Abstract

We report the first demonstration of 640-Gb/s return-to-zero ON–OFF keying channel transmission over a 100-km standard single-mode fiber link employing midspan phase conjugation. A frequency-degenerate conjugate field spanning more than 20 nm is created in a low-birefringence parametric mixer for the first time. Physical separation of the conjugate field from the original field is enabled by utilizing pump polarization nondegeneracy. Rigorous link characterization using a high-quality 640-Gb/s transmitter and a high-sensitivity receiver revealed error-free (bit error ratio ${<}\,10^{- 9}$) performance, eliminating the need for impractical fiber length control or electronic signal processing. The compatibility of wavelength-transparent conjugation with spectrally inefficient channel implies that channels with higher bit rates and better spectral efficiency can also be compensated.

© 2011 IEEE

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  2. E. M. Ip, J. M. Kahn, "Fiber impairment compensation using coherent detection and digital signal processing ," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 502-519 (2010).
  3. A. H. Gnauck, R. M. Jopson, Optical Fiber Telecommunications III (Academic, 1997).
  4. A. Yariv, D. Fekete, D. M. Pepper, "Compensation for channel dispersion by nonlinear optical phase conjugation," Opt. Lett. 4, 52-54 (1979).
  5. A. H. Gnauck, R. M. Jopson, R. M. Derosier, "10-Gb/s 360-km transmission over dispersive fiber using midsystem spectral inversion ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 663-665 (1993).
  6. R. M. Jopson, A. H. Gnauck, R. M. Derosier, "Compensation of fibre chromatic dispersion by spectral inversion," Electron. Lett. 29, 576-577 (1993).
  7. S. Watanabe, T. Chikama, "Cancellation of four-wave mixing in multichannel fibre transmission by midway optical phase conjugation," Electron. Lett. 30, 1156-1157 (1994).
  8. S. Watanabe, M. Shirasaki, "Exact compensation for both chromatic dispersion and Kerr effect in a transmission fiber using optical phase conjugation," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 243-248 (1996).
  9. S. Radic, R. M. Jopson, C. J. McKinstrie, A. H. Gnauck, S. Chandrasekhar, J. C. Centanni, "Wavelength division multiplexed transmission over standard single mode fiber using polarization insensitive signal conjugation in highly nonlinear optical fiber," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Expo. 2003 AtlantaGA Paper PD-12.
  10. A. Chowdhury, G. Raybon, R.-T. Essiambre, J. H. Sinsky, A. Adamiecki, J. Leuthold, C. R. Doerr, S. Chandrasekhar, "Compensation of intrachannel nonlinearities in 40-Gb/s pseudolinear systems using optical-phase conjugation," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 172-177 (2004).
  11. S. L. Jansen, D. van der Borne, P. M. Krummrich, S. Spalter, G.-D. Khoe, H. de Waardt, "Long-haul DWDM transmission systems employing optical phase conjugation," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 505-520 (2005).
  12. P. Minzioni, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, L. Marazzi, M. Martinelli, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, "Experimental demonstration of nonlinearity and dispersion compensation in an embedded link by optical phase conjugation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 995-997 (2006 ).
  13. S. Kumar, L. Liu, "Reduction of nonlinear phase noise using optical phase conjugation in quasi-linear optical transmission systems," Opt. Exp. 15, 2166-2177 (2007).
  14. A. I. Siahlo, J. Seoane, A. T. Clausen, L. K. Oxenløwe, P. Jeppesen, "320 Gb/s single-polarization OTDM transmission over 80 km standard transmission fiber ," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Expo./Nat. Fiber Optic Eng. Conf. (OFC/NFOEC) 2005 AnaheimCA () Paper OFF3.
  15. R. Ludwig, U. Feiste, S. Diez, C. Schubert, C. Schmidt, H. J. Ehrke, H. G. Weber, "Unrepeatered 160 Gbit/s RZ single-channel transmission over 160 km of standard fibre at 1.55 $\mu$m with hybrid MZI optical demultiplexer," Electron. Lett. 36, 1405 -1406 (2000).
  16. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, 2001).
  17. P. Kaewplung, T. Angkaew, K. Kikuchi, "Simultaneous suppression of third-order dispersion and sideband instability in single-channel optical fiber transmission by midway optical phase conjugation employing higher order dispersion management," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 1465 -1473 (2003).
  18. L. Grüner-Nielsen, M. Wandel, P. Kristensen, C. Jørgensen, L. V. Jørgensen, B. Edvold, B. Pálsdóttir, D. Jakobsen, "Dispersion-compensating fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 3566-3579 (2005).
  19. C. J. McKinstrie, S. Radic, "Phase-sensitive amplification in a fiber," Opt. Exp. 12, 4973-4979 (2004).
  20. C. J. McKinstrie, S. Radic, C. Xie, "Parametric instabilities driven by orthogonal pump waves in birefringent fibers," Opt. Exp. 11, 2619-2633 (2003).
  21. A. O. J. Wiberg, C.-S. Brès, B. P.-P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, S. Radic, "Cavity-less 40 GHz pulse source tunable over 95 nm," Europ. Opt. Commun. Conf. 2009 ViennaAustria () Paper 1.1.3.
  22. P. V. Mamyshev, "All-optical data regeneration based on self-phase modulation effect," Proc. ECOC 1998 () pp. 475-476.
  23. H. Sunnerud, M. Karlsson, C. Xie, P. A. Andrekson, "Polarization-mode dispersion in high-speed fiber-optic transmission systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 2204 -2219 (2002).
  24. A. Hidayat, B. Koch, H. Zhang, V. Mirvoda, M. Lichtinger, D. Sandel, R. Noè, "High-speed endless optical polarization stabilization using calibrated waveplates and field-programmable gate array-based digital controller," Opt. Exp. 16, 18984-18991 (2008).
  25. T. Hasegawa, K. Inoue, K. Oda, "Polarization independent frequency conversion by fiber four-wave mixing with a polarization diversity technique," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 947-949 (1993 ).
  26. C. J. McKinstrie, H. Kogelnik, R. M. Jopson, S. Radic, A. V. Kanaev, "Four-wave mixing in fibers with random birefringence," Opt. Exp. 12, 2033-2055 (2004).
  27. M. Karlsson, "Four-wave mixing in fibers with randomly varying zero-dispersion wavelength," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 15, 2269 -2275 (1998).
  28. M.-C. Ho, M. E. Marhic, K. K. Y. Wong, L. G. Kazovsky, "Narrow-linewidth idler generation in fiber four-wave mixing and parametric amplification by dithering two pumps in opposition of phase," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 469-476 (2002).
  29. P. A. Andrekson, "Picosecond optical sampling using four-wave mixing in fibre," Electron. Lett. 27, 1440-1441 (1991).
  30. A. O. J. Wiberg, C.-S. Bres, B. P.-P. Kuo, J. X. Zhao, N. Alic, S. Radic, "Sampling of multiple 320-Gb/s channels by single parametric gate," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 796-798 (2009).
  31. P. S. Henry, "Error-rate performance of optical amplifiers," Conf. Opt. Fiber Commun. 1989 HoustonTX Paper THK3.

