, L. A. Coldren, "40 Gb/s field-modulated wavelength converter for all-optical packet switching," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 15, 494-503 (2009).

2008 (3)

A. Tauke-Pedretti, M. M. Dummer, M. N. Sysak, J. S. Barton, J. Klamkin, J. W. Raring, L. A. Coldren, "Separate absorption and modulation Mach–Zehnder wavelength converter," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 91-98 (2008).

M. Dummer, M. Sysak, A. Tauke-Pedretti, J. Raring, J. Klamkin, L. A. Coldren, "Widely-tunable separate absorption and modulation wavelength converter with integrated microwave termination," J. Lightw. Tech. 26, 938-944 (2008).

A. Ramaswamy, L. A. Johansson, J. Klamkin, H.-F. Chou, C. Sheldon, M. J. Rodwell, L. A. Coldren, J. E. Bowers, "Integrated coherent receivers for high linearity microwave photonic links," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 209-216 (2008).

2007 (6)

J. Raring, L. Coldren, "40-Gb/s widely tunable transceivers," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 13, 3-14 (2007).

V. Lal, M. L. Masanovic, J. A. Summers, G. F. Fish, D. J. Blumenthal, "Monolithic wavelength converters for high-speed packet-switched optical networks," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 13, 49-57 (2007).

S. B. Kim, J. S. Sim, K. S. Kim, E. D. Sim, S. W. Ryu, H. L. Park, "Selective-area MOVPE growth for 10 Gbit/s electroabsorption modulator integrated with a tunable DBR laser," J. Cryst. Growth 298, 672-675 (2007).

J. W. Raring, L. A. Johansson, E. J. Skogen, M. N. Sysak, H. N. Poulsen, S. P. DenBaars, L. A. Coldren, "40 Gb/s widely-tunable low-drive voltage electroabsorption-modulated transmitters," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 239-248 (2007).

R. Nagarajan, M. Kato, J. Pleumeekers, P. Evans, D. Lambert, A. Chen, V. Dominic, A. Mathur, P. Chavarkar, M. Missey, A. Dentai, S. Hurtt, J. Bäck, R. Muthiah, S. Murthy, R. Salvatore, C. Joyner, J. Rossi, R. Schneider, M. Ziari, H.-S. Tsai, J. Bostak, M. Kauffman, S. Pennypacker, T. Butrie, M. Reffle, D. Mehuys, M. Mitchell, A. Nilsson, S. Grubb, F. Kish, D. Welch, "Large-scale photonic integrated circuits for long-haul transmission and switching," J. Opt. Netw. 6, 102-111 (2007).

H. F. Chou, A. Ramaswamy, D. Zibar, L. A. Johansson, J. E. Bowers, M. Rodwell, L. A. Coldren, Fellow"High-linearity coherent receiver with feedback," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 940-942 (2007).

2006 (3)

D. F. Welch, F. A. Kish, R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. Schneider, V. G. Dominic, M. L. Mitchell, S. G. Grubb, T.-K. Chiang, D. Perkins, A. C. Nilsson, "The realization of large-scale photonic integrated circuits and the associated impact on fiber-optic communication systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4674-4683 (2006).

A. Agarwal, P. Toliver, R. Menendez, S. Etemad, J. Jackel, J. Young, T. Banwell, B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, P. Delfyett, "Fully programmable ring-resonator-based integrated photonic circuit for phase coherent applications," J. Lightw. Tech. 24, 77-87 (2006).

A. Tauke-Pedretti, M. N. Sysak, J. S. Barton, J. W. Raring, L. Johansson, L. A. Coldren, "40 Gb/s series push-pull mach-zehnder transmitter on a dual-quantum-well integration platform," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1922-1924 (2006).

2005 (4)

E. Skogen, J. W. Raring, G. B. Morrison, C. S. Wang, V. Lal, M. L. Mašanović, L. A. Coldren, "Monolithically integrated active components' a quantum-well intermixing approach," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Elec. 11, 343-355 (2005).

V. M. Menon, F. Xia, S. Forrest, "Photonic integration using asymmetric twin-waveguide (ATG) technology: Parts I & II," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 11, 17-42 (2005).

