Abstract

Semiconductor quantum dot lasers have been extensively studied for applications in future lightwave telecommunications systems. This paper summarizes a tutorial that was presented at the Optical Fiber Communication (OFC) 2010. The motivation for quantum dots in lasers is outlined, and the desirable effects of three dimensional quantum confinement are described. Methods for forming self-assembled quantum dots and the resultant laser characteristics are presented. The formation of patterned quantum dot lasers and the results of this type of quantum dot laser are outlined. Finally, a novel inverted quantum dot structure or nanopore laser containing 3-D quantization formed from an engineered periodicity is introduced.

© 2010 IEEE

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2010 (4)

A. Mohan, P. Gallo, M. Felici, B. Dwir, A. Rudra, J. Faist, E. Kapon, "Record-low inhomogeneous broadening of site-controlled quantum dots for nanophotonics," Small 6, 1268-1272 (2010).

L. O. Mereni, V. Dimastrodonato, R. J. Young, E. Pelucchi, "Pyramidal quantum dots: High uniformity and narrow excitonic emission," Superlattices Microstruct. 47, 78-82 (2010).

A. Mohan, M. Felici, P. Gallo, B. Dwir, A. Rudra, J. Faist, E. Kapon, "Polarization-entangled photons produced with high-symmetry site-controlled quantum dots," Nat. Photon. 4, 302-306 (2010).

T. F. Kuech, L. J. Mawst, "Nanofabrication of III-V semiconductors employing diblock copolymer lithography," J. Phys. D 43, 183001-183018 (2010).

2009 (4)

C. C. Cheng, K. Meneou, K. Y. Cheng, "High optical quality InAs site-controlled quantum dots grown on soft photocurable nanoimprint lithography patterned GaAs substrates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 173108-1-173108-3 (2009).

D. Morecroft, J. K. W. Yang, S. Schuster, K. K. Berggren, Q. F. Xia, W. Wu, R. S. Williams, "Sub-15 nm nanoimprint molds and pattern transfer," J. Vac. Sci. Technol., B 27, 2837-2840 (2009).

V. B. Verma, J. J. Coleman, "A parametric analysis of the density of states and intraband energy gaps in an ordered nanopore array diode laser," J. Appl. Phys. 105, 043106-1-043106-8 (2009).

V. B. Verma, V. C. Elarde, J. J. Coleman, "An analytical model for the ordered nanopore array diode laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 10-20 (2009).

2008 (6)

V. C. Elarde, J. J. Coleman, "A novel ordered nanopore array diode laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 240-242 (2008).

V. B. Verma, J. J. Coleman, "High density patterned quantum dot arrays fabricated by electron beam lithography and wet chemical etching," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 111117-1-111117-3 (2008).

A. J. Zilkie, J. Meier, M. Mojahedi, A. S. Helmy, P. Poole, P. Barrios, D. Poitras, T. J. Rotter, Y. Chi, A. Stintz, K. J. Malloy, P. W. E. Smith, S. J. Aitchison, "Time-resolved linewidth enhancement factors in quantum dot and higher-dimensional semiconductor amplifiers operating at 1.55 $\mu$m," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 1498-1509 (2008).

Z. Mi, C. Wu, J. Yang, P. Bhattacharya, "Molecular beam epitaxial growth and characteristics of 1.52 $\mu$m metamorphic InAs quantum dot lasers on GaAs," J. Vac. Sci. Technol., B 26, 1153-1156 (2008).

A. Martinez, K. Merghem, S. Bouchoule, G. Moreau, A. Ramdane, J. G. Provost, F. Alexandre, F. Grillot, O. Dehaese, R. Piron, S. Loualiche, "Dynamic properties of InAs/InP (311)B quantum dot fabry-perot lasers emitting at 1.52 $\mu$m," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 021101-021103 (2008).

J. Zhang, X. M. Jiang, "Steady-state photoinduced absorption of PbS quantum dots film," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 141108-141110 (2008).

2007 (2)

V. C. Elarde, J. J. Coleman, "Nanoscale selective area epitaxy for optoelectronic devices," Prog. Quant. Electron. 31, 225-257 (2007).

E. Homeyer, R. Piron, F. Grillot, O. Dehaese, K. Tavernier, E. Mace, J. Even, A. Le Corre, S. Loualiche, "Demonstration of a low threshold current in 1.54 $\mu$m InAs/InP(311)B quantum dot laser with reduced quantum dot stacks," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 6903-6905 (2007).

2006 (3)

S. Melnik, G. Huyet, A. Uskov, "The linewidth enhancement factor $\alpha$ of quantum dot semiconductor lasers," Opt. Exp. 14, 2950-2955 (2006).

