Abstract

Plastic fiber-based optical links have been proposed for a wide variety of high-speed short reach applications. Graded-index (GI) multimode plastic optical fiber (POF) that supports 10 Gb/s over 50 m is commercially available and 40 Gb/s over 100 m has been demonstrated. However, unlike single-mode fiber and like silica multimode fiber (MMF), GI POF exhibits a range of performance that depends on launch condition and the accuracy of the index profile. Here, we report on the first statistical study of a large set of GI POF. We examine > 40 samples of 62.5 µm core POF with four different cabling types that represent current-generation commercially available POF. We assess performance in terms of the 10 GbE requirements and quantify loss, chromatic dispersion, differential modal delay, effective modal bandwidth (EMB), and eye closure penalty. We find that nearly all of the measured 100 m fibers support the strict 10 GbE vertical-cavity surface emitting laser source EMB requirement, and that many fibers can support > 40 Gb/s over 100 m. We thus demonstrate that GI POF can reliably support 10 Gb/s and larger bit rates to distances of 100 m.

© 2010 IEEE

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |

  1. Y. Koike, T. Ishigure, "Progress of low-loss GI polymer optical fiber from visible to 1.5-$\mu$m wavelength," Proc. 11th Int. Conf. Integr. Optics Opt. Fibre Communications, and 23rd Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (Conf. Publ. No. : 448) (1997) pp. 59-62.
  2. T. Wipiejewski, T. Moriarty, V. Hung, P. Doyle, G. Duggan, D. Barrow, B. McGarvey, M. O'Gorman, T. Calvert, M. Maute, V. Gerhardt, J. D. Lambkin, "Gigabits in the home with plugless plastic optical fiber (POF) interconnects," Proc. IEEE 2nd Electron. Syst.-Integr. Technol. Conf., 2008 () pp. 1263-1266.
  3. J. H. Lau, R. V. Mohan, D. L. Kwong, X. Yongfei, P. V. Ramana, J. Chandrappan, Z. Jing, P. O. Gomez, T. A. Aung, "Optical coupling methods for cost-effective polymer optical fiber communication," IEEE Trans. Comp. Packag. Technol. 32, 593-599 (2009).
  4. Y. Koike, T. Ishigure, E. Nihei, "High-bandwidth graded-index polymer optical fiber," J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 1475-1489 (1995).
  5. T. Ishigure, H. Endo, K. Ohdoko, K. Takahashi, Y. Koike, "Modal bandwidth enhancement in a plastic optical fiber by W-refractive index profile," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 1754-1762 (2005).
  6. T. Ishigure, H. Kano, Y. Koike, "Which is a more serious factor to the bandwidth of GI POF: Differential mode attenuation or mode coupling?," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 959-965 (2000).
  7. S. E. Golowich, W. White, W. A. Reed, E. Knudsen, "Quantitative estimates of mode coupling and differential modal attenuation in perfluorinated graded-index plastic optical fiber," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 111-121 (2003).
  8. A. Polley, S. E. Ralph, "Mode coupling in plastic optical fiber enables 40-Gb/s performance," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1254-1256 (2007).
  9. S. Louvros, A. C. Iossifides, G. Economou, G. K. Karagiannidis, S. A. Kotsopoulos, D. Zevgolis, "Time domain modeling and characterization of polymer optical fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 455-457 (2004).
  10. K. Makino, T. Nakamura, T. Ishigure, Y. Koike, "Analysis of graded-index polymer optical fiber link performance under fiber bending," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 2062-2072 (2005).
  11. C. Lethien, C. Loyez, J.-P. Vilcot, "Differential mode delay measurements of fluorinated graded index polymer optical fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1584-1586 (2008).
  12. A. Polley, P. J. Decker, J. H. Kim, S. E. Ralph, "Plastic optical fiber links: A statistical study," Proc. IEEE Opt. Fiber Commun./Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf., 2009 () pp. 1-3.
  13. P. J. Decker, S. E. Ralph, "Plastic optical fiber with VCSEL sources: A statistical evaluation," Proc. Lasers Electro-Opt.Conf. Quantum Electron. Laser Sci. 2010 () pp. 1-2.
  14. W. R. White, L. L. Blyler, Jr.R. Ratnagiri, M. Park, "Manufacture of perfluorinated plastic optical fibers," Proc. IEEE Opt. Fiber Commun./Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf., 2004 () pp. 1-3.
  15. Fiber Backbone Distance Distribution (1996) http://www.ieee802.org/3/10G_study/public/cabling_adhoc/public/survey_1_0796.pdf IEEE 802 10G Study Group, Available:.
  16. Y. Koike, T. Ishigure, "High-bandwidth plastic optical fiber for fiber to the display," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4541-4553 (2006).
  17. S. E. Ralph, "High data rate multimode fiber access systems," Proc. 20th Annual Meeting IEEE Lasers Electro-Optics Soc. 2007 () pp. 935-936.
  18. H. Yang, S. C. J. Lee, E. Tangdiongga, C. Okonkwo, H. van den Boom, F. Breyer, S. Randel, A. Koonen, "47.4 Gb/s transmission over 100 m graded-index plastic optical fiber based on rate-adaptive discrete multitone modulation," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 352-359 (2010).