2010 (1)

E. M. Ip, J. M. Kahn, "Fiber impairment compensation using coherent detection and digital signal processing ," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 502-519 (2010).

2009 (1)

A. O. J. Wiberg, C.-S. Bres, B. P.-P. Kuo, J. X. Zhao, N. Alic, S. Radic, "Sampling of multiple 320-Gb/s channels by single parametric gate," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 796-798 (2009).

2008 (1)

A. Hidayat, B. Koch, H. Zhang, V. Mirvoda, M. Lichtinger, D. Sandel, R. Noè, "High-speed endless optical polarization stabilization using calibrated waveplates and field-programmable gate array-based digital controller," Opt. Exp. 16, 18984-18991 (2008).

2007 (1)

S. Kumar, L. Liu, "Reduction of nonlinear phase noise using optical phase conjugation in quasi-linear optical transmission systems," Opt. Exp. 15, 2166-2177 (2007).

2006 ()

P. Minzioni, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, L. Marazzi, M. Martinelli, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, "Experimental demonstration of nonlinearity and dispersion compensation in an embedded link by optical phase conjugation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 995-997 (2006 ).

2005 (2)

S. L. Jansen, D. van der Borne, P. M. Krummrich, S. Spalter, G.-D. Khoe, H. de Waardt, "Long-haul DWDM transmission systems employing optical phase conjugation," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 505-520 (2005).

L. Grüner-Nielsen, M. Wandel, P. Kristensen, C. Jørgensen, L. V. Jørgensen, B. Edvold, B. Pálsdóttir, D. Jakobsen, "Dispersion-compensating fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 3566-3579 (2005).

2004 (3)

C. J. McKinstrie, S. Radic, "Phase-sensitive amplification in a fiber," Opt. Exp. 12, 4973-4979 (2004).

A. Chowdhury, G. Raybon, R.-T. Essiambre, J. H. Sinsky, A. Adamiecki, J. Leuthold, C. R. Doerr, S. Chandrasekhar, "Compensation of intrachannel nonlinearities in 40-Gb/s pseudolinear systems using optical-phase conjugation," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 172-177 (2004).