M. Schramboeck, W. Schrenk, T. Roch, A. M. Andrews, M. Austerer, G. Strasser, "Self organized InAs quantum dots grown on patterned GaAs substrates," Microelectron. Eng. 83, 1573-1576 (2006).

V. C. Elarde, J. J. Coleman, "Spectral and threshold performance of patterned quantum dot lasers," Physica C 3, 508-511 (2006).

2005 (3)

I. L. Drichko, A. M. Diakonov, V. I. Kozub, I. Y. Smirnov, Y. M. Galperin, A. I. Yakimov, A. I. Nikiforov, "AC-hopping conductance of self-organized Ge/Si quantum dot arrays," Physica E 26, 450-454 (2005).

Z. Mi, P. Bhattacharya, S. Fathpour, "High-speed 1.3 $\mu$m tunnel injection quantum-dot lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 153109-153111 (2005).

V. C. Elarde, A. C. Bryce, J. J. Coleman, "High performance laser with nanopatterned active layer by selective area epitaxy," Electron. Lett. 41, 1122-1124 (2005).

2004 (7)

S. M. Kim, Y. Wang, M. Keever, J. S. Harris, "High-frequency modulation characteristics of 1.3-$\mu$m InGaAs quantum dot lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 377-379 (2004).

I. R. Sellers, H. Y. Liu, K. M. Groom, D. T. Childs, D. Robbins, T. J. Badcock, M. Hopkinson, D. J. Mowbray, A. S. Skolnick, "1.3 $\mu$m InAs/GaAs multilayer quantum-dot laser with extremely low room-temperature threshold current density," Electron. Lett. 40, 1412-1413 (2004).

S. Fathpour, Z. Mi, P. Bhattacharya, A. R. Kovsh, S. S. Mikhrin, I. L. Krestnikov, A. V. Kozhukhov, N. N. Ledentsov, "The role of Auger recombination in the temperature-dependent output characteristics $({\rm T}0 =\infty)$ of p-doped 1.3 $\mu$m quantum dot lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5164-5166 (2004).

N. Nuntawong, S. Birudavolu, C. P. Hains, S. Huang, H. Xu, D. L. Huffaker, "Effect of strain-compensation in stacked 1.3 $\mu$m InAs/GaAs quantum dot active regions grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3050-3052 (2004).

J. Gierak, E. Bourhis, R. Jede, L. Bruchhaus, B. Beaumont, P. Gibart, "FIB technology applied to the improvement of the crystal quality of GaN and to the fabrication of organised arrays of quantum dots," Microelectron. Eng. 73โ€“74, 610-614 (2004).

T. Yang, J. Tatebayashi, S. Tsukamoto, M. Nishioka, Y. Arakawa, "Narrow photoluminescence linewidth (17 meV) from highly uniform self-assembled InAs/GaAs quantum dots grown by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2817-2819 (2004).

V. C. Elarde, T. S. Yeoh, R. Rangarajan, J. J. Coleman, "Controlled fabrication of InGaAs quantum dots by selective area epitaxy MOCVD growth," J. Cryst. Growth 272, 148-153 (2004).

2003 (1)

P. Bhattacharya, S. Ghosh, S. Pradhan, J. Singh, W. Zong-Kwei, J. Urayama, K. Kim, T. B. Norris, "Carrier dynamics and high-speed modulation properties of tunnel injection InGaAs-GaAs quantum-dot lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 952-962 (2003).

2002 (2)

A. G. Cullis, D. J. Norris, T. Walther, M. A. Migliorato, M. Hopkinson, "Stranski-Krastanow transition and epitaxial island growth," Phys. Rev. B 66, 81305-81401 (2002).

S. C. Lee, A. Stintz, S. R. J. Brueck, "Nanoscale limited area growth of InAs islands on GaAs(001) by molecular beam epitaxy," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 3282-3288 (2002).

2001 (6)

L. Seung-Chang, K. J. Malloy, S. R. J. Brueck, "Nanoscale selective growth of GaAs by molecular beam epitaxy," J. Appl. Phys. 90, 4163-4168 (2001).

T. Walther, A. G. Cullis, D. J. Norris, M. Hopkinson, "Nature of the Stranski-Krastanow transition during epitaxy of InGaAs on GaAs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 2381-2384 (2001).

J. Tatebayashi, M. Nishioka, Y. Arakawa, "Over 1.5 $\mu$m light emission from InAs quantum dots embedded in InGaAs strain-reducing layer grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3469-3471 (2001).

T. S. Yeoh, C. P. Liu, R. B. Swint, A. E. Huber, S. D. Roh, C. Y. Woo, K. E. Lee, J. J. Coleman, "Epitaxy of InAs quantum dots on self-organized two-dimensional InAs islands by atmospheric pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 221-223 (2001).

