Abstract

Rayleigh backscattering (RB) and Fresnel reflection (FR) effects can cause severe degradation on the performance of a WDM-PON system utilizing loop-back schemes that provide colorless upstream transmitters. We proposed cross-seeding schemes to overcome these problems and also to improve the utilization efficiency of the seeding lights. The operation principles of two types of cross-seeding schemes: mutual seeding and shared seeding are discussed in detail for different applications. A generalized formulation of the crosstalk from the RB and FR effects is derived for comparing the performance between a conventional WDM-PON and a cross-seeding WDM-PON. It is found that the cross seeding schemes can be most beneficial for the system with low loop-back gain or low reflection at the distribution fiber or drop fiber. This is especially advantageous for the shared seeding scheme in which the seeding light can be transmitted along a separate fiber with high power or by optical amplification such that the gain of the loop-back transmitter can be kept small. Application examples are used to demonstrate the merits and feasibility of the cross-seeding schemes.

© 2011 IEEE

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  1. M. Düser, "A review of past, present and future optical networks: Optics is driving structural change," OFC/NFOEC Los AngelesCA (2011).
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  3. E. Wong, "Current and next-generation broadband access technologies," OFC/NFOEC Los AngelesCA (2011).
  4. S. J. Park, C. H. Lee, K. T. Jeong, H. J. Park, J. G. Ahn, K. H. Song, "Fiber-to-the-home services based on wavelength-division-multiplexing passive optical network," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 2582-2591 (2004).
  5. F. Ponzini, F. Cavaliere, G. Berrettini, M. Presi, E. Ciaramella, N. Calabretta, A. Bogoni, "Evolution scenario toward WDM-PON [Invited]," J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 1, C25-C34 (2009).
  6. W. Lee, M. Y. Park, S. H. Cho, J. Lee, C. Kim, G. Jeong, B. W. Kim, "Bidirectional WDM-PON based on gain-saturated reflective semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2460-2462 (2005).
  7. S.-C. Lin, S.-L. Lee, C.-K. Liu, "Simple approach for bidirectional performance enhancement on WDM-PONs with direct-modulation lasers and RSOAs," Opt. Expr. 16, 3636-3643 (2008).
  8. H.-H. Lin, C.-Y. Lee, S.-C. Lin, S.-L. Lee, G. Keiser, "WDM-PON systems using cross-remodulation to double network capacity with reduced rayleigh scattering effects," OFC/NFOEC San DiegoCA (2008) OTuH6.
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  10. A. Chowdhury, H.-C. Chien, M.-F. Huang, J. Yu, G.-K. Chang, "Rayleigh backscattering noise-eliminated 115-km long-reach bidirectional centralized WDM-PON with 10-Gb/s DPSK downstream and remodulated 2.5-Gb/s OCS-SCM upstream signal," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 2081-2083 (2008).
  11. C. W. Chow, C. H. Yeh, "Mitigation of Rayleigh backscattering in 10-Gb/s downstream and 2.5-Gb/s upstream DWDM 100-km long-reach PONs," Opt. Exp. 19, 4970-4976 (2011).
  12. H. D. Kim, S. G. Kang, C. H. Lee, "A low-cost WDM source with an ASE injected Fabry-Perot semiconductor laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1067-1069 (2000).
  13. C.-H. Lee, S.-M. Lee, K.-M. Choi, J.-H. Moon, S.-G. Mun, K.-T. Jeong, J. H. Kim, B. Kim, "WDM-PON experiences in Korea (invited paper)," J. Optic. Network. 6, 451-464 (2007).
  14. Q. T. Nguyen, P. Besnard, L. Bramerie, A. Shen, C. Kazmierski, P. Chanlou, G.-H. Duan, J. C. Simon, "Bidirectional 2.5-Gb/s WDM-PON using FP-LDs wavelength-locked by a multiple-wavelength seeding source based on a mode-locked laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 733-735 (2010).