  19. G. Giaretta, W. White, M. Wegmuller, T. Onishi, "High-speed (11 Gbit/s) data transmission using perfluorinated graded-index polymer optical fibers for short interconnects ($ < 100$ m)," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 347-349 (2000).
  20. A. Polley, R. J. Gandhi, S. E. Ralph, "40 Gbps links using plastic optical fiber," Proc. IEEE Opt. Fiber Commun./Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf., 2007 () pp. 1-3.
  21. A. Polley, S. E. Ralph, "100 m, 40 Gb/s plastic optical fiber link," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun./Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf., 2008 () pp. 1-3.
  22. A. Polley, S. E. Ralph, "40 Gb/s in plastic optical fiber," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun./Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf., 2008 () pp. 1-3.
  23. F. Breyer, S. C. J. Lee, S. Randel, N. Hanik, "Comparison of OOK- and PAM-4 modulation for 10 Gbit/s transmission over up to 300 m polymer optical fiber," Proc. IEEE Opt. Fiber Commun./Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf., 2008 () pp. 1-3.
  24. A. Polley, P. J. Decker, S. E. Ralph, "10 Gb/s, 850 nm VCSEL based large core POF links," Proc. IEEE Lasers Electro-Opt., Quantum Electron. Laser Sci. 2008 () pp. 1-2.
  25. M. Webster, L. Raddatz, I. H. White, D. G. Cunningham, "A statistical analysis of conditioned launch for gigabit Ethernet links using multimode fiber," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 1532-1541 (1999).
  26. IEEE Standard for Information Technology—Telecommunications and Information Exchange Between Systems—Local and Metropolitan Area Networks—Specific Requirements Part 3: Carrier Sense Multiple Access With Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) Access Method and Physical Layer Specifications Amendment 2: Physical Layer and Management Parameters for 10 Gb/s Operation, Type 10GBASE-LRM IEEE Std 802.3aq-2006 (Amendment to IEEE Std 802.3-2005) (2006) pp. c1-48.
  27. "Differential mode delay measurement of multimode fiber in the time domain," TIA-455-220-A (2003).
  28. IEEE Standard for Information Technology—Telecommunications and Information Exchange Between Systems—Local and Metropolitan Area Networks—Specific Requirements Part 3: Carrier Sense Multiple Access With Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) Access Method and Physical Layer Specifications—Section Four IEEE Std 802.3-2008 (Revision of IEEE Std 802.3-2005) (2008) pp. 1–586.
  29. P. Pepeljugoski, M. J. Hackert, J. S. Abbott, S. E. Swanson, S. E. Golowich, A. J. Ritger, P. Kolesar, Y. C. Chen, P. Pleunis, "Development of system specification for laser-optimized 50-$\mu$m multimode fiber for multigigabit short-wavelength LANs," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 1256-1275 (2003).
  30. K. S. Mobarhan, R. Hartmayer, J. Valdmanis, High-Speed Detectors: Faster Photodiodes Meet Variety of Applications (1999) http://www.laserfocusworld.com/display_article/36410/12/none/none/Feat/HIGH-SPEED-DETECTORS-*-Faster-photodiods-meet-variety-of-application Laser Focus World.
  31. A. Polley, C. Chen, K. D. Choquette, S. E. Ralph, "Highly alignment tolerant 10 Gb/s links using very large core plastic optical fiber," Proc. Lasers Electro-Opt., Quantum Electron. Laser Sci. Conf. 2009 () pp. 1-2.
  32. T. Ishigure, Y. Koike, J. W. Fleming, "Optimum index profile of the perfluorinated polymer-based GI polymer optical fiber and its dispersion properties," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 178-184 (2000).
  33. G. P. Agrawal, P. J. Anthony, T.-M. Shen, "Dispersion penalty for 1.3-$\mu$m lightwave systems with multimode semiconductor lasers," J. Lightw. Technol. 6, 620-625 (1988).
  34. W. R. White, L. L. Blyler, Jr.R. Ratnagiri, M. Park, "Manufacture of perfluorinated plastic optical fibers," Proc. IEEE Opt. Fiber Commun./Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf. 2004 () pp. 1-3.
  35. K. Balemarthy, A. Polley, S. E. Ralph, "Electronic equalization of multikilometer 10-Gb/s multimode fiber links: Mode-coupling effects," J. Lightw. Techonol. 24, 4885-4894 (2006).
  36. Example mode coupling coefficients: 5 m$^{- 1}$ for POF versus 1.7$\,\times\,$10$^{- 4}$ m$^{- 1}$ for glass.
  37. R. Olshansky, "Mode coupling effects in graded-index optical fibers," Appl. Opt. 14, 935-945 (1975).
  38. P. Pepeljugoski, S. Golowich, J. Ritger, P. Kolesar, A. Risteski, "Modeling and simulation of next-generation multimode fiber links," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 1242-1255 (2003).
  39. D. Coleman, P. Bell, Calculated Effective Modal Bandwidth Enhances 10 GbE Performance Reliability for Laser-Optimized 50/125 $\mu$m Multimode Fiber http://catalog2.corning.com/CorningCableSystems/media/NAFTA/White_Papers/LAN-639-EN.pdf (2005).
  40. P. Dawe, J. Jewell, D. Hanson, D. Cunningham, D. Dolfi, 10 GbE Power Budget Spreadsheet Model http://www.ieee802.org/3/ae/public/adhoc/serial_pmd/documents/10GEPBud3_1_16a.xls ver. 3.1.16a, 2001..