L. V. Asryan, S. Luryi, "Tunneling-injection quantum-dot laser: Ultrahigh temperature stability," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 905-910 (2001).

P. G. Eliseev, H. Li, T. Liu, T. C. Newell, L. F. Lester, K. J. Malloy, "Ground-state emission and gain in ultralow-threshold InAs-InGaAs quantum-dot lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 7, 135-142 (2001).

2000 (5)

X. Huang, A. Stintz, C. P. Hains, G. T. Liu, J. Cheng, K. J. Malloy, "Efficient high-temperature CW lasing operation of oxide-confined long-wavelength InAs quantum dot lasers," Electron. Lett. 36, 41-42 (2000).

A. Stintz, G. T. Liu, H. Li, L. F. Lester, K. J. Malloy, "Low-threshold current density 1.3 $\mu$m InAs quantum-dot lasers with the dots-in-a-well (DWELL) structure," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 591-593 (2000).

J. Bloch, J. Shah, L. N. Pfeiffer, K. W. West, S. N. G. Chu, "Optical properties of multiple layers of self-organized InAs quantum dots emitting at 1.3 $\mu$m," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2545-2547 (2000).

R. R. Li, P. D. Dapkus, M. E. Thompson, W. G. Jeong, C. Harrison, P. M. Chaikin, R. A. Register, D. H. Adamson, "Dense arrays of ordered GaAs nanostructures by selective area growth on substrates patterned by block copolymer lithography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1689-1691 (2000).

H. Lee, J. A. Johnson, J. S. Speck, P. M. Petroff, "Controlled ordering and positioning of InAs self-assembled quantum dots," J. Vac. Sci. Technol., B 18, 2193-2196 (2000).

1999 (2)

I. Mukhametzhanov, Z. Wei, R. Heitz, A. Madhukar, "Punctuated island growth: An approach to examination and control of quantum dot density, size, and shape evolution," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 85-87 (1999).

R. Murray, D. Childs, S. Malik, P. Siverns, C. Roberts, J. M. Hartmann, P. Stavrinou, "1.3 $\mu$m room temperature emission from InAs/GaAs self-assembled quantum dots," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 528-30 (1999).

1997 (3)

B. Daudin, F. Widmann, G. Feuillet, Y. Samson, M. Arlery, J. L. Rouviere, "Stranski-Krastanov growth mode during the molecular beam epitaxy of highly strained GaN," Phys. Rev. B 56, 7069-7072 (1997).

X. Li, A. M. Jones, S. D. Roh, D. A. Turnbull, S. G. Bishop, J. J. Coleman, "Characteristics of GaN stripes grown by selective-area metalorganic chemical vapor deposition," J. Electron. Mater. 26, 306-310 (1997).

S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, W. Zhang, L. J. Guo, L. Zhuang, "Sub-10 nm imprint lithography and applications," J. Vac. Sci. Technol., B 15, 2897-2904 (1997).

1996 (3)

S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, P. J. Renstrom, "Nanoimprint lithography," J. Vac. Sci. Technol., B 14, 4129-4133 (1996).

Y. Sugiyama, Y. Nakata, K. Imamura, S. Muto, N. Yokoyama, "Stacked InAs self-assembled quantum dots on (001)GaAs grown by molecular beam epitaxy," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, 1320-1324 (1996).

N. N. Ledentsov, V. A. Shchukin, M. Grundmann, N. Kirstaedter, J. Bohrer, O. Schmidt, D. Bimberg, V. M. Ustinov, A. Y. Egorov, A. E. Zhukov, P. S. Kop'ev, S. V. Zaitsev, N. Y. Gordeev, Z. I. Alferov, A. Borovkov, A. O. Kosogov, S. S. Ruvimov, P. Werner, U. Gosele, J. Heydenreich, "Direct formation of vertically coupled quantum dots in Stranski-Krastanow growth," Phys. Rev. B 54, 8743-8750 (1996).

1995 (2)

T. Fujii, M. Ekawa, "Origin of compositional modulation of ingaas in selective-area metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy," J. Appl. Phys. 78, 5373-5386 (1995).

R. K. Kupka, Y. Chen, R. Planel, H. Launois, "Fabrication of quantum wires and dots by X-ray-lithography and Ga+ implantation enhanced intermixing," Microelectron. Eng. 27, 311-316 (1995).

1994 (6)

T. M. Cockerill, D. V. Forbes, H. Han, B. A. Turkot, J. A. Dantzig, I. M. Robertson, J. J. Coleman, "Wavelength tuning in strained layer InGaAs-GaAs-AlGaAs quantum well lasers by selective-area MOCVD," J. Electron. Mater. 23, 115-119 (1994).

