Abstract

We report a novel digital coherent receiver based on sampling the signal in the optical domain to overcome the speed limitations of electrical analog-to-digital converters. Digital coherent receivers with aggregate optical sampling rates of up to 112 GHz are realized experimentally. The performance of such receivers is investigated in transmission experiments. Transmission of 56 GBd quadrature phase-shift keying signals over 610-km standard single-mode fiber and coherent detection with electronic impairment mitigation is demonstrated. The employed electrical analog-to-digital converters have only 20 GHz bandwidth and a sampling rate of 50 GHz.

© 2011 IEEE

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  1. C. R. S. Fludger, T. Duthel, D. van den Borne, C. Schulien, E.-D. Schmidt, T. Wuth, J. Geyer, E. De Man, G.-D. Khoe, H. de Waardt, "Coherent equalization and POLMUX-RZ-DQPSK for robust 100-GE transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 64 -72 (2008).
  2. T. Pfau, "Hardware requirements for coherent systems beyond 100G," 35th Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. ViennaAustria (2009) http://conference.vde.com/ecoc-2009/programs/Pages/SundayWorkshops.aspx.
  3. C. Zhang, Y. Mori, K. Igarashi, K. Katoh, K. Kikuchi, "Ultrafast operation of digital coherent receivers using their time-division demultiplexing function ," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 224-232 (2009).
  4. K. Kikuchi, K. Igarashi, Y. Mori, C. Zhang, "Demodulation of 320-Gbit/s optical quadrature phase-shift keying signal with digital coherent receiver having time-division demultiplexing function," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. San DiegoCA (2008) Paper OTuO4.
  5. C. Zhang, Y. Mori, K. Igarashi, K. Kikuchi, "Demodulation of 640-Gbit/s polarization-multiplexed OTDM QPSK signals using a digital coherent receiver," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. San DiegoCA (2008) Paper PDP6.
  6. C. Zhang, Y. Mori, K. Igarashi, K. Katoh, K. Kikuchi, "Demodulation of 480-Gbit/s 8PSK OTDM signal with digital coherent receiver," 34th Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. BrusselsBelgium (2008) Paper Mo.4.D.6.
  7. C. Zhang, Y. Mori, K. Igarashi, K. Katoh, K. Kikuchi, "Demodulation of 1.28-Tbit/s polarization-multiplexed 16-QAM signals on single carrier with digital coherent receiver," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. San DiegoCA (2009) Paper OTuG3.
  8. C. Schmidt-Langhorst, R. Ludwig, D.-D. Groß, L. Molle, M. Seimetz, R. Freund, C. Schubert, "Generation and coherent time-division demultiplexing of up to 5.1 Tb/s single-channel 8-PSK and 16-QAM signals," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. San DiegoCA (2009) Paper PDPC6.
  9. C. Schmidt-Langhorst, R. Ludwig, L. Molle, D.-D. Groß, R. Freund, C. Schubert, "Terabit/s single-carrier transmission systems based on coherent time-division demultiplexing ," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. San DiegoCA (2010) Paper OThV3.
  10. C. Dorrer, D. C. Kilper, H. R. Stuart, G. Raybon, M. G. Raymer, "Linear optical sampling," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1746-1748 (2003).
  11. C. Dorrer, C. R. Doerr, I. Kang, R. Ryf, J. Leuthold, P. J. Winzer, "Measurement of eye diagrams and constellation diagrams of optical sources using linear optics and waveguide technology," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 178-186 (2005 ).