2010 (1)

H. Yang, S. C. J. Lee, E. Tangdiongga, C. Okonkwo, H. van den Boom, F. Breyer, S. Randel, A. Koonen, "47.4 Gb/s transmission over 100 m graded-index plastic optical fiber based on rate-adaptive discrete multitone modulation," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 352-359 (2010).

2009 (1)

J. H. Lau, R. V. Mohan, D. L. Kwong, X. Yongfei, P. V. Ramana, J. Chandrappan, Z. Jing, P. O. Gomez, T. A. Aung, "Optical coupling methods for cost-effective polymer optical fiber communication," IEEE Trans. Comp. Packag. Technol. 32, 593-599 (2009).

2008 (1)

C. Lethien, C. Loyez, J.-P. Vilcot, "Differential mode delay measurements of fluorinated graded index polymer optical fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1584-1586 (2008).

2007 (1)

A. Polley, S. E. Ralph, "Mode coupling in plastic optical fiber enables 40-Gb/s performance," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1254-1256 (2007).

2006 (2)

Y. Koike, T. Ishigure, "High-bandwidth plastic optical fiber for fiber to the display," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4541-4553 (2006).

K. Balemarthy, A. Polley, S. E. Ralph, "Electronic equalization of multikilometer 10-Gb/s multimode fiber links: Mode-coupling effects," J. Lightw. Techonol. 24, 4885-4894 (2006).

