Abstract

Optical buffering has been one of the major technical challenges in realizing optical packet switching (OPS) routers. While fiber-delay-line-based (FDL) buffers are the most practical and realistic solution to offer useful amount of capacity, the bulkiness of long FDLs and optical switches has been the main obstacle to practical implementation. This paper demonstrates a compact optical buffer with up to 750-ns capacity and 50-ns temporal resolution by using an InP integrated 1$\, \times \,$16 optical phased-array switch and compact FDL module based on thin-cladding highly nonlinear fiber (HNLF). Owing to the high mode confinement inside HNLF, 15 fibers with the total length of 1.2 km are coiled onto a single bobbin with a coin-sized footprint without increasing the propagation loss. At the interface between the InP switch and FDLs, a pitch-converting silica planar-lightwave circuit chip is employed to achieve 16-port simultaneous uniform interconnection. Using the developed module, variable optical buffering experiment is demonstrated, where the packet intervals are expanded from 20 to 70 ns successfully.

© 2011 IEEE

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  2. R. S. Tucker, "The role of optics and electronics in high-capacity routers," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4655-4673 (2006).
  3. H. J. S. Dorren, N. Calabretta, O. Raz, "Scaling all-optical packet routers: How much buffering is required?," J. Opt. Netw. 7, 936-946 (2008).
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  6. M. Enachescu, Y. Ganjali, A. Goel, N. McKeown, "Part III: Routers with very small buffers," ACM Comput. Commun. Rev. 35, 79-82 (2005).
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  12. R. S. Tucker, "Capabilities and limitations of slow light optical buffers: Searching for the killer application," Proc. Conf. Lasers Electro-Opt. (2009) pp. 1-.
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  16. H. Furukawa, H. Harai, N. Wada, N. Takezawa, K. Nashimoto, T. Miyazaki, "A 31-FDL buffer based on trees of 1$\,\times\,$8 PLZT optical switches," Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (2006) pp. 1-2.
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  19. H. Yang, S. J. B. Yoo, "All-optical variable buffering strategies and switch fabric architectures for future all-optical data routers," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 3321-3330 (2005).
  20. G. Das, R. S. Tucker, C. Leckie, K. Hinton, "Multiple-input single-output FIFO optical buffers with controllable fractional delay lines," Opt. Express 16, 21849-21864 (2008).
  21. M. Takahashi, Y. Mimura, J. Hiroishi, M. Tadakuma, R. Sugizaki, M. Sakano, T. Yagi, "Investigation of a downsized silica highly nonlinear fiber," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 2103-2107 (2007).
  22. T. Tanemura, M. Takenaka, A. Al Amin, K. Takeda, T. Shioda, M. Sugiyama, Y. Nakano, "InP/InGaAsP integrated 1$\, \times \,$5 optical switch using arrayed phase shifters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1063-1065 (2008).
  23. I. M. Soganci, T. Tanemura, K. A. Williams, N. Calabretta, T. de Vries, E. Smalbrugge, M. K. Smit, H. J. S. Dorren, Y. Nakano, "Monolithically integrated InP 1$\,\times\,$16 optical switch with wavelength-insensitive operation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 143-145 (2010).
  24. T. Tanemura, Y. Nakano, "Design and scalability analysis of optical phased-array 1$\,\times\,N$ switch on planar lightwave circuit," IEICE Electron. Exp. 5, 603-609 (2008).
  25. T. Tanemura, K. Takeda, Y. Nakano, "Wavelength-multiplexed optical packet switching using InP phased-array switch," Opt. Express 17, 9454-9459 (2009).
  26. I. M. Soganci, N. Calabretta, T. Tanemura, W. Wang, O. Raz, K. Higuchi, K. A. Williams, T. de Vries, H. J. S. Dorren, Y. Nakano, "160-Gb/s optical packet switching subsystem with a monolithic optical phased-array switch," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 817-819 (2010).
  27. A. F. Elrefaie, R. E. Wagner, D. A. Atlas, D. G. Daut, "Chromatic dispersion limitations in coherent lightwave transmission systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 6, 704-709 (1988).
  28. H. Takahashi, K. Oda, H. Toba, "Impact of crosstalk in an arrayed-waveguide multiplexer on $N \times N$ optical interconnection," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 1097-1105 (1996).

2010 (2)

I. M. Soganci, T. Tanemura, K. A. Williams, N. Calabretta, T. de Vries, E. Smalbrugge, M. K. Smit, H. J. S. Dorren, Y. Nakano, "Monolithically integrated InP 1$\,\times\,$16 optical switch with wavelength-insensitive operation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 143-145 (2010).