R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. Schneider, Jr., J. S. Bostak, T. Butrie, A. G. Dentai, V. G. Dominic, P. W. Evans, M. Kato, M. Kauffman, D. J. H. Lambert, S. K. Mathis, A. Mathur, R. H. Miles, M. L. Mitchell, M. J. Missey, S. Murthy, A. C. Nilsson, F. H. Peters, S. C. Pennypacker, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. A. Salvatore, R. K. Schlenker, R. B. Taylor, H.-S. Tsai, M. F. Van Leeuwen, J. Webjorn, M. Ziari, D. Perkins, J. Singh, S. G. Grubb, M. S. Reffle, D. G. Mehuys, F. A. Kish, D. F. Welch, "Large scale photonic integrated circuits," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 11, 50-65 (2005).

J. Raring, E. J. Skogen, M. L. Mašanović, S. P. DenBaars, L. A. Coldren, "Demonstration of high saturation power/high gain SOAs using quantum well intermixing based integration platform," Electron. Lett. 41, 1345-1346 (2005).

2004 (1)

L. A. Coldren, G. A. Fish, Y. Akulava, J. S. Barton, L. Johansson, C. W. Coldren, "Tunable semiconductor lasers: A tutorial," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 193-202 (2004).

2003 (2)

M. L. Masanovitch, V. Lal, J. S. Barton, E. J. Skogen, L. A. Coldren, D. J. Blumenthal, "Monolithically-integrated Mach–Zehnder interferometer wavelength converter and widely tunable laser in InP," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1117-1119 (2003).

H. Hatakeyama, K. Naniwae, K. Kudo, N. Suzuki, S. Sudo, S. Ae, Y. Muroya, K. Yashiki, S. Satoh, T. Morimoto, K. Mori, T. Sasaki, "Wavelength-selectable microarray light sources for S-, C-, and L-band WDM systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 903-905 (2003).

2002 (2)

E. Skogen, J. Barton, S. Denbaars, L. A. Coldren, "A quantum-well-intermixing process for wavelength-agile photonic integrated circuits," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 8, 863-869 (2002).

J. H. den Besten, M. P. Dessens, C. G. P. Herben, X. J. M. Leijtens, F. H. Groen, M. R. Leys, M. K. Smit, "Low-loss, compact, and polarization independent PHASAR demultiplexer fabricated by using a double-etch process," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 62-64 (2002).

1999 (1)

N. S. Lagali, M. R. Paiam, R. I. MacDonald, K. Worhof, A. Driessen, "Analysis of generalized Mach–Zehnder interferometers for variable-ratio power splitting and optimized switching," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 2542-2550 (1999).

1997 (1)

B. Mason, S. L. Lee, M. E. Heimbuch, L. A. Coldren, "Directly modulated sampled-grating DBR lasers for long-haul WDM communications," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 377-379 (1997).

1996 (4)

A. D. Kersey, "A review on recent developments in fiber optic sensor technology," Opt. Fiber Technol. 2, 291-317 (1996).

M. Smit, C. van Dam, "PHASAR-based WDM-devices: Principles, design and applications," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 236-250 (1996).

S. J. B. Yoo, "Wavelength conversion technologies for WDM network applications," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 955-966 (1996).

N. S. Bergano, C. R. Davidson, "Wavelength division multiplexing in long-haul transmission systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 1299-1308 (1996).

1995 (2)

J. B. D. Soole, M. R. Amersfoot, H. P. LeBlanc, N. C. Andreadakis, A. Rajhel, C. Caneau, "Polarisation-independent monolithic eight-channel 2 nm spacing WDM detector based on compact arrayed waveguide demultiplexer," Electron Lett. 31, 1289-1291 (1995).

M. G. Young, U. Koren, B. I. Miller, M. Chien, T. L. Koch, D. M. Tennant, K. Feder, K. Dreyer, G. Raybon, "Six wavelength laser array with integrated amplifier and modulator," Electron. Lett. 31, 1835-1836 (1995).

1993 (1)

V. Jayaraman, Z. Chuang, L. A. Coldren, "Theory, design, and performance of extended tuning range semiconductor lasers with sampled gratings," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 1824-1834 (1993).

1991 (2)

C. Dragone, "An N*N optical multiplexer using a planar arrangement of two star couplers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 812-815 (1991).