K. Kumakura, K. Nakakoshi, M. Kishida, J. Motohisa, T. Fukui, H. Hasegawa, "Dynamics of selective metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy growth for GaAs/AlGaAs micro-pyramids," J. Cryst. Growth 145, 308-313 (1994).

H. Hirayama, K. Matsunaga, M. Asada, Y. Suematsu, "Lasing action of Ga$_{0.67}$In$_{0.33}$ As/GaInAsP/InP tensile-strained quantum-box laser," Electron. Lett. 30, 142-143 (1994).

D. Leonard, K. Pond, P. M. Petroff, "Critical layer thickness for self-assembled InAs islands on GaAs," Phys. Rev. B 50, 11687-11692 (1994).

P. M. Petroff, S. P. Denbaars, "MBE and MOCVD growth and properties of self-assembling quantum dot arrays in III-V semiconductor structures," Superlattices Microstruct. 15, 15-21 (1994).

N. Kirstaedter, N. N. Ledentsov, M. Grundmann, D. Bimberg, V. M. Ustinov, S. S. Ruvimov, M. V. Maximov, P. S. Kop'ev, Z. I. Alferov, U. Richter, P. Werner, U. Gosele, J. Heydenreich, "Low threshold, large to injection laser emission from (InGa)As quantum dots," Electron. Lett. 30, 1416-1417 (1994).

1993 (1)

M. A. Cotta, R. A. Hamm, T. W. Staley, R. D. Yadvish, L. R. Harriott, H. Temkin, "Scanning force microscopy measurement of edge growth rate enhancement in selective area epitaxy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 496-498 (1993).

1988 (1)

L. Hafskjaer, A. S. Sudbo, "Modeling of the frequency-modulation response of semiconductor diode-lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 625-34 (1988).

1986 (2)

M. Asada, Y. Miyamoto, Y. Suematsu, "Gain and the threshold of 3-dimensional quantum-box lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1915-1921 (1986).

C. H. Henry, "Phase noise in semiconductor-lasers," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-4, 298-311 (1986).

1983 (1)

C. H. Henry, "Theory of the phase noise and power spectrum of a single-mode injection-laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 1391-1397 (1983).

1982 (4)

N. K. Dutta, R. J. Nelson, "Gain measurements in 1.3-Mum Ingaasp-Inp double heterostructure lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 44-49 (1982).

C. H. Henry, "Theory of the linewidth of semiconductor-lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 259-264 (1982).

S. Kobayashi, Y. Yamamoto, M. Ito, T. Kimura, "Direct frequency-modulation in AlGaAs semiconductor-lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 582-95 (1982).

Y. Arakawa, H. Sakaki, "Multidimensional quantum well laser and temperature dependence of its threshold current," Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 939-941 (1982).

1980 (1)

N. K. Dutta, R. J. Nelson, P. A. Barnes, "Temperature-dependence of threshold and electrical characteristics of Ingaasp-Inp Dh lasers," Electron. Lett. 16, 653-654 (1980).

1979 (2)

Y. Horikoshi, Y. Furukawa, "Temperature sensitive threshold current of Ingaasp-Inp double heterostructure lasers," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 18, 809-815 (1979).

R. D. Dupuis, P. D. Dapkus, R. Chin, N. Holonyak, Jr.S. W. Kirchoefer, "Continuous 300$^{\circ}$K laser operation of single-quantum-well Al$_{\rm x}$Ga$_{1 - {\rm x}}$As-GaAs heterostructure diodes grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition," Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 265-267 (1979).

1975 (1)

J. P. Van der Ziel, R. Dingle, R. C. Miller, W. Wiegmann, W. A. Nordland, Jr."Laser oscillation from quantum states in very thin GaAs-Al$_{0.2}$Ga$_{0.8}$As multilayer structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 463-465 (1975).

1974 (1)

R. Dingle, W. Wiegmann, C. H. Henry, "Quantum states of confined carriers in very thin Al$_{\rm x}$Ga$_{1 - {\rm x}}$ As-GaAs-Al$_{\rm x}$Ga$_{1 - {\rm x}}$As heterostructures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 33, 827-30 (1974).

1958 (1)

E. Bauer, "Phaenomenologische Theorie der Kristallabscheidung an Oberflaechen I," Zeitschrift f$\ddot{\upsilon}$r Kristallographie 110, 372-394 (1958).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (17)

J. P. Van der Ziel, R. Dingle, R. C. Miller, W. Wiegmann, W. A. Nordland, Jr."Laser oscillation from quantum states in very thin GaAs-Al$_{0.2}$Ga$_{0.8}$As multilayer structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 463-465 (1975).