  15. J. H. Yu, N. Kim, B. W. Kim, "Remodulation schemes with reflective SOA for colorless DWDM PON," J. Optic. Network. 6, 1041-1054 (2007).
  16. A. Borghesani, "Reflective based active semiconductor components for next generation optical access networks," ECOC TorinoItaly MO.1.B.1.
  17. G. Talli, P. D. Townsend, "Hybrid DWDM-TDM long-reach PON for next-generation optical access," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 2827-2834 (2006).
  18. A. Chiuchiarelli, R. Proietti, M. Presi, P. Choudhury, G. Contestabile, E. Ciaramella, "Symmetric 10 Gbit/s WDM-PON based on cross-wavelength reuse to avoid Rayleigh backscattering and maximize band usage," Electron. Lett. 45, 1343-1345 (2009).
  19. J. Yu, M.-F. Huang, D. Qian, L. Chen, G.-K. Chang, "Centralized lightwave WDM-PON employing 16-QAM intensity modulated OFDM downstream and OOK modulated upstream signals," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1545-1547 (2008).
  20. C. H. Yeh, C. W. Chow, F. Y. Shih, C. H. Wang, Y. F. Wu, S. Chi, "Wavelength-tunable laser for signal remodulation in WDM access networks using DPSK downlink and OOK uplink," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1710-1712 (2009).
  21. B. Schrenk, F. Bonada, J. A. Lazaro, J. Prat, "Remotely pumped long-reach hybrid PON with wavelength reuse in RSOA-based ONU," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 635-641 (2011).
  22. J. M. Oh, S. G. Koo, D. Lee, S.-J. Park, "Enhancement of the performance of a reflective SOA-based hybrid WDM/TDM PON system with a remotely pumped erbium-doped fiber amplifier," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 144-149 (2008).
  23. F. Saliou, P. Chanclou, F. Laurent, N. Genay, J. A. Lazaro, F. Bonada, J. Prat, "Reach extension strategies for passive optical networks [Invited]," J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 1, C51-C60 (2009).
  24. K. Y. Cho, K. Tanaka, T. Sano, S. P. Jung, J. H. Chang, Y. Takushima, A. Agata, Y. Horiuchi, M. Suzuki, Y. C. Chung, "Long-reach coherent WDM PON employing self-polarization-stabilization technique," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 456-462 (2011).
  25. S. P. Jung, Y. Takushima, K. Y. Cho, S. J. Park, Y. C. Chung, "Demonstration of RSOA-based WDM PON employing self-homodyne receiver with high reflection tolerance," OFC/NFOEC San DiegoCA (2009) Paper JWA69.
  26. J. Bauwelinck, B. Schrenk, C. Kazmierski, J. A. Lazaro, J. Prat, X. Z. Qiu, "Multi-operability and dynamic bandwidth allocation in PONs with electrically reconfigurable SOA/REAM-based ONUs," 36th Euro. Conf. Exhib. Opt. Commun. (ECOC) TorinoItaly (2010) Paper Th.10.B.4.
  27. M. Fujiwara, J. Kani, H. Suzuki, K. Iwatsuki, "Impact of backreflection on upstream transmission in WDM single-fiber loopback access networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 740-746 (2006).
  28. C. Arellano, K.-D. Langer, J. Prat, "Reflections and multiple Rayleigh backscattering in WDM single-fiber loopback access networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 12-18 (2009).
  29. E. T. López, J. A. Lázaro, C. Arellano, V. Polo, J. Prat, "Optimization of Rayleigh-limited WDM-PONs with reflective ONU by MUX positioning and optimal ONU gain," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett 22, 97-99 (2010).
  30. H. W. Hu, H. Anis, "Degradation of bi-directional single fiber transmission in WDM-PON due to beat noise," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 870-881 (2008).
  31. N. Cheng, F. Effenberger, "System impairments and performance implications of ASE seeded WDM PON systems," Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf. (NFOEC) Los AngelesCA (2011) paper NTuB2.

2011 (3)

C. W. Chow, C. H. Yeh, "Mitigation of Rayleigh backscattering in 10-Gb/s downstream and 2.5-Gb/s upstream DWDM 100-km long-reach PONs," Opt. Exp. 19, 4970-4976 (2011).