Y. Kotaki, H. Ishika, "Wavelength tunable DFB and DBR lasers for coherent optical fibre communications," Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng.—J. 138, 173-177 (1991).

1989 (1)

T. L. Koch, U. Koren, R. P. Gnall, F. S. Choa, F. Hernandez-Gil, C. A. Burrus, M. G. Yung, M. Oron, B. I. Miller, "GaInAs/GaInAsP multiple-quantum-well integrated heterodyne receiver," Electron. Lett. 25, 1621-1623 (1989).

1988 (2)

C. Dragone, "Efficient N$\,\times \,$N Star coupler based on Fourier optics," Electron. Lett. 24, 942-944 (1988).

M. Smit, "New focusing and dispersive planar component based on an optical phased array," Electron. Lett. 24, 385-386 (1988).

1987 (2)

M. Suzuki, Y. Noda, H. Tanaka, S. Akiba, Y. Kushiro, H. Isshiki, "Monolithic integration of InGaAsP/InP distributed feedback laser and electroabsorption modulator by vapor phase epitaxy," J. Lightw. Technol. 5, 1277-1285 (1987).

R. J. Mears, L. Reekie, I. M. Jauncey, D. N. Payne, "Low-noise erbium-doped fibre amplifier at 1.54 pm," Electron. Lett. 23, 1026-1028 (1987).

1983 (2)

Y. Tohmori, Y. Suematsu, Y. Tushima, S. Arai, "Wavelength tuning of GaInAsP/InP integrated laser with butt-jointed built-in DBR," Electron. Lett. 19, 656-657 (1983).

L. A. Coldren, K. Furuya, B. I. Miller, "On the formation of planar-etched facets in GaInAsP/InP double heterostructures," J. Electrochem. Soc. 130, 1918-1926 (1983).

1981 (2)

Y. Yamamoto, T. Kimura, "Coherent optical fiber transmission systems," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 919-925 (1981).

L. A. Coldren, B. I. Miller, K. Iga, J. A. Rentschler, "Monolithic two-section GaInAsP/InP active-optical-resonator devices formed by RIE," Appl. Phys. Letts. 38, 315-317 (1981).

Appl. Phys. Letts. (1)

L. A. Coldren, B. I. Miller, K. Iga, J. A. Rentschler, "Monolithic two-section GaInAsP/InP active-optical-resonator devices formed by RIE," Appl. Phys. Letts. 38, 315-317 (1981).

Electron Lett. (1)

J. B. D. Soole, M. R. Amersfoot, H. P. LeBlanc, N. C. Andreadakis, A. Rajhel, C. Caneau, "Polarisation-independent monolithic eight-channel 2 nm spacing WDM detector based on compact arrayed waveguide demultiplexer," Electron Lett. 31, 1289-1291 (1995).

Electron. Lett. (7)

C. Dragone, "Efficient N$\,\times \,$N Star coupler based on Fourier optics," Electron. Lett. 24, 942-944 (1988).

J. Raring, E. J. Skogen, M. L. Mašanović, S. P. DenBaars, L. A. Coldren, "Demonstration of high saturation power/high gain SOAs using quantum well intermixing based integration platform," Electron. Lett. 41, 1345-1346 (2005).

M. G. Young, U. Koren, B. I. Miller, M. Chien, T. L. Koch, D. M. Tennant, K. Feder, K. Dreyer, G. Raybon, "Six wavelength laser array with integrated amplifier and modulator," Electron. Lett. 31, 1835-1836 (1995).

Y. Tohmori, Y. Suematsu, Y. Tushima, S. Arai, "Wavelength tuning of GaInAsP/InP integrated laser with butt-jointed built-in DBR," Electron. Lett. 19, 656-657 (1983).

R. J. Mears, L. Reekie, I. M. Jauncey, D. N. Payne, "Low-noise erbium-doped fibre amplifier at 1.54 pm," Electron. Lett. 23, 1026-1028 (1987).

T. L. Koch, U. Koren, R. P. Gnall, F. S. Choa, F. Hernandez-Gil, C. A. Burrus, M. G. Yung, M. Oron, B. I. Miller, "GaInAs/GaInAsP multiple-quantum-well integrated heterodyne receiver," Electron. Lett. 25, 1621-1623 (1989).