I. M. Soganci, N. Calabretta, T. Tanemura, W. Wang, O. Raz, K. Higuchi, K. A. Williams, T. de Vries, H. J. S. Dorren, Y. Nakano, "160-Gb/s optical packet switching subsystem with a monolithic optical phased-array switch," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 817-819 (2010).

2009 (2)

J. D. LeGrange, J. E. Simsarian, P. Bernasconi, L. Buhl, J. Gripp, D. T. Neilson, "Demonstration of an integrated buffer for an all-optical packet router," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 781-783 (2009).

T. Tanemura, K. Takeda, Y. Nakano, "Wavelength-multiplexed optical packet switching using InP phased-array switch," Opt. Express 17, 9454-9459 (2009).

2008 (9)

T. Tanemura, M. Takenaka, A. Al Amin, K. Takeda, T. Shioda, M. Sugiyama, Y. Nakano, "InP/InGaAsP integrated 1$\, \times \,$5 optical switch using arrayed phase shifters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1063-1065 (2008).

E. F. Burmeister, J. P. Mack, H. N. Poulsen, J. Klamkin, L. A. Coldren, D. J. Blumenthal, J. E. Bowers, "SOA gate array recirculating buffer with fiber delay loop," Opt. Express 16, 8451-8456 (2008).

H. Park, J. P. Mack, D. J. Blumenthal, J. E. Bowers, "An integrated recirculating optical buffer," Opt. Express 16, 11124-11131 (2008).

H. J. S. Dorren, N. Calabretta, O. Raz, "Scaling all-optical packet routers: How much buffering is required?," J. Opt. Netw. 7, 936-946 (2008).

G. Das, R. S. Tucker, C. Leckie, K. Hinton, "Multiple-input single-output FIFO optical buffers with controllable fractional delay lines," Opt. Express 16, 21849-21864 (2008).

T. Tanemura, Y. Nakano, "Design and scalability analysis of optical phased-array 1$\,\times\,N$ switch on planar lightwave circuit," IEICE Electron. Exp. 5, 603-609 (2008).

E. F. Burmeister, D. J. Blumenthal, J. E. Bowers, "A comparison of optical buffering technologies," Opt. Switch. Netw. 5, 10-18 (2008).

N. K. Fontaine, J. Yang, Z. Pan, S. Chu, W. Chen, B. E. Little, S. J. B. Yoo, "Continuously tunable optical buffering at 40 gb/s for optical packet switching networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 3776-3783 (2008).

J. P. Mack, E. F. Burmeister, H. N. Poulsen, B. Stamenic, J. E. Bowers, D. J. Blumenthal, "Synchronously loaded optical packet buffer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1757-1759 (2008).

2007 (2)

F. N. Xia, L. Sekaric, Y. Vlasov, "Ultracompact optical buffers on a silicon chip," Nature Photon. 1, 65-71 (2007).

M. Takahashi, Y. Mimura, J. Hiroishi, M. Tadakuma, R. Sugizaki, M. Sakano, T. Yagi, "Investigation of a downsized silica highly nonlinear fiber," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 2103-2107 (2007).

2006 (3)

S. J. B. Yoo, "Optical packet and burst switching technologies for the future photonic internet," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4468-4492 (2006).

R. S. Tucker, "The role of optics and electronics in high-capacity routers," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4655-4673 (2006).

C. J. Chang-Hasnain, S. L. Chuang, "Slow and fast light in semiconductor quantum-well and quantum-dot devices," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4642-4654 (2006).

2005 (4)

M. Enachescu, Y. Ganjali, A. Goel, N. McKeown, "Part III: Routers with very small buffers," ACM Comput. Commun. Rev. 35, 79-82 (2005).

N. Ogashiwa, H. Harai, N. Wada, S. Kubota, Y. Shinoda, "Multi-stage fiber delay line buffer in photonic packet switch for asynchronously arriving variable-length packets," IEICE Trans. Commun. E88-B, 258-265 (2005).

H. Yang, S. J. B. Yoo, "All-optical variable buffering strategies and switch fabric architectures for future all-optical data routers," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 3321-3330 (2005).

M. Davanco, A. M. Xing, J. Raring, E. L. Hu, D. J. Blumenthal, "Detailed characterization of slow and dispersive propagation near a mini-stop-band of an inp photonic crystal waveguide," Opt. Express 13, 4931-4938 (2005).

1998 (1)

D. K. Hunter, "Buffering in optical packet switches," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 2081-2094 (1998).

1996 (1)

H. Takahashi, K. Oda, H. Toba, "Impact of crosstalk in an arrayed-waveguide multiplexer on $N \times N$ optical interconnection," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 1097-1105 (1996).

1988 (1)

A. F. Elrefaie, R. E. Wagner, D. A. Atlas, D. G. Daut, "Chromatic dispersion limitations in coherent lightwave transmission systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 6, 704-709 (1988).

