In the regime of strong mode coupling, the modal gains and losses and the modal group delays of a multimode fiber are known to have well-defined statistical properties. In mode-division multiplexing, mode-dependent gains and losses are known to cause fluctuations in the channel capacity, so that the capacity at finite outage probability can be substantially lower than the average capacity. Mode-dependent gains and losses, when frequency-dependent, have a coherence bandwidth that is inversely proportional to the modal group delay spread. When mode-division-multiplexed signals occupy a bandwidth far larger than the coherence bandwidth, the mode-dependent gains and losses are averaged over frequency, causing the outage capacity to approach the average capacity. The difference between the average and outage capacities is found to be inversely proportional to the square-root of a diversity order that is given approximately by the ratio of the signal bandwidth to the coherence bandwidth.
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