M. Smit, "New focusing and dispersive planar component based on an optical phased array," Electron. Lett. 24, 385-386 (1988).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

Y. Yamamoto, T. Kimura, "Coherent optical fiber transmission systems," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 919-925 (1981).

V. Jayaraman, Z. Chuang, L. A. Coldren, "Theory, design, and performance of extended tuning range semiconductor lasers with sampled gratings," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 1824-1834 (1993).

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Elec. (1)

E. Skogen, J. W. Raring, G. B. Morrison, C. S. Wang, V. Lal, M. L. Mašanović, L. A. Coldren, "Monolithically integrated active components' a quantum-well intermixing approach," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Elec. 11, 343-355 (2005).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (7)

V. M. Menon, F. Xia, S. Forrest, "Photonic integration using asymmetric twin-waveguide (ATG) technology: Parts I & II," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 11, 17-42 (2005).

M. Dummer, J. Klamkin, A. Tauke-Pedretti, L. A. Coldren, "40 Gb/s field-modulated wavelength converter for all-optical packet switching," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 15, 494-503 (2009).

J. Raring, L. Coldren, "40-Gb/s widely tunable transceivers," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 13, 3-14 (2007).

V. Lal, M. L. Masanovic, J. A. Summers, G. F. Fish, D. J. Blumenthal, "Monolithic wavelength converters for high-speed packet-switched optical networks," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 13, 49-57 (2007).

M. Smit, C. van Dam, "PHASAR-based WDM-devices: Principles, design and applications," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 236-250 (1996).

R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. Schneider, Jr., J. S. Bostak, T. Butrie, A. G. Dentai, V. G. Dominic, P. W. Evans, M. Kato, M. Kauffman, D. J. H. Lambert, S. K. Mathis, A. Mathur, R. H. Miles, M. L. Mitchell, M. J. Missey, S. Murthy, A. C. Nilsson, F. H. Peters, S. C. Pennypacker, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. A. Salvatore, R. K. Schlenker, R. B. Taylor, H.-S. Tsai, M. F. Van Leeuwen, J. Webjorn, M. Ziari, D. Perkins, J. Singh, S. G. Grubb, M. S. Reffle, D. G. Mehuys, F. A. Kish, D. F. Welch, "Large scale photonic integrated circuits," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 11, 50-65 (2005).

E. Skogen, J. Barton, S. Denbaars, L. A. Coldren, "A quantum-well-intermixing process for wavelength-agile photonic integrated circuits," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 8, 863-869 (2002).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (8)

H. Hatakeyama, K. Naniwae, K. Kudo, N. Suzuki, S. Sudo, S. Ae, Y. Muroya, K. Yashiki, S. Satoh, T. Morimoto, K. Mori, T. Sasaki, "Wavelength-selectable microarray light sources for S-, C-, and L-band WDM systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 903-905 (2003).

H. F. Chou, A. Ramaswamy, D. Zibar, L. A. Johansson, J. E. Bowers, M. Rodwell, L. A. Coldren, Fellow"High-linearity coherent receiver with feedback," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 940-942 (2007).

C. Dragone, "An N*N optical multiplexer using a planar arrangement of two star couplers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 812-815 (1991).

M. L. Masanovitch, V. Lal, J. S. Barton, E. J. Skogen, L. A. Coldren, D. J. Blumenthal, "Monolithically-integrated Mach–Zehnder interferometer wavelength converter and widely tunable laser in InP," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1117-1119 (2003).

A. Tauke-Pedretti, M. N. Sysak, J. S. Barton, J. W. Raring, L. Johansson, L. A. Coldren, "40 Gb/s series push-pull mach-zehnder transmitter on a dual-quantum-well integration platform," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1922-1924 (2006).

J. H. den Besten, M. P. Dessens, C. G. P. Herben, X. J. M. Leijtens, F. H. Groen, M. R. Leys, M. K. Smit, "Low-loss, compact, and polarization independent PHASAR demultiplexer fabricated by using a double-etch process," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 62-64 (2002).

E. J. Norberg, R. S. Guzzon, S. C. Nicholes, J. S. Parker, L. A. Coldren, "Programmable photonic lattice filters in InGaAsP-InP," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 109-111 (2010).