ACM Comput. Commun. Rev. (1)

M. Enachescu, Y. Ganjali, A. Goel, N. McKeown, "Part III: Routers with very small buffers," ACM Comput. Commun. Rev. 35, 79-82 (2005).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (5)

J. P. Mack, E. F. Burmeister, H. N. Poulsen, B. Stamenic, J. E. Bowers, D. J. Blumenthal, "Synchronously loaded optical packet buffer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1757-1759 (2008).

J. D. LeGrange, J. E. Simsarian, P. Bernasconi, L. Buhl, J. Gripp, D. T. Neilson, "Demonstration of an integrated buffer for an all-optical packet router," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 781-783 (2009).

T. Tanemura, M. Takenaka, A. Al Amin, K. Takeda, T. Shioda, M. Sugiyama, Y. Nakano, "InP/InGaAsP integrated 1$\, \times \,$5 optical switch using arrayed phase shifters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1063-1065 (2008).

I. M. Soganci, T. Tanemura, K. A. Williams, N. Calabretta, T. de Vries, E. Smalbrugge, M. K. Smit, H. J. S. Dorren, Y. Nakano, "Monolithically integrated InP 1$\,\times\,$16 optical switch with wavelength-insensitive operation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 143-145 (2010).

I. M. Soganci, N. Calabretta, T. Tanemura, W. Wang, O. Raz, K. Higuchi, K. A. Williams, T. de Vries, H. J. S. Dorren, Y. Nakano, "160-Gb/s optical packet switching subsystem with a monolithic optical phased-array switch," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 817-819 (2010).

IEICE Electron. Exp. (1)

T. Tanemura, Y. Nakano, "Design and scalability analysis of optical phased-array 1$\,\times\,N$ switch on planar lightwave circuit," IEICE Electron. Exp. 5, 603-609 (2008).

IEICE Trans. Commun. (1)

N. Ogashiwa, H. Harai, N. Wada, S. Kubota, Y. Shinoda, "Multi-stage fiber delay line buffer in photonic packet switch for asynchronously arriving variable-length packets," IEICE Trans. Commun. E88-B, 258-265 (2005).

J. Lightw. Technol. (9)

H. Yang, S. J. B. Yoo, "All-optical variable buffering strategies and switch fabric architectures for future all-optical data routers," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 3321-3330 (2005).

C. J. Chang-Hasnain, S. L. Chuang, "Slow and fast light in semiconductor quantum-well and quantum-dot devices," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4642-4654 (2006).

D. K. Hunter, "Buffering in optical packet switches," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 2081-2094 (1998).

N. K. Fontaine, J. Yang, Z. Pan, S. Chu, W. Chen, B. E. Little, S. J. B. Yoo, "Continuously tunable optical buffering at 40 gb/s for optical packet switching networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 3776-3783 (2008).

S. J. B. Yoo, "Optical packet and burst switching technologies for the future photonic internet," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4468-4492 (2006).

R. S. Tucker, "The role of optics and electronics in high-capacity routers," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4655-4673 (2006).

A. F. Elrefaie, R. E. Wagner, D. A. Atlas, D. G. Daut, "Chromatic dispersion limitations in coherent lightwave transmission systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 6, 704-709 (1988).

H. Takahashi, K. Oda, H. Toba, "Impact of crosstalk in an arrayed-waveguide multiplexer on $N \times N$ optical interconnection," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 1097-1105 (1996).

M. Takahashi, Y. Mimura, J. Hiroishi, M. Tadakuma, R. Sugizaki, M. Sakano, T. Yagi, "Investigation of a downsized silica highly nonlinear fiber," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 2103-2107 (2007).

J. Opt. Netw. (1)

Nature Photon. (1)

F. N. Xia, L. Sekaric, Y. Vlasov, "Ultracompact optical buffers on a silicon chip," Nature Photon. 1, 65-71 (2007).

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Switch. Netw. (1)

E. F. Burmeister, D. J. Blumenthal, J. E. Bowers, "A comparison of optical buffering technologies," Opt. Switch. Netw. 5, 10-18 (2008).

Other (3)

N. Beheshti, Y. Ganjali, R. Rajaduray, D. Blumenthal, N. McKeown, "Buffer sizing in all-optical packet switches," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. AnaheimCA (2006) Paper OThF8.

R. S. Tucker, "Capabilities and limitations of slow light optical buffers: Searching for the killer application," Proc. Conf. Lasers Electro-Opt. (2009) pp. 1-.

H. Furukawa, H. Harai, N. Wada, N. Takezawa, K. Nashimoto, T. Miyazaki, "A 31-FDL buffer based on trees of 1$\,\times\,$8 PLZT optical switches," Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (2006) pp. 1-2.

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