B. Schrenk, F. Bonada, J. A. Lazaro, J. Prat, "Remotely pumped long-reach hybrid PON with wavelength reuse in RSOA-based ONU," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 635-641 (2011).

K. Y. Cho, K. Tanaka, T. Sano, S. P. Jung, J. H. Chang, Y. Takushima, A. Agata, Y. Horiuchi, M. Suzuki, Y. C. Chung, "Long-reach coherent WDM PON employing self-polarization-stabilization technique," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 456-462 (2011).

2010 (2)

E. T. López, J. A. Lázaro, C. Arellano, V. Polo, J. Prat, "Optimization of Rayleigh-limited WDM-PONs with reflective ONU by MUX positioning and optimal ONU gain," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett 22, 97-99 (2010).

Q. T. Nguyen, P. Besnard, L. Bramerie, A. Shen, C. Kazmierski, P. Chanlou, G.-H. Duan, J. C. Simon, "Bidirectional 2.5-Gb/s WDM-PON using FP-LDs wavelength-locked by a multiple-wavelength seeding source based on a mode-locked laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 733-735 (2010).

2009 (5)

A. Chiuchiarelli, R. Proietti, M. Presi, P. Choudhury, G. Contestabile, E. Ciaramella, "Symmetric 10 Gbit/s WDM-PON based on cross-wavelength reuse to avoid Rayleigh backscattering and maximize band usage," Electron. Lett. 45, 1343-1345 (2009).

C. H. Yeh, C. W. Chow, F. Y. Shih, C. H. Wang, Y. F. Wu, S. Chi, "Wavelength-tunable laser for signal remodulation in WDM access networks using DPSK downlink and OOK uplink," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1710-1712 (2009).

F. Saliou, P. Chanclou, F. Laurent, N. Genay, J. A. Lazaro, F. Bonada, J. Prat, "Reach extension strategies for passive optical networks [Invited]," J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 1, C51-C60 (2009).

F. Ponzini, F. Cavaliere, G. Berrettini, M. Presi, E. Ciaramella, N. Calabretta, A. Bogoni, "Evolution scenario toward WDM-PON [Invited]," J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 1, C25-C34 (2009).

C. Arellano, K.-D. Langer, J. Prat, "Reflections and multiple Rayleigh backscattering in WDM single-fiber loopback access networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 12-18 (2009).

2008 (5)

H. W. Hu, H. Anis, "Degradation of bi-directional single fiber transmission in WDM-PON due to beat noise," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 870-881 (2008).

S.-C. Lin, S.-L. Lee, C.-K. Liu, "Simple approach for bidirectional performance enhancement on WDM-PONs with direct-modulation lasers and RSOAs," Opt. Expr. 16, 3636-3643 (2008).

A. Chowdhury, H.-C. Chien, M.-F. Huang, J. Yu, G.-K. Chang, "Rayleigh backscattering noise-eliminated 115-km long-reach bidirectional centralized WDM-PON with 10-Gb/s DPSK downstream and remodulated 2.5-Gb/s OCS-SCM upstream signal," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 2081-2083 (2008).

J. M. Oh, S. G. Koo, D. Lee, S.-J. Park, "Enhancement of the performance of a reflective SOA-based hybrid WDM/TDM PON system with a remotely pumped erbium-doped fiber amplifier," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 144-149 (2008).

J. Yu, M.-F. Huang, D. Qian, L. Chen, G.-K. Chang, "Centralized lightwave WDM-PON employing 16-QAM intensity modulated OFDM downstream and OOK modulated upstream signals," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1545-1547 (2008).

2007 (2)

J. H. Yu, N. Kim, B. W. Kim, "Remodulation schemes with reflective SOA for colorless DWDM PON," J. Optic. Network. 6, 1041-1054 (2007).

C.-H. Lee, S.-M. Lee, K.-M. Choi, J.-H. Moon, S.-G. Mun, K.-T. Jeong, J. H. Kim, B. Kim, "WDM-PON experiences in Korea (invited paper)," J. Optic. Network. 6, 451-464 (2007).