B. Mason, S. L. Lee, M. E. Heimbuch, L. A. Coldren, "Directly modulated sampled-grating DBR lasers for long-haul WDM communications," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 377-379 (1997).

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

S. B. Kim, J. S. Sim, K. S. Kim, E. D. Sim, S. W. Ryu, H. L. Park, "Selective-area MOVPE growth for 10 Gbit/s electroabsorption modulator integrated with a tunable DBR laser," J. Cryst. Growth 298, 672-675 (2007).

J. Electrochem. Soc. (1)

L. A. Coldren, K. Furuya, B. I. Miller, "On the formation of planar-etched facets in GaInAsP/InP double heterostructures," J. Electrochem. Soc. 130, 1918-1926 (1983).

J. Lightw. Tech. (2)

A. Agarwal, P. Toliver, R. Menendez, S. Etemad, J. Jackel, J. Young, T. Banwell, B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, P. Delfyett, "Fully programmable ring-resonator-based integrated photonic circuit for phase coherent applications," J. Lightw. Tech. 24, 77-87 (2006).

M. Dummer, M. Sysak, A. Tauke-Pedretti, J. Raring, J. Klamkin, L. A. Coldren, "Widely-tunable separate absorption and modulation wavelength converter with integrated microwave termination," J. Lightw. Tech. 26, 938-944 (2008).

J. Lightw. Technol. (12)

D. F. Welch, F. A. Kish, R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. Schneider, V. G. Dominic, M. L. Mitchell, S. G. Grubb, T.-K. Chiang, D. Perkins, A. C. Nilsson, "The realization of large-scale photonic integrated circuits and the associated impact on fiber-optic communication systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4674-4683 (2006).

A. Ramaswamy, L. A. Johansson, J. Klamkin, H.-F. Chou, C. Sheldon, M. J. Rodwell, L. A. Coldren, J. E. Bowers, "Integrated coherent receivers for high linearity microwave photonic links," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 209-216 (2008).

M. Suzuki, Y. Noda, H. Tanaka, S. Akiba, Y. Kushiro, H. Isshiki, "Monolithic integration of InGaAsP/InP distributed feedback laser and electroabsorption modulator by vapor phase epitaxy," J. Lightw. Technol. 5, 1277-1285 (1987).

A. Tauke-Pedretti, M. M. Dummer, M. N. Sysak, J. S. Barton, J. Klamkin, J. W. Raring, L. A. Coldren, "Separate absorption and modulation Mach–Zehnder wavelength converter," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 91-98 (2008).

S. C. Nicholes, M. L. Mašanović, B. Jevremović, E. Lively, L. A. Coldren, D. J. Blumenthal, "An 8$\, \times \,$8 InP monolithic tunable optical router (MOTOR) packet forwarding Chip," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 641-650 (2010).

N. S. Bergano, C. R. Davidson, "Wavelength division multiplexing in long-haul transmission systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 1299-1308 (1996).

N. S. Lagali, M. R. Paiam, R. I. MacDonald, K. Worhof, A. Driessen, "Analysis of generalized Mach–Zehnder interferometers for variable-ratio power splitting and optimized switching," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 2542-2550 (1999).

J. W. Raring, L. A. Johansson, E. J. Skogen, M. N. Sysak, H. N. Poulsen, S. P. DenBaars, L. A. Coldren, "40 Gb/s widely-tunable low-drive voltage electroabsorption-modulated transmitters," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 239-248 (2007).

S. J. B. Yoo, "Wavelength conversion technologies for WDM network applications," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 955-966 (1996).

S. Ristic, A. Bhardwaj, M. J. Rodwell, L. A. Coldren, L. A. Johansson, "An optical phase-locked loop photonic integrated circuit," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 526-538 (2010).

L. A. Coldren, G. A. Fish, Y. Akulava, J. S. Barton, L. Johansson, C. W. Coldren, "Tunable semiconductor lasers: A tutorial," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 193-202 (2004).

R.-J. Essiambre, G. Kramer, P. J. Winzer, G. J. Foschini, B. Goebel, "Capacity limits of optical fiber networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 662-701 (2010).