C. J. McKinstrie, H. Kogelnik, R. M. Jopson, S. Radic, A. V. Kanaev, "Four-wave mixing in fibers with random birefringence," Opt. Exp. 12, 2033-2055 (2004).

2003 (2)

P. Kaewplung, T. Angkaew, K. Kikuchi, "Simultaneous suppression of third-order dispersion and sideband instability in single-channel optical fiber transmission by midway optical phase conjugation employing higher order dispersion management," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 1465 -1473 (2003).

C. J. McKinstrie, S. Radic, C. Xie, "Parametric instabilities driven by orthogonal pump waves in birefringent fibers," Opt. Exp. 11, 2619-2633 (2003).

2002 (2)

H. Sunnerud, M. Karlsson, C. Xie, P. A. Andrekson, "Polarization-mode dispersion in high-speed fiber-optic transmission systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 2204 -2219 (2002).

M.-C. Ho, M. E. Marhic, K. K. Y. Wong, L. G. Kazovsky, "Narrow-linewidth idler generation in fiber four-wave mixing and parametric amplification by dithering two pumps in opposition of phase," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 469-476 (2002).

2000 (1)

R. Ludwig, U. Feiste, S. Diez, C. Schubert, C. Schmidt, H. J. Ehrke, H. G. Weber, "Unrepeatered 160 Gbit/s RZ single-channel transmission over 160 km of standard fibre at 1.55 $\mu$m with hybrid MZI optical demultiplexer," Electron. Lett. 36, 1405 -1406 (2000).

1998 (1)

M. Karlsson, "Four-wave mixing in fibers with randomly varying zero-dispersion wavelength," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 15, 2269 -2275 (1998).

1996 (1)

S. Watanabe, M. Shirasaki, "Exact compensation for both chromatic dispersion and Kerr effect in a transmission fiber using optical phase conjugation," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 243-248 (1996).

1994 (1)

S. Watanabe, T. Chikama, "Cancellation of four-wave mixing in multichannel fibre transmission by midway optical phase conjugation," Electron. Lett. 30, 1156-1157 (1994).

1993 (2)

A. H. Gnauck, R. M. Jopson, R. M. Derosier, "10-Gb/s 360-km transmission over dispersive fiber using midsystem spectral inversion ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 663-665 (1993).

R. M. Jopson, A. H. Gnauck, R. M. Derosier, "Compensation of fibre chromatic dispersion by spectral inversion," Electron. Lett. 29, 576-577 (1993).

1993 (2)

T. Hasegawa, K. Inoue, K. Oda, "Polarization independent frequency conversion by fiber four-wave mixing with a polarization diversity technique," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 947-949 (1993 ).

1991 (1)

P. A. Andrekson, "Picosecond optical sampling using four-wave mixing in fibre," Electron. Lett. 27, 1440-1441 (1991).

1990 (1)

J. H. Winters, R. D. Gitlin, "Electrical signal processing techniques in long-haul fiber-optic systems," IEEE Trans. Commun. 38, 1439 -1453 (1990).

1979 (1)

Electron. Lett. (1)

R. M. Jopson, A. H. Gnauck, R. M. Derosier, "Compensation of fibre chromatic dispersion by spectral inversion," Electron. Lett. 29, 576-577 (1993).

Electron. Lett. (3)

S. Watanabe, T. Chikama, "Cancellation of four-wave mixing in multichannel fibre transmission by midway optical phase conjugation," Electron. Lett. 30, 1156-1157 (1994).

R. Ludwig, U. Feiste, S. Diez, C. Schubert, C. Schmidt, H. J. Ehrke, H. G. Weber, "Unrepeatered 160 Gbit/s RZ single-channel transmission over 160 km of standard fibre at 1.55 $\mu$m with hybrid MZI optical demultiplexer," Electron. Lett. 36, 1405 -1406 (2000).

P. A. Andrekson, "Picosecond optical sampling using four-wave mixing in fibre," Electron. Lett. 27, 1440-1441 (1991).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

S. L. Jansen, D. van der Borne, P. M. Krummrich, S. Spalter, G.-D. Khoe, H. de Waardt, "Long-haul DWDM transmission systems employing optical phase conjugation," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 505-520 (2005).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (4)

P. Minzioni, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, L. Marazzi, M. Martinelli, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, "Experimental demonstration of nonlinearity and dispersion compensation in an embedded link by optical phase conjugation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 995-997 (2006 ).

A. H. Gnauck, R. M. Jopson, R. M. Derosier, "10-Gb/s 360-km transmission over dispersive fiber using midsystem spectral inversion ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 663-665 (1993).

A. O. J. Wiberg, C.-S. Bres, B. P.-P. Kuo, J. X. Zhao, N. Alic, S. Radic, "Sampling of multiple 320-Gb/s channels by single parametric gate," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 796-798 (2009).