R. D. Dupuis, P. D. Dapkus, R. Chin, N. Holonyak, Jr.S. W. Kirchoefer, "Continuous 300$^{\circ}$K laser operation of single-quantum-well Al$_{\rm x}$Ga$_{1 - {\rm x}}$As-GaAs heterostructure diodes grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition," Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 265-267 (1979).

Y. Arakawa, H. Sakaki, "Multidimensional quantum well laser and temperature dependence of its threshold current," Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 939-941 (1982).

T. S. Yeoh, C. P. Liu, R. B. Swint, A. E. Huber, S. D. Roh, C. Y. Woo, K. E. Lee, J. J. Coleman, "Epitaxy of InAs quantum dots on self-organized two-dimensional InAs islands by atmospheric pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 221-223 (2001).

J. Tatebayashi, M. Nishioka, Y. Arakawa, "Over 1.5 $\mu$m light emission from InAs quantum dots embedded in InGaAs strain-reducing layer grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3469-3471 (2001).

J. Bloch, J. Shah, L. N. Pfeiffer, K. W. West, S. N. G. Chu, "Optical properties of multiple layers of self-organized InAs quantum dots emitting at 1.3 $\mu$m," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2545-2547 (2000).

N. Nuntawong, S. Birudavolu, C. P. Hains, S. Huang, H. Xu, D. L. Huffaker, "Effect of strain-compensation in stacked 1.3 $\mu$m InAs/GaAs quantum dot active regions grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3050-3052 (2004).

S. Fathpour, Z. Mi, P. Bhattacharya, A. R. Kovsh, S. S. Mikhrin, I. L. Krestnikov, A. V. Kozhukhov, N. N. Ledentsov, "The role of Auger recombination in the temperature-dependent output characteristics $({\rm T}0 =\infty)$ of p-doped 1.3 $\mu$m quantum dot lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5164-5166 (2004).

Z. Mi, P. Bhattacharya, S. Fathpour, "High-speed 1.3 $\mu$m tunnel injection quantum-dot lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 153109-153111 (2005).

A. Martinez, K. Merghem, S. Bouchoule, G. Moreau, A. Ramdane, J. G. Provost, F. Alexandre, F. Grillot, O. Dehaese, R. Piron, S. Loualiche, "Dynamic properties of InAs/InP (311)B quantum dot fabry-perot lasers emitting at 1.52 $\mu$m," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 021101-021103 (2008).

V. B. Verma, J. J. Coleman, "High density patterned quantum dot arrays fabricated by electron beam lithography and wet chemical etching," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 111117-1-111117-3 (2008).

C. C. Cheng, K. Meneou, K. Y. Cheng, "High optical quality InAs site-controlled quantum dots grown on soft photocurable nanoimprint lithography patterned GaAs substrates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 173108-1-173108-3 (2009).

R. R. Li, P. D. Dapkus, M. E. Thompson, W. G. Jeong, C. Harrison, P. M. Chaikin, R. A. Register, D. H. Adamson, "Dense arrays of ordered GaAs nanostructures by selective area growth on substrates patterned by block copolymer lithography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1689-1691 (2000).

M. A. Cotta, R. A. Hamm, T. W. Staley, R. D. Yadvish, L. R. Harriott, H. Temkin, "Scanning force microscopy measurement of edge growth rate enhancement in selective area epitaxy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 496-498 (1993).

I. Mukhametzhanov, Z. Wei, R. Heitz, A. Madhukar, "Punctuated island growth: An approach to examination and control of quantum dot density, size, and shape evolution," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 85-87 (1999).

J. Zhang, X. M. Jiang, "Steady-state photoinduced absorption of PbS quantum dots film," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 141108-141110 (2008).

T. Yang, J. Tatebayashi, S. Tsukamoto, M. Nishioka, Y. Arakawa, "Narrow photoluminescence linewidth (17 meV) from highly uniform self-assembled InAs/GaAs quantum dots grown by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2817-2819 (2004).

Electron. Lett. (6)

V. C. Elarde, A. C. Bryce, J. J. Coleman, "High performance laser with nanopatterned active layer by selective area epitaxy," Electron. Lett. 41, 1122-1124 (2005).

I. R. Sellers, H. Y. Liu, K. M. Groom, D. T. Childs, D. Robbins, T. J. Badcock, M. Hopkinson, D. J. Mowbray, A. S. Skolnick, "1.3 $\mu$m InAs/GaAs multilayer quantum-dot laser with extremely low room-temperature threshold current density," Electron. Lett. 40, 1412-1413 (2004).