J. Opt. Netw. (1)

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

A. D. Kersey, "A review on recent developments in fiber optic sensor technology," Opt. Fiber Technol. 2, 291-317 (1996).

Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng.—J. (1)

Y. Kotaki, H. Ishika, "Wavelength tunable DFB and DBR lasers for coherent optical fibre communications," Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng.—J. 138, 173-177 (1991).

Proc. SPIE (1)

M. L. Mashanovitch, E. Burmeister, M. M. Dummer, B. Koch, S. C. Nicholes, J. S. Barton, B. Jevremovic, K. Nguyen, V. Lal, J. E. Bowers, L. A. Coldren, D. J. Blumenthal, "Advanced photonic integrated technologies for optical routing and switching," Proc. SPIE 7219, (2009).

Other (31)

E. J. Norberg, R. S. Guzzon, J. S. Parker, L. A. Johansson, L. A. Coldren, "A monolithic programmable optical filter for RF signal processing," Proc. MWP (2010).

Y.-H. Jan, G. Fish, L. A. Coldren, S. DenBaars, "40 nm tuning range of a photonic integrated tunable InP/InGaAsP receiver with improved side-lobe suppression ratios," Proc. IEEE LEOS Annu. Meeting (1997) pp. 322-323.

J. M. Hutchinson, J. A. Henness, L. A. Johansson, J. S. Barton, M. L. Mashanovitch, L. A. Coldren, "2.5 Gb/s wavelength conversion using monolithically-integrated photodetector and directly-modulated widely-tunable SGDBR laser," Proc. LEOS (2003).

J. S. Barton, M. L. Mašanović, M. N. Sysak, E. J. Skogen, J. M. Hutchinson, D. J. Blumenthal, L. A. Coldren, "A novel monolithically-integrated widely-tunable wavelength converter based on a SGDBR-SOA-MZ transmitter and integrated photodetector," Proc. Photon. Switching (2003).

http://www.jdsu.com/products/optical-communications/products/tunable-transmission-modules.html.

L. A. Coldren, Multi-Section Tunable Laser With Differing Multi-Element Mirrors U.S. Patent 4 846 325 (1990).

T. Durhuus, C. Joergensen, B. Mikkelsen, K. E. Stubkjaer, "Penalty free all-optical wavelength conversion by SOA's in Mach–Zehnder configuration," Proc. ECOC'93 (1993) pp. 129-132.

S. L. Danielsen, "A photonic WDM packet switch with reduced complexity due to wavelength converters," Proc. Photon. Switching (1995) pp. 39-41.

L. A. Coldren, “Proposal to AFOSR (1995)—Later Incorporated into MOST,” (1996–2000).

L. Coldren, J. Bowers, M. Rodwell, L. Johansson, A. Yariv, T. Koch, J. Campbell, R. Ram, Photonic Integration for Coherent Optics (PICO) part of DARPA CIPHER program (2010).

Schematic supplied by A. Yariv as part of PICO project.

A. Ramaswamy, L. A. Johansson, U. Krishnamachari, S. Ristic, C.-H. Chen, M. Piels, A. Bhardwaj, L. A. Coldren, M. J. Rodwell, J. E. Bowers, "Demonstration of a linear ultra-compact integrated coherent receiver," Proc. MWP (2010).

U. Krishnamachari, S. Ristic, A. Ramaswamy, L. A. Johansson, C.-H. Chen, J. Klamkin, M. Piels, A. Bhardwaj, M. J. Rodwell, J. E. Bowers, L. A. Coldren, "An ultra-compact integrated coherent receiver for high-linearity RF-photonic links," Proc. MWP (2010).

S. W. Corzine, P. Evans, M. Kato, G. He, M. Fisher, M. Raburn, A. Dentai, I. Lyubomirsky, R. Nagarajan, M. Missey, V. Lal, A. Chen, J. Thomson, W. Williams, P. Chavarkar, S. Nguyen, D. Lambert, T. Butrie, M. Reffle, R. Schneider, M. Ziari, C. Joyner, S. Grubb, F. Kish, D. Welch, "10-channel$\,\times \,$40 Gb/s per channel DQPSK monolithically integrated InP-based transmitter PIC," Proc. OFC (2008).