2005 (2)

K. Makino, T. Nakamura, T. Ishigure, Y. Koike, "Analysis of graded-index polymer optical fiber link performance under fiber bending," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 2062-2072 (2005).

T. Ishigure, H. Endo, K. Ohdoko, K. Takahashi, Y. Koike, "Modal bandwidth enhancement in a plastic optical fiber by W-refractive index profile," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 1754-1762 (2005).

2004 (1)

S. Louvros, A. C. Iossifides, G. Economou, G. K. Karagiannidis, S. A. Kotsopoulos, D. Zevgolis, "Time domain modeling and characterization of polymer optical fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 455-457 (2004).

2003 (3)

S. E. Golowich, W. White, W. A. Reed, E. Knudsen, "Quantitative estimates of mode coupling and differential modal attenuation in perfluorinated graded-index plastic optical fiber," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 111-121 (2003).

P. Pepeljugoski, M. J. Hackert, J. S. Abbott, S. E. Swanson, S. E. Golowich, A. J. Ritger, P. Kolesar, Y. C. Chen, P. Pleunis, "Development of system specification for laser-optimized 50-$\mu$m multimode fiber for multigigabit short-wavelength LANs," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 1256-1275 (2003).

P. Pepeljugoski, S. Golowich, J. Ritger, P. Kolesar, A. Risteski, "Modeling and simulation of next-generation multimode fiber links," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 1242-1255 (2003).

2000 (3)

T. Ishigure, Y. Koike, J. W. Fleming, "Optimum index profile of the perfluorinated polymer-based GI polymer optical fiber and its dispersion properties," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 178-184 (2000).

G. Giaretta, W. White, M. Wegmuller, T. Onishi, "High-speed (11 Gbit/s) data transmission using perfluorinated graded-index polymer optical fibers for short interconnects ($ < 100$ m)," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 347-349 (2000).

T. Ishigure, H. Kano, Y. Koike, "Which is a more serious factor to the bandwidth of GI POF: Differential mode attenuation or mode coupling?," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 959-965 (2000).

1999 (1)

M. Webster, L. Raddatz, I. H. White, D. G. Cunningham, "A statistical analysis of conditioned launch for gigabit Ethernet links using multimode fiber," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 1532-1541 (1999).

1995 (1)

Y. Koike, T. Ishigure, E. Nihei, "High-bandwidth graded-index polymer optical fiber," J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 1475-1489 (1995).

1988 (1)

G. P. Agrawal, P. J. Anthony, T.-M. Shen, "Dispersion penalty for 1.3-$\mu$m lightwave systems with multimode semiconductor lasers," J. Lightw. Technol. 6, 620-625 (1988).

1975 (1)

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (4)

A. Polley, S. E. Ralph, "Mode coupling in plastic optical fiber enables 40-Gb/s performance," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1254-1256 (2007).

S. Louvros, A. C. Iossifides, G. Economou, G. K. Karagiannidis, S. A. Kotsopoulos, D. Zevgolis, "Time domain modeling and characterization of polymer optical fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 455-457 (2004).

C. Lethien, C. Loyez, J.-P. Vilcot, "Differential mode delay measurements of fluorinated graded index polymer optical fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1584-1586 (2008).

G. Giaretta, W. White, M. Wegmuller, T. Onishi, "High-speed (11 Gbit/s) data transmission using perfluorinated graded-index polymer optical fibers for short interconnects ($ < 100$ m)," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 347-349 (2000).

IEEE Trans. Comp. Packag. Technol. (1)

J. H. Lau, R. V. Mohan, D. L. Kwong, X. Yongfei, P. V. Ramana, J. Chandrappan, Z. Jing, P. O. Gomez, T. A. Aung, "Optical coupling methods for cost-effective polymer optical fiber communication," IEEE Trans. Comp. Packag. Technol. 32, 593-599 (2009).

J. Lightw. Technol. (12)

Y. Koike, T. Ishigure, E. Nihei, "High-bandwidth graded-index polymer optical fiber," J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 1475-1489 (1995).

