Abstract

We report on a hybrid DWDM-TDMA optical access network that provides a route for integrating access and metro networks into a single all-optical system. The greatest challenge in using DWDM in optical access networks is to precisely align the wavelength of the customer transmitter (Tx) with a DWDM wavelength grid at low cost. Here, this was achieved using novel tunable, external cavity lasers in the optical network units (ONUs) at the customer's end. To further support the upstream link, a 10 Gb/s burst mode receiver (BMRx) was developed and gain-stabilized erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFAs) were used in the network experiments. The experimental results show that 10 Gb/s bit rates can be achieved both in the downstream and upstream (operated in burst mode) direction over a reach of 100 km. Up to 32 × 50 GHz spaced downstream wavelengths and another 32 × 50 GHz spaced upstream wavelengths can be supported. A 512 split per wavelength was achieved: the network is then capable of distributing a symmetric 320 Gb/s capacity to 16384 customers. The proposed architecture is a potential candidate for future optical access networks. Indeed it spreads the cost of the network equipment over a very large customer base, allows for node consolidation and integration of metro and optical access networks into an all-optical system.

© 2011 IEEE

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2011 (2)

P. Ossieur, C. Antony, A. M. Clarke, A. Naughton, H.-G. Krimmel, Y. Chang, C. Ford, A. Borghesani, D. G. Moodie, A. Poustie, R. Wyatt, B. Harmon, I. Lealman, G. Maxwell, D. Rogers, D. W. Smith, D. Nesset, R. P. Davey, P. D. Townsend, "A 135 km, 8192-split, carrier distributed DWDM-TDMA PON with 2 × 32 × 10 Gb/s capacity," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 463-473 (2011).

S. Jain, F. Effenberger, A. Szabo, Z. Feng, A. Forcucci, W. Guo, Y. Luo, R. Mapes, Y. Zhang, V. O'Byrne, "World's first XG-PON field trial," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 524-528 (2011).

2010 (4)

D. Lavery, M. Ionescu, S. Makovejs, E. Torrengo, S. J. Savory, "A long-reach ultra-dense 10 Gbit/s WDM-PON using a digital coherent receiver," Opt. Expr. 18, 25855-25860 (2010).

C. W. Chow, L. Xu, C. H. Yeh, H. K. Tsang, W. Hofmann, M. C. Amann, "40-Gb/s upstream transmitters using directly modulated 1.55-\mu VCSEL array for high-split-ratio PONs," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 347-350 (2010).

B. Schrenk, G. de Valicourt, J. A. Lazaro, R. Brenot, J. Prat, "Rayleigh scattering tolerant PON assisted by four-wave mixing in SOA-based ONUs," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 3364-3371 (2010).

J. J. Zhang, N. Ansari, "Design of WDM PON with tunable lasers: The upstream scenario," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 228-236 (2010).

2009 (4)

S.-J. Park, Y.-B. Choi, S.-P. Jung, K. Y. Cho, Y. Takushima, Y. C. Chung, "Hybrid WDM/TDMA-PON using self-homodyne and differential coding," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 465-467 (2009).

S. Jatta, B. Kogel, M. Maute, K. Zogal, F. Riemenschneider, G. Bohm, M.-C. Amann, P. Meißner, "Bulk-micromachined VCSEL at 1.55 \mum with 76-nm single-mode continuous tuning range," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1822-1824 (2009).

J. Kani, F. Bourgart, A. Cui, A. Rafel, M. Campbell, R. Davey, S. Rodrigues, "Next-generation PON—Part I: Technology roadmap and general requirements," IEEE Comm. Mag. 47, 50-57 (2009).

R. P. Davey, D. B. Grossman, M. Rasztovits-Wiech, D. B. Payne, D. Nesset, A. E. Kelly, A. Rafel, S. Appathurai, S.-H. Yang, "Long-reach passive optical networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 273-291 (2009).

2008 (6)

J. Yu, M.-F. Huang, D. Qian, L. Chen, G.-K. Chang, "Centralized lightwave WDM-PON employing 