X. Huang, A. Stintz, C. P. Hains, G. T. Liu, J. Cheng, K. J. Malloy, "Efficient high-temperature CW lasing operation of oxide-confined long-wavelength InAs quantum dot lasers," Electron. Lett. 36, 41-42 (2000).

N. K. Dutta, R. J. Nelson, P. A. Barnes, "Temperature-dependence of threshold and electrical characteristics of Ingaasp-Inp Dh lasers," Electron. Lett. 16, 653-654 (1980).

N. Kirstaedter, N. N. Ledentsov, M. Grundmann, D. Bimberg, V. M. Ustinov, S. S. Ruvimov, M. V. Maximov, P. S. Kop'ev, Z. I. Alferov, U. Richter, P. Werner, U. Gosele, J. Heydenreich, "Low threshold, large to injection laser emission from (InGa)As quantum dots," Electron. Lett. 30, 1416-1417 (1994).

H. Hirayama, K. Matsunaga, M. Asada, Y. Suematsu, "Lasing action of Ga$_{0.67}$In$_{0.33}$ As/GaInAsP/InP tensile-strained quantum-box laser," Electron. Lett. 30, 142-143 (1994).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (9)

V. B. Verma, V. C. Elarde, J. J. Coleman, "An analytical model for the ordered nanopore array diode laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 10-20 (2009).

M. Asada, Y. Miyamoto, Y. Suematsu, "Gain and the threshold of 3-dimensional quantum-box lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1915-1921 (1986).

N. K. Dutta, R. J. Nelson, "Gain measurements in 1.3-Mum Ingaasp-Inp double heterostructure lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 44-49 (1982).

C. H. Henry, "Theory of the linewidth of semiconductor-lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 259-264 (1982).

C. H. Henry, "Theory of the phase noise and power spectrum of a single-mode injection-laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 1391-1397 (1983).

P. Bhattacharya, S. Ghosh, S. Pradhan, J. Singh, W. Zong-Kwei, J. Urayama, K. Kim, T. B. Norris, "Carrier dynamics and high-speed modulation properties of tunnel injection InGaAs-GaAs quantum-dot lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 952-962 (2003).

L. V. Asryan, S. Luryi, "Tunneling-injection quantum-dot laser: Ultrahigh temperature stability," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 905-910 (2001).

S. Kobayashi, Y. Yamamoto, M. Ito, T. Kimura, "Direct frequency-modulation in AlGaAs semiconductor-lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 582-95 (1982).

L. Hafskjaer, A. S. Sudbo, "Modeling of the frequency-modulation response of semiconductor diode-lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 625-34 (1988).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

P. G. Eliseev, H. Li, T. Liu, T. C. Newell, L. F. Lester, K. J. Malloy, "Ground-state emission and gain in ultralow-threshold InAs-InGaAs quantum-dot lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 7, 135-142 (2001).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

S. M. Kim, Y. Wang, M. Keever, J. S. Harris, "High-frequency modulation characteristics of 1.3-$\mu$m InGaAs quantum dot lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 377-379 (2004).

A. Stintz, G. T. Liu, H. Li, L. F. Lester, K. J. Malloy, "Low-threshold current density 1.3 $\mu$m InAs quantum-dot lasers with the dots-in-a-well (DWELL) structure," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 591-593 (2000).

V. C. Elarde, J. J. Coleman, "A novel ordered nanopore array diode laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 240-242 (2008).

J. Appl. Phys. (4)

V. B. Verma, J. J. Coleman, "A parametric analysis of the density of states and intraband energy gaps in an ordered nanopore array diode laser," J. Appl. Phys. 105, 043106-1-043106-8 (2009).

T. Fujii, M. Ekawa, "Origin of compositional modulation of ingaas in selective-area metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy," J. Appl. Phys. 78, 5373-5386 (1995).

L. Seung-Chang, K. J. Malloy, S. R. J. Brueck, "Nanoscale selective growth of GaAs by molecular beam epitaxy," J. Appl. Phys. 90, 4163-4168 (2001).

S. C. Lee, A. Stintz, S. R. J. Brueck, "Nanoscale limited area growth of InAs islands on GaAs(001) by molecular beam epitaxy," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 3282-3288 (2002).

J. Cryst. Growth (2)

K. Kumakura, K. Nakakoshi, M. Kishida, J. Motohisa, T. Fukui, H. Hasegawa, "Dynamics of selective metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy growth for GaAs/AlGaAs micro-pyramids," J. Cryst. Growth 145, 308-313 (1994).

V. C. Elarde, T. S. Yeoh, R. Rangarajan, J. J. Coleman, "Controlled fabrication of InGaAs quantum dots by selective area epitaxy MOCVD growth," J. Cryst. Growth 272, 148-153 (2004).