T. Hasegawa, K. Inoue, K. Oda, "Polarization independent frequency conversion by fiber four-wave mixing with a polarization diversity technique," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 947-949 (1993 ).

IEEE Trans. Commun. (1)

J. H. Winters, R. D. Gitlin, "Electrical signal processing techniques in long-haul fiber-optic systems," IEEE Trans. Commun. 38, 1439 -1453 (1990).

J. Lightw. Technol. (7)

E. M. Ip, J. M. Kahn, "Fiber impairment compensation using coherent detection and digital signal processing ," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 502-519 (2010).

S. Watanabe, M. Shirasaki, "Exact compensation for both chromatic dispersion and Kerr effect in a transmission fiber using optical phase conjugation," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 243-248 (1996).

P. Kaewplung, T. Angkaew, K. Kikuchi, "Simultaneous suppression of third-order dispersion and sideband instability in single-channel optical fiber transmission by midway optical phase conjugation employing higher order dispersion management," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 1465 -1473 (2003).

L. Grüner-Nielsen, M. Wandel, P. Kristensen, C. Jørgensen, L. V. Jørgensen, B. Edvold, B. Pálsdóttir, D. Jakobsen, "Dispersion-compensating fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 3566-3579 (2005).

A. Chowdhury, G. Raybon, R.-T. Essiambre, J. H. Sinsky, A. Adamiecki, J. Leuthold, C. R. Doerr, S. Chandrasekhar, "Compensation of intrachannel nonlinearities in 40-Gb/s pseudolinear systems using optical-phase conjugation," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 172-177 (2004).

H. Sunnerud, M. Karlsson, C. Xie, P. A. Andrekson, "Polarization-mode dispersion in high-speed fiber-optic transmission systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 2204 -2219 (2002).

M.-C. Ho, M. E. Marhic, K. K. Y. Wong, L. G. Kazovsky, "Narrow-linewidth idler generation in fiber four-wave mixing and parametric amplification by dithering two pumps in opposition of phase," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 469-476 (2002).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B (1)

M. Karlsson, "Four-wave mixing in fibers with randomly varying zero-dispersion wavelength," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 15, 2269 -2275 (1998).

Opt. Exp. (1)

C. J. McKinstrie, H. Kogelnik, R. M. Jopson, S. Radic, A. V. Kanaev, "Four-wave mixing in fibers with random birefringence," Opt. Exp. 12, 2033-2055 (2004).

Opt. Exp. (4)

A. Hidayat, B. Koch, H. Zhang, V. Mirvoda, M. Lichtinger, D. Sandel, R. Noè, "High-speed endless optical polarization stabilization using calibrated waveplates and field-programmable gate array-based digital controller," Opt. Exp. 16, 18984-18991 (2008).

C. J. McKinstrie, S. Radic, "Phase-sensitive amplification in a fiber," Opt. Exp. 12, 4973-4979 (2004).

C. J. McKinstrie, S. Radic, C. Xie, "Parametric instabilities driven by orthogonal pump waves in birefringent fibers," Opt. Exp. 11, 2619-2633 (2003).

S. Kumar, L. Liu, "Reduction of nonlinear phase noise using optical phase conjugation in quasi-linear optical transmission systems," Opt. Exp. 15, 2166-2177 (2007).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (7)

A. H. Gnauck, R. M. Jopson, Optical Fiber Telecommunications III (Academic, 1997).

S. Radic, R. M. Jopson, C. J. McKinstrie, A. H. Gnauck, S. Chandrasekhar, J. C. Centanni, "Wavelength division multiplexed transmission over standard single mode fiber using polarization insensitive signal conjugation in highly nonlinear optical fiber," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Expo. 2003 AtlantaGA Paper PD-12.

A. I. Siahlo, J. Seoane, A. T. Clausen, L. K. Oxenløwe, P. Jeppesen, "320 Gb/s single-polarization OTDM transmission over 80 km standard transmission fiber ," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Expo./Nat. Fiber Optic Eng. Conf. (OFC/NFOEC) 2005 AnaheimCA () Paper OFF3.

A. O. J. Wiberg, C.-S. Brès, B. P.-P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, S. Radic, "Cavity-less 40 GHz pulse source tunable over 95 nm," Europ. Opt. Commun. Conf. 2009 ViennaAustria () Paper 1.1.3.

P. V. Mamyshev, "All-optical data regeneration based on self-phase modulation effect," Proc. ECOC 1998 () pp. 475-476.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, 2001).

P. S. Henry, "Error-rate performance of optical amplifiers," Conf. Opt. Fiber Commun. 1989 HoustonTX Paper THK3.

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