2006 (2)

G. Talli, P. D. Townsend, "Hybrid DWDM-TDM long-reach PON for next-generation optical access," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 2827-2834 (2006).

M. Fujiwara, J. Kani, H. Suzuki, K. Iwatsuki, "Impact of backreflection on upstream transmission in WDM single-fiber loopback access networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 740-746 (2006).

2005 (1)

W. Lee, M. Y. Park, S. H. Cho, J. Lee, C. Kim, G. Jeong, B. W. Kim, "Bidirectional WDM-PON based on gain-saturated reflective semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2460-2462 (2005).

2004 (1)

S. J. Park, C. H. Lee, K. T. Jeong, H. J. Park, J. G. Ahn, K. H. Song, "Fiber-to-the-home services based on wavelength-division-multiplexing passive optical network," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 2582-2591 (2004).

2000 (1)

H. D. Kim, S. G. Kang, C. H. Lee, "A low-cost WDM source with an ASE injected Fabry-Perot semiconductor laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1067-1069 (2000).

Electron. Lett. (1)

A. Chiuchiarelli, R. Proietti, M. Presi, P. Choudhury, G. Contestabile, E. Ciaramella, "Symmetric 10 Gbit/s WDM-PON based on cross-wavelength reuse to avoid Rayleigh backscattering and maximize band usage," Electron. Lett. 45, 1343-1345 (2009).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett (1)

E. T. López, J. A. Lázaro, C. Arellano, V. Polo, J. Prat, "Optimization of Rayleigh-limited WDM-PONs with reflective ONU by MUX positioning and optimal ONU gain," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett 22, 97-99 (2010).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

C. H. Yeh, C. W. Chow, F. Y. Shih, C. H. Wang, Y. F. Wu, S. Chi, "Wavelength-tunable laser for signal remodulation in WDM access networks using DPSK downlink and OOK uplink," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1710-1712 (2009).

A. Chowdhury, H.-C. Chien, M.-F. Huang, J. Yu, G.-K. Chang, "Rayleigh backscattering noise-eliminated 115-km long-reach bidirectional centralized WDM-PON with 10-Gb/s DPSK downstream and remodulated 2.5-Gb/s OCS-SCM upstream signal," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 2081-2083 (2008).

H. D. Kim, S. G. Kang, C. H. Lee, "A low-cost WDM source with an ASE injected Fabry-Perot semiconductor laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1067-1069 (2000).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

J. Yu, M.-F. Huang, D. Qian, L. Chen, G.-K. Chang, "Centralized lightwave WDM-PON employing 16-QAM intensity modulated OFDM downstream and OOK modulated upstream signals," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1545-1547 (2008).

Q. T. Nguyen, P. Besnard, L. Bramerie, A. Shen, C. Kazmierski, P. Chanlou, G.-H. Duan, J. C. Simon, "Bidirectional 2.5-Gb/s WDM-PON using FP-LDs wavelength-locked by a multiple-wavelength seeding source based on a mode-locked laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 733-735 (2010).

W. Lee, M. Y. Park, S. H. Cho, J. Lee, C. Kim, G. Jeong, B. W. Kim, "Bidirectional WDM-PON based on gain-saturated reflective semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2460-2462 (2005).

J. Lightw. Technol. (4)

M. Fujiwara, J. Kani, H. Suzuki, K. Iwatsuki, "Impact of backreflection on upstream transmission in WDM single-fiber loopback access networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 740-746 (2006).

C. Arellano, K.-D. Langer, J. Prat, "Reflections and multiple Rayleigh backscattering in WDM single-fiber loopback access networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 12-18 (2009).

H. W. Hu, H. Anis, "Degradation of bi-directional single fiber transmission in WDM-PON due to beat noise," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 870-881 (2008).

G. Talli, P. D. Townsend, "Hybrid DWDM-TDM long-reach PON for next-generation optical access," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 2827-2834 (2006).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

B. Schrenk, F. Bonada, J. A. Lazaro, J. Prat, "Remotely pumped long-reach hybrid PON with wavelength reuse in RSOA-based ONU," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 635-641 (2011).