J. Electron. Mater. (2)

X. Li, A. M. Jones, S. D. Roh, D. A. Turnbull, S. G. Bishop, J. J. Coleman, "Characteristics of GaN stripes grown by selective-area metalorganic chemical vapor deposition," J. Electron. Mater. 26, 306-310 (1997).

T. M. Cockerill, D. V. Forbes, H. Han, B. A. Turkot, J. A. Dantzig, I. M. Robertson, J. J. Coleman, "Wavelength tuning in strained layer InGaAs-GaAs-AlGaAs quantum well lasers by selective-area MOCVD," J. Electron. Mater. 23, 115-119 (1994).

J. Lightw. Technol. (2)

A. J. Zilkie, J. Meier, M. Mojahedi, A. S. Helmy, P. Poole, P. Barrios, D. Poitras, T. J. Rotter, Y. Chi, A. Stintz, K. J. Malloy, P. W. E. Smith, S. J. Aitchison, "Time-resolved linewidth enhancement factors in quantum dot and higher-dimensional semiconductor amplifiers operating at 1.55 $\mu$m," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 1498-1509 (2008).

C. H. Henry, "Phase noise in semiconductor-lasers," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-4, 298-311 (1986).

J. Phys. D (1)

T. F. Kuech, L. J. Mawst, "Nanofabrication of III-V semiconductors employing diblock copolymer lithography," J. Phys. D 43, 183001-183018 (2010).

J. Vac. Sci. Technol., B (5)

Z. Mi, C. Wu, J. Yang, P. Bhattacharya, "Molecular beam epitaxial growth and characteristics of 1.52 $\mu$m metamorphic InAs quantum dot lasers on GaAs," J. Vac. Sci. Technol., B 26, 1153-1156 (2008).

S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, P. J. Renstrom, "Nanoimprint lithography," J. Vac. Sci. Technol., B 14, 4129-4133 (1996).

D. Morecroft, J. K. W. Yang, S. Schuster, K. K. Berggren, Q. F. Xia, W. Wu, R. S. Williams, "Sub-15 nm nanoimprint molds and pattern transfer," J. Vac. Sci. Technol., B 27, 2837-2840 (2009).

S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, W. Zhang, L. J. Guo, L. Zhuang, "Sub-10 nm imprint lithography and applications," J. Vac. Sci. Technol., B 15, 2897-2904 (1997).

H. Lee, J. A. Johnson, J. S. Speck, P. M. Petroff, "Controlled ordering and positioning of InAs self-assembled quantum dots," J. Vac. Sci. Technol., B 18, 2193-2196 (2000).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (4)

Y. Sugiyama, Y. Nakata, K. Imamura, S. Muto, N. Yokoyama, "Stacked InAs self-assembled quantum dots on (001)GaAs grown by molecular beam epitaxy," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, 1320-1324 (1996).

Y. Horikoshi, Y. Furukawa, "Temperature sensitive threshold current of Ingaasp-Inp double heterostructure lasers," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 18, 809-815 (1979).

E. Homeyer, R. Piron, F. Grillot, O. Dehaese, K. Tavernier, E. Mace, J. Even, A. Le Corre, S. Loualiche, "Demonstration of a low threshold current in 1.54 $\mu$m InAs/InP(311)B quantum dot laser with reduced quantum dot stacks," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 6903-6905 (2007).

R. Murray, D. Childs, S. Malik, P. Siverns, C. Roberts, J. M. Hartmann, P. Stavrinou, "1.3 $\mu$m room temperature emission from InAs/GaAs self-assembled quantum dots," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 528-30 (1999).

Microelectron. Eng. (3)

J. Gierak, E. Bourhis, R. Jede, L. Bruchhaus, B. Beaumont, P. Gibart, "FIB technology applied to the improvement of the crystal quality of GaN and to the fabrication of organised arrays of quantum dots," Microelectron. Eng. 73โ€“74, 610-614 (2004).

M. Schramboeck, W. Schrenk, T. Roch, A. M. Andrews, M. Austerer, G. Strasser, "Self organized InAs quantum dots grown on patterned GaAs substrates," Microelectron. Eng. 83, 1573-1576 (2006).

R. K. Kupka, Y. Chen, R. Planel, H. Launois, "Fabrication of quantum wires and dots by X-ray-lithography and Ga+ implantation enhanced intermixing," Microelectron. Eng. 27, 311-316 (1995).

Nat. Photon. (1)

A. Mohan, M. Felici, P. Gallo, B. Dwir, A. Rudra, J. Faist, E. Kapon, "Polarization-entangled photons produced with high-symmetry site-controlled quantum dots," Nat. Photon. 4, 302-306 (2010).