  12. C. Dorrer, "Monitoring of optical signals from constellation diagrams measured with linear optical sampling ," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 313-321 (2006).
  13. K. Okamoto, F. Ito, "Ultrafast measurement of optical DPSK signals using 1-symbol delayed dual-channel linear optical sampling," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 948-950 (2008 ).
  14. K. Okamoto, F. Ito, "Dual-channel linear optical sampling for simultaneously monitoring ultrafast intensity and phase modulation," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 2169-2175 (2009).
  15. K. Okamoto, F. Ito, "Nearly shot-noise-limited performance of dual-channel linear optical sampling for ultrafast DPSK signals," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 711-719 (2009 ).
  16. X. Chen, I. Kim, G. Li, H. Zhang, B. Zhou, "Coherent detection using optical time-domain sampling," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. San DiegoCA ( 2008) Paper JThA62.
  17. X. Chen, X. Xie, I. Kim, G. Li, H. Zhang, B. Zhou, "Coherent detection using optical time-domain sampling,," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21, 286-288 (2009).
  18. J. K. Fischer, R. Ludwig, L. Molle, C. Schmidt-Langhorst, A. Galperin, T. Richter, C. C. Leonhardt, A. Matiss, C. Schubert, "High-speed digital coherent receiver with parallel optical sampling," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. San DiegoCA (2010) Paper PDPB4.
  19. J. K. Fischer, R. Ludwig, L. Molle, C. Schmidt-Langhorst, C. C. Leonhardt, A. Matiss, C. Schubert, "Digital coherent receiver based on parallel optical sampling," 36th Eur. Conf. Optical Communication TorinoItaly (2010) Paper Th.10.A.4.
  20. A. Matiss, R. Ludwig, J. K. Fischer, L. Molle, C. Schubert, C. C. Leonhardt, H.-G. Bach, R. Kunkel, A. Umbach, "Novel integrated coherent receiver module for 100G serial transmission," Optical Fiber Communication Conf. San DiegoCA (2010) Paper PDPB3.
  21. R. Ludwig, J. K. Fischer, A. Matiss, L. Molle, C. C. Leonhardt, H.-G. Bach, R. Kunkel, A. Umbach, C. Schubert, "Performance of a novel integrated coherent receiver module for 100 G Ethernet applications and beyond ," 36th Eur. Conf. Optical Communication TorinoItaly (2010).
  22. R. Noé, "PLL-free synchronous QPSK polarization multiplex/diversity receiver concept with digital I&Q baseband Processing," Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 887 -889 (2005).
  23. I. Fatadin, S. J. Savory, D. Ives, "Compensation of quadrature imbalance in an optical QPSK coherent receiver," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1733-1735 (2008).
  24. L. D. Coelho, O. Gaete, N. Hanik, "An algorithm for global optimization of optical communication systems," Int. J. Electron. Commun. 63, 541-550 (2009).
  25. D.-S. Ly-Gagnon, S. Tsukamoto, K. Katoh, K. Kikuchi, "Coherent detection of optical quadrature phase-shift keying signals with carrier phase estimation ," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 12-21 (2006).
  26. P. J. Winzer, A. H. Gnauck, G. Raybon, M. Schnecker, P. J. Pupalaikkis, "56-Gbaud PDM-QPSK: Coherent detection and 2 500-km transmission," 35th Eur. Conf. Optical Communication ViennaAustria (2009) Paper PD2.7.
  27. F. Xiong, Digital Modulation Techniques (Artech House, 2006).