T. Ishigure, H. Endo, K. Ohdoko, K. Takahashi, Y. Koike, "Modal bandwidth enhancement in a plastic optical fiber by W-refractive index profile," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 1754-1762 (2005).

T. Ishigure, H. Kano, Y. Koike, "Which is a more serious factor to the bandwidth of GI POF: Differential mode attenuation or mode coupling?," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 959-965 (2000).

S. E. Golowich, W. White, W. A. Reed, E. Knudsen, "Quantitative estimates of mode coupling and differential modal attenuation in perfluorinated graded-index plastic optical fiber," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 111-121 (2003).

K. Makino, T. Nakamura, T. Ishigure, Y. Koike, "Analysis of graded-index polymer optical fiber link performance under fiber bending," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 2062-2072 (2005).

P. Pepeljugoski, S. Golowich, J. Ritger, P. Kolesar, A. Risteski, "Modeling and simulation of next-generation multimode fiber links," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 1242-1255 (2003).

T. Ishigure, Y. Koike, J. W. Fleming, "Optimum index profile of the perfluorinated polymer-based GI polymer optical fiber and its dispersion properties," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 178-184 (2000).

G. P. Agrawal, P. J. Anthony, T.-M. Shen, "Dispersion penalty for 1.3-$\mu$m lightwave systems with multimode semiconductor lasers," J. Lightw. Technol. 6, 620-625 (1988).

M. Webster, L. Raddatz, I. H. White, D. G. Cunningham, "A statistical analysis of conditioned launch for gigabit Ethernet links using multimode fiber," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 1532-1541 (1999).

Y. Koike, T. Ishigure, "High-bandwidth plastic optical fiber for fiber to the display," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4541-4553 (2006).

P. Pepeljugoski, M. J. Hackert, J. S. Abbott, S. E. Swanson, S. E. Golowich, A. J. Ritger, P. Kolesar, Y. C. Chen, P. Pleunis, "Development of system specification for laser-optimized 50-$\mu$m multimode fiber for multigigabit short-wavelength LANs," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 1256-1275 (2003).

H. Yang, S. C. J. Lee, E. Tangdiongga, C. Okonkwo, H. van den Boom, F. Breyer, S. Randel, A. Koonen, "47.4 Gb/s transmission over 100 m graded-index plastic optical fiber based on rate-adaptive discrete multitone modulation," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 352-359 (2010).

J. Lightw. Techonol. (1)

K. Balemarthy, A. Polley, S. E. Ralph, "Electronic equalization of multikilometer 10-Gb/s multimode fiber links: Mode-coupling effects," J. Lightw. Techonol. 24, 4885-4894 (2006).

Other (21)

Example mode coupling coefficients: 5 m$^{- 1}$ for POF versus 1.7$\,\times\,$10$^{- 4}$ m$^{- 1}$ for glass.

W. R. White, L. L. Blyler, Jr.R. Ratnagiri, M. Park, "Manufacture of perfluorinated plastic optical fibers," Proc. IEEE Opt. Fiber Commun./Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf. 2004 () pp. 1-3.

D. Coleman, P. Bell, Calculated Effective Modal Bandwidth Enhances 10 GbE Performance Reliability for Laser-Optimized 50/125 $\mu$m Multimode Fiber http://catalog2.corning.com/CorningCableSystems/media/NAFTA/White_Papers/LAN-639-EN.pdf (2005).

P. Dawe, J. Jewell, D. Hanson, D. Cunningham, D. Dolfi, 10 GbE Power Budget Spreadsheet Model http://www.ieee802.org/3/ae/public/adhoc/serial_pmd/documents/10GEPBud3_1_16a.xls ver. 3.1.16a, 2001..

K. S. Mobarhan, R. Hartmayer, J. Valdmanis, High-Speed Detectors: Faster Photodiodes Meet Variety of Applications (1999) http://www.laserfocusworld.com/display_article/36410/12/none/none/Feat/HIGH-SPEED-DETECTORS-*-Faster-photodiods-meet-variety-of-application Laser Focus World.

A. Polley, C. Chen, K. D. Choquette, S. E. Ralph, "Highly alignment tolerant 10 Gb/s links using very large core plastic optical fiber," Proc. Lasers Electro-Opt., Quantum Electron. Laser Sci. Conf. 2009 () pp. 1-2.

S. E. Ralph, "High data rate multimode fiber access systems," Proc. 20th Annual Meeting IEEE Lasers Electro-Optics Soc. 2007 () pp. 935-936.

IEEE Standard for Information Technology—Telecommunications and Information Exchange Between Systems—Local and Metropolitan Area Networks—Specific Requirements Part 3: Carrier Sense Multiple Access With Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) Access Method and Physical Layer Specifications Amendment 2: Physical Layer and Management Parameters for 10 Gb/s Operation, Type 10GBASE-LRM IEEE Std 802.3aq-2006 (Amendment to IEEE Std 802.3-2005) (2006) pp. c1-48.

"Differential mode delay measurement of multimode fiber in the time domain," TIA-455-220-A (2003).

IEEE Standard for Information Technology—Telecommunications and Information Exchange Between Systems—Local and Metropolitan Area Networks—Specific Requirements Part 3: Carrier Sense Multiple Access With Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) Access Method and Physical Layer Specifications—Section Four IEEE Std 802.3-2008 (Revision of IEEE Std 802.3-2005) (2008) pp. 1–586.

Y. Koike, T. Ishigure, "Progress of low-loss GI polymer optical fiber from visible to 1.5-$\mu$m wavelength," Proc. 11th Int. Conf. Integr. Optics Opt. Fibre Communications, and 23rd Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (Conf. Publ. No. : 448) (1997) pp. 59-62.

T. Wipiejewski, T. Moriarty, V. Hung, P. Doyle, G. Duggan, D. Barrow, B. McGarvey, M. O'Gorman, T. Calvert, M. Maute, V. Gerhardt, J. D. Lambkin, "Gigabits in the home with plugless plastic optical fiber (POF) interconnects," Proc. IEEE 2nd Electron. Syst.-Integr. Technol. Conf., 2008 () pp. 1263-1266.

A. Polley, R. J. Gandhi, S. E. Ralph, "40 Gbps links using plastic optical fiber," Proc. IEEE Opt. Fiber Commun./Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf., 2007 () pp. 1-3.

A. Polley, S. E. Ralph, "100 m, 40 Gb/s plastic optical fiber link," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun./Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf., 2008 () pp. 1-3.

A. Polley, S. E. Ralph, "40 Gb/s in plastic optical fiber," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun./Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf., 2008 () pp. 1-3.

F. Breyer, S. C. J. Lee, S. Randel, N. Hanik, "Comparison of OOK- and PAM-4 modulation for 10 Gbit/s transmission over up to 300 m polymer optical fiber," Proc. IEEE Opt. Fiber Commun./Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf., 2008 () pp. 1-3.

A. Polley, P. J. Decker, S. E. Ralph, "10 Gb/s, 850 nm VCSEL based large core POF links," Proc. IEEE Lasers Electro-Opt., Quantum Electron. Laser Sci. 2008 () pp. 1-2.

A. Polley, P. J. Decker, J. H. Kim, S. E. Ralph, "Plastic optical fiber links: A statistical study," Proc. IEEE Opt. Fiber Commun./Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf., 2009 () pp. 1-3.

P. J. Decker, S. E. Ralph, "Plastic optical fiber with VCSEL sources: A statistical evaluation," Proc. Lasers Electro-Opt.Conf. Quantum Electron. Laser Sci. 2010 () pp. 1-2.

W. R. White, L. L. Blyler, Jr.R. Ratnagiri, M. Park, "Manufacture of perfluorinated plastic optical fibers," Proc. IEEE Opt. Fiber Commun./Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf., 2004 () pp. 1-3.

Fiber Backbone Distance Distribution (1996) http://www.ieee802.org/3/10G_study/public/cabling_adhoc/public/survey_1_0796.pdf IEEE 802 10G Study Group, Available:.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.