Opt. Exp. (1)

S. Melnik, G. Huyet, A. Uskov, "The linewidth enhancement factor $\alpha$ of quantum dot semiconductor lasers," Opt. Exp. 14, 2950-2955 (2006).

Phys. Rev. B (4)

A. G. Cullis, D. J. Norris, T. Walther, M. A. Migliorato, M. Hopkinson, "Stranski-Krastanow transition and epitaxial island growth," Phys. Rev. B 66, 81305-81401 (2002).

N. N. Ledentsov, V. A. Shchukin, M. Grundmann, N. Kirstaedter, J. Bohrer, O. Schmidt, D. Bimberg, V. M. Ustinov, A. Y. Egorov, A. E. Zhukov, P. S. Kop'ev, S. V. Zaitsev, N. Y. Gordeev, Z. I. Alferov, A. Borovkov, A. O. Kosogov, S. S. Ruvimov, P. Werner, U. Gosele, J. Heydenreich, "Direct formation of vertically coupled quantum dots in Stranski-Krastanow growth," Phys. Rev. B 54, 8743-8750 (1996).

D. Leonard, K. Pond, P. M. Petroff, "Critical layer thickness for self-assembled InAs islands on GaAs," Phys. Rev. B 50, 11687-11692 (1994).

B. Daudin, F. Widmann, G. Feuillet, Y. Samson, M. Arlery, J. L. Rouviere, "Stranski-Krastanov growth mode during the molecular beam epitaxy of highly strained GaN," Phys. Rev. B 56, 7069-7072 (1997).

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

R. Dingle, W. Wiegmann, C. H. Henry, "Quantum states of confined carriers in very thin Al$_{\rm x}$Ga$_{1 - {\rm x}}$ As-GaAs-Al$_{\rm x}$Ga$_{1 - {\rm x}}$As heterostructures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 33, 827-30 (1974).

T. Walther, A. G. Cullis, D. J. Norris, M. Hopkinson, "Nature of the Stranski-Krastanow transition during epitaxy of InGaAs on GaAs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 2381-2384 (2001).

Physica C (1)

V. C. Elarde, J. J. Coleman, "Spectral and threshold performance of patterned quantum dot lasers," Physica C 3, 508-511 (2006).

Physica E (1)

I. L. Drichko, A. M. Diakonov, V. I. Kozub, I. Y. Smirnov, Y. M. Galperin, A. I. Yakimov, A. I. Nikiforov, "AC-hopping conductance of self-organized Ge/Si quantum dot arrays," Physica E 26, 450-454 (2005).

Prog. Quant. Electron. (1)

V. C. Elarde, J. J. Coleman, "Nanoscale selective area epitaxy for optoelectronic devices," Prog. Quant. Electron. 31, 225-257 (2007).

Small (1)

A. Mohan, P. Gallo, M. Felici, B. Dwir, A. Rudra, J. Faist, E. Kapon, "Record-low inhomogeneous broadening of site-controlled quantum dots for nanophotonics," Small 6, 1268-1272 (2010).

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L. O. Mereni, V. Dimastrodonato, R. J. Young, E. Pelucchi, "Pyramidal quantum dots: High uniformity and narrow excitonic emission," Superlattices Microstruct. 47, 78-82 (2010).

P. M. Petroff, S. P. Denbaars, "MBE and MOCVD growth and properties of self-assembling quantum dot arrays in III-V semiconductor structures," Superlattices Microstruct. 15, 15-21 (1994).

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E. Bauer, "Phaenomenologische Theorie der Kristallabscheidung an Oberflaechen I," Zeitschrift f$\ddot{\upsilon}$r Kristallographie 110, 372-394 (1958).

Other (4)

J. J. Coleman, "Semiconductor quantum dot devices," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. 2010 pp. 22.

V. B. Verma, U. Reddy, N. L. Dias, K. P. Bassett, X. Li, J. J. Coleman, "Patterned quantum dot molecule laser fabricated by electron beam lithography and wet chemical etching," Proc. 2010 IEEE Photon. Soc. Winter Topicals Meeting Series pp. 143-144.

Y. Mishima, N. Kaida, M. Sugiyama, Y. Shimogaki, Y. Nakano, "Two-dimensional simulation of the growth enhancement in selective area metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy," Proc. Symp. Fund. Gas-Phase Surf. Chem. Vapor-Phase Mater. Synthesis (1999) pp. 364-369.

V. C. Elarde, T. S. Yeoh, R. Rangarajan, J. J. Coleman, "Patterned InGaAs quantum dots by selective area MOCVD," Proc. 31st Int. Symp. Compound Semicond. (2004) pp. 353.

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