2009 (4)

C. Zhang, Y. Mori, K. Igarashi, K. Katoh, K. Kikuchi, "Ultrafast operation of digital coherent receivers using their time-division demultiplexing function ," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 224-232 (2009).

K. Okamoto, F. Ito, "Dual-channel linear optical sampling for simultaneously monitoring ultrafast intensity and phase modulation," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 2169-2175 (2009).

2009 (4)

K. Okamoto, F. Ito, "Nearly shot-noise-limited performance of dual-channel linear optical sampling for ultrafast DPSK signals," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 711-719 (2009 ).

2009 (4)

X. Chen, X. Xie, I. Kim, G. Li, H. Zhang, B. Zhou, "Coherent detection using optical time-domain sampling,," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21, 286-288 (2009).

L. D. Coelho, O. Gaete, N. Hanik, "An algorithm for global optimization of optical communication systems," Int. J. Electron. Commun. 63, 541-550 (2009).

2008 (2)

K. Okamoto, F. Ito, "Ultrafast measurement of optical DPSK signals using 1-symbol delayed dual-channel linear optical sampling," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 948-950 (2008 ).

2008 (2)

I. Fatadin, S. J. Savory, D. Ives, "Compensation of quadrature imbalance in an optical QPSK coherent receiver," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1733-1735 (2008).

C. R. S. Fludger, T. Duthel, D. van den Borne, C. Schulien, E.-D. Schmidt, T. Wuth, J. Geyer, E. De Man, G.-D. Khoe, H. de Waardt, "Coherent equalization and POLMUX-RZ-DQPSK for robust 100-GE transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 64 -72 (2008).

2006 (2)

C. Dorrer, "Monitoring of optical signals from constellation diagrams measured with linear optical sampling ," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 313-321 (2006).

D.-S. Ly-Gagnon, S. Tsukamoto, K. Katoh, K. Kikuchi, "Coherent detection of optical quadrature phase-shift keying signals with carrier phase estimation ," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 12-21 (2006).

2005 (1)

C. Dorrer, C. R. Doerr, I. Kang, R. Ryf, J. Leuthold, P. J. Winzer, "Measurement of eye diagrams and constellation diagrams of optical sources using linear optics and waveguide technology," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 178-186 (2005 ).

2005 (1)

R. Noé, "PLL-free synchronous QPSK polarization multiplex/diversity receiver concept with digital I&Q baseband Processing," Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 887 -889 (2005).

2003 (1)

C. Dorrer, D. C. Kilper, H. R. Stuart, G. Raybon, M. G. Raymer, "Linear optical sampling," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1746-1748 (2003).

Int. J. Electron. Commun. (1)

L. D. Coelho, O. Gaete, N. Hanik, "An algorithm for global optimization of optical communication systems," Int. J. Electron. Commun. 63, 541-550 (2009).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

K. Okamoto, F. Ito, "Nearly shot-noise-limited performance of dual-channel linear optical sampling for ultrafast DPSK signals," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 711-719 (2009 ).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

K. Okamoto, F. Ito, "Ultrafast measurement of optical DPSK signals using 1-symbol delayed dual-channel linear optical sampling," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 948-950 (2008 ).

C. Dorrer, D. C. Kilper, H. R. Stuart, G. Raybon, M. G. Raymer, "Linear optical sampling," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1746-1748 (2003).

I. Fatadin, S. J. Savory, D. Ives, "Compensation of quadrature imbalance in an optical QPSK coherent receiver," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1733-1735 (2008).

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

X. Chen, X. Xie, I. Kim, G. Li, H. Zhang, B. Zhou, "Coherent detection using optical time-domain sampling,," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21, 286-288 (2009).

J. Lightw. Technol. (6)

K. Okamoto, F. Ito, "Dual-channel linear optical sampling for simultaneously monitoring ultrafast intensity and phase modulation," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 2169-2175 (2009).

C. Dorrer, C. R. Doerr, I. Kang, R. Ryf, J. Leuthold, P. J. Winzer, "Measurement of eye diagrams and constellation diagrams of optical sources using linear optics and waveguide technology," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 178-186 (2005 ).

C. Dorrer, "Monitoring of optical signals from constellation diagrams measured with linear optical sampling ," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 313-321 (2006).

C. R. S. Fludger, T. Duthel, D. van den Borne, C. Schulien, E.-D. Schmidt, T. Wuth, J. Geyer, E. De Man, G.-D. Khoe, H. de Waardt, "Coherent equalization and POLMUX-RZ-DQPSK for robust 100-GE transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 64 -72 (2008).

C. Zhang, Y. Mori, K. Igarashi, K. Katoh, K. Kikuchi, "Ultrafast operation of digital coherent receivers using their time-division demultiplexing function ," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 224-232 (2009).

D.-S. Ly-Gagnon, S. Tsukamoto, K. Katoh, K. Kikuchi, "Coherent detection of optical quadrature phase-shift keying signals with carrier phase estimation ," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 12-21 (2006).

Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

R. Noé, "PLL-free synchronous QPSK polarization multiplex/diversity receiver concept with digital I&Q baseband Processing," Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 887 -889 (2005).

Other (14)

P. J. Winzer, A. H. Gnauck, G. Raybon, M. Schnecker, P. J. Pupalaikkis, "56-Gbaud PDM-QPSK: Coherent detection and 2 500-km transmission," 35th Eur. Conf. Optical Communication ViennaAustria (2009) Paper PD2.7.

F. Xiong, Digital Modulation Techniques (Artech House, 2006).

K. Kikuchi, K. Igarashi, Y. Mori, C. Zhang, "Demodulation of 320-Gbit/s optical quadrature phase-shift keying signal with digital coherent receiver having time-division demultiplexing function," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. San DiegoCA (2008) Paper OTuO4.

C. Zhang, Y. Mori, K. Igarashi, K. Kikuchi, "Demodulation of 640-Gbit/s polarization-multiplexed OTDM QPSK signals using a digital coherent receiver," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. San DiegoCA (2008) Paper PDP6.

C. Zhang, Y. Mori, K. Igarashi, K. Katoh, K. Kikuchi, "Demodulation of 480-Gbit/s 8PSK OTDM signal with digital coherent receiver," 34th Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. BrusselsBelgium (2008) Paper Mo.4.D.6.

C. Zhang, Y. Mori, K. Igarashi, K. Katoh, K. Kikuchi, "Demodulation of 1.28-Tbit/s polarization-multiplexed 16-QAM signals on single carrier with digital coherent receiver," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. San DiegoCA (2009) Paper OTuG3.

C. Schmidt-Langhorst, R. Ludwig, D.-D. Groß, L. Molle, M. Seimetz, R. Freund, C. Schubert, "Generation and coherent time-division demultiplexing of up to 5.1 Tb/s single-channel 8-PSK and 16-QAM signals," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. San DiegoCA (2009) Paper PDPC6.

C. Schmidt-Langhorst, R. Ludwig, L. Molle, D.-D. Groß, R. Freund, C. Schubert, "Terabit/s single-carrier transmission systems based on coherent time-division demultiplexing ," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. San DiegoCA (2010) Paper OThV3.

T. Pfau, "Hardware requirements for coherent systems beyond 100G," 35th Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. ViennaAustria (2009) http://conference.vde.com/ecoc-2009/programs/Pages/SundayWorkshops.aspx.

X. Chen, I. Kim, G. Li, H. Zhang, B. Zhou, "Coherent detection using optical time-domain sampling," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. San DiegoCA ( 2008) Paper JThA62.

J. K. Fischer, R. Ludwig, L. Molle, C. Schmidt-Langhorst, A. Galperin, T. Richter, C. C. Leonhardt, A. Matiss, C. Schubert, "High-speed digital coherent receiver with parallel optical sampling," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. San DiegoCA (2010) Paper PDPB4.

J. K. Fischer, R. Ludwig, L. Molle, C. Schmidt-Langhorst, C. C. Leonhardt, A. Matiss, C. Schubert, "Digital coherent receiver based on parallel optical sampling," 36th Eur. Conf. Optical Communication TorinoItaly (2010) Paper Th.10.A.4.

A. Matiss, R. Ludwig, J. K. Fischer, L. Molle, C. Schubert, C. C. Leonhardt, H.-G. Bach, R. Kunkel, A. Umbach, "Novel integrated coherent receiver module for 100G serial transmission," Optical Fiber Communication Conf. San DiegoCA (2010) Paper PDPB3.

R. Ludwig, J. K. Fischer, A. Matiss, L. Molle, C. C. Leonhardt, H.-G. Bach, R. Kunkel, A. Umbach, C. Schubert, "Performance of a novel integrated coherent receiver module for 100 G Ethernet applications and beyond ," 36th Eur. Conf. Optical Communication TorinoItaly (2010).

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