R. Tkach, "Optical network capacity: From glut to scarcity," Proc. OIDA Annu. Meeting (2009).

R. Essiambre, "Optical communications—A view to the future," Proc. ECOC (2008).

B. Mason, Proc. OIDA Annu. Meeting (2009).

C. R. Doerr, L. Zhang, A. L. Adamiecki, N. J. Sauer, J. H. Sinsky, P. J. Winzer, "Compact EAM-based InP DQPSK modulator and demonstration at 80 Gb/s," Proc. OFC (2007).

C. R. Doerr, P. J. Winzer, L. Zhang, L. L. Buhl, N. J. Sauer, "Monolithic InP 16-QAM modulator," Proc. OFC (2008).

A. Sano, T. Kobayashi, K. Ishihara, H. Masuda, S. Yamamoto, K. Mori, E. Yamazaki, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, T. Yamada, H. Yamazaki, "240-Gb/s polarization-multiplexed 64-QAM modulation and blind detection using PLC-LN hybrid integrated modulator and digital coherent receiver," Proc. ECOC (2009).

C. Joyner, P. Evans, S. Corzine, M. Kato, M. Fisher, J. Gheorma, V. Dominic, P. Samra, A. Nilsson, J. Rahn, A. Dentai, P. Studenkov, M. Missey, D. Lambert, R. Muthiah, R. Salvatore, S. Murthy, E. Strzelecka, J. Pleumeekers, A. Chen, R. Schneider, R. Nagarajan, M. Ziari, J. Stewart, F. Kish, D. Welch, "Current view of large scale photonic integrated circuits on Indium phosphide," Proc. OFC (2010).

C. Cox, Analog Optical Links: Theory and Practice (Cambridge Univ. Press, 2004).

R. S. Guzzon, E. J. Norberg, J. S. Parker, L. A. Coldren, "Highly programmable optical filters integrated in InP-InGaAsP with tunable inter-ring coupling," Proc. IPR (2010).

E. J. Norberg, J. S. Parker, U. Krishnamachari, R. S. Guzzon, L. A. Coldren, "InGaAsP/InP based flattened ring resonators with etched beam splitters," Proc. IPNRA (2009).

C. Jany, C. Kazmierski, J. Decobert, F. Alexandre, F. Blache, O. Drisse, D. Carpentier, N. Lagay, F. Martin, E. Deroin, T. Johansen, C. Jiang, "Semi-insulating buried heterostructure 1.55 $\mu$m InGaAlAs electro-absorption modulated laser with 60 GHz bandwidth," Proc. ECOC (2007).

E. J. Norberg, R. S. Guzzon, S. C. Nicholes, J. S. Parker, L. A. Coldren, "Programmable photonic filters fabricated with deeply etched waveguides," Proc. IPRM (2009).

M. K. Smit, E. A. J. M. Bente, M. T. Hill, F. Karouta, X. J. M. Leijtens, Y. S. Oei, J. J. G. M. van der Tol, R. Nötzel, P. M. Koenraad, H. S. Dorren, H. de Waardt, A. M. J. Koonen, G. D. Khoe, "Current status and prospects of photonic IC technology," Proc. IEEE Conf. Indium Phosphide & Related Mater. (2007) pp. 3-6.

P. Bernasconi, W. Yang, L. Zhang, N. Sauer, L. Buhl, I. Kang, S. Chandrasekhar, D. T. Neilson, "Monolithically integrated 40 Gb/s wavelength converter with multi-frequency laser," OFC AnaheimCA (2005) paper PDP16.

S. C. Nicholes, M. L. Masanovic, E. Lively, L. A. Coldren, D. J. Blumenthal, "An 8$\, \times \,$8 monolithic tunable optical router (MOTOR) chip in InP," Proc. IPNRA (2009).

N. Kikuchi, H. Sanjoh, Y. Shibata, T. Sato, K. Tsuzuki, E. Yamada, T. Ishibashi, H. Yasaka, "80-Gbit/s InP DQPSK modulator with an n-pi-n structure," Proc. ECOC (2007).

Y.-H. Jan, G. Fish, L. A. Coldren, S. DenBaars, "Widely tunable integrated filter/receiver with apodized grating-assisted codirectional coupler," Proc. SPIE Photon. West (1998).

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