J. Lightw. Technol. (3)

J. M. Oh, S. G. Koo, D. Lee, S.-J. Park, "Enhancement of the performance of a reflective SOA-based hybrid WDM/TDM PON system with a remotely pumped erbium-doped fiber amplifier," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 144-149 (2008).

K. Y. Cho, K. Tanaka, T. Sano, S. P. Jung, J. H. Chang, Y. Takushima, A. Agata, Y. Horiuchi, M. Suzuki, Y. C. Chung, "Long-reach coherent WDM PON employing self-polarization-stabilization technique," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 456-462 (2011).

S. J. Park, C. H. Lee, K. T. Jeong, H. J. Park, J. G. Ahn, K. H. Song, "Fiber-to-the-home services based on wavelength-division-multiplexing passive optical network," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 2582-2591 (2004).

J. Opt. Commun. Netw. (2)

J. Optic. Network. (2)

J. H. Yu, N. Kim, B. W. Kim, "Remodulation schemes with reflective SOA for colorless DWDM PON," J. Optic. Network. 6, 1041-1054 (2007).

C.-H. Lee, S.-M. Lee, K.-M. Choi, J.-H. Moon, S.-G. Mun, K.-T. Jeong, J. H. Kim, B. Kim, "WDM-PON experiences in Korea (invited paper)," J. Optic. Network. 6, 451-464 (2007).

Opt. Exp. (1)

C. W. Chow, C. H. Yeh, "Mitigation of Rayleigh backscattering in 10-Gb/s downstream and 2.5-Gb/s upstream DWDM 100-km long-reach PONs," Opt. Exp. 19, 4970-4976 (2011).

Opt. Expr. (1)

S.-C. Lin, S.-L. Lee, C.-K. Liu, "Simple approach for bidirectional performance enhancement on WDM-PONs with direct-modulation lasers and RSOAs," Opt. Expr. 16, 3636-3643 (2008).

Other (9)

H.-H. Lin, C.-Y. Lee, S.-C. Lin, S.-L. Lee, G. Keiser, "WDM-PON systems using cross-remodulation to double network capacity with reduced rayleigh scattering effects," OFC/NFOEC San DiegoCA (2008) OTuH6.

S.-C. Lin, Y.-L. Shiu, S.-L. Lee, "Simultaneous bidirectional wire-line and wireless signal transmission based on a cross-remodulation WDM-PON," 36th ECOC TorinoItaly (2010) P6.21.

M. Düser, "A review of past, present and future optical networks: Optics is driving structural change," OFC/NFOEC Los AngelesCA (2011).

D. Breuer, R. Hülsermann, C. Lange, T. Monath, E. Weis, "Architectural options and challenges for next generation optical access," Euro. Conf. Exhib. Opt. Commun. (ECOC) TorinoItaly (2010) Paper Mo.2.B.1.

E. Wong, "Current and next-generation broadband access technologies," OFC/NFOEC Los AngelesCA (2011).

A. Borghesani, "Reflective based active semiconductor components for next generation optical access networks," ECOC TorinoItaly MO.1.B.1.

S. P. Jung, Y. Takushima, K. Y. Cho, S. J. Park, Y. C. Chung, "Demonstration of RSOA-based WDM PON employing self-homodyne receiver with high reflection tolerance," OFC/NFOEC San DiegoCA (2009) Paper JWA69.

J. Bauwelinck, B. Schrenk, C. Kazmierski, J. A. Lazaro, J. Prat, X. Z. Qiu, "Multi-operability and dynamic bandwidth allocation in PONs with electrically reconfigurable SOA/REAM-based ONUs," 36th Euro. Conf. Exhib. Opt. Commun. (ECOC) TorinoItaly (2010) Paper Th.10.B.4.

N. Cheng, F. Effenberger, "System impairments and performance implications of ASE seeded WDM PON systems," Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf. (NFOEC) Los AngelesCA (2011) paper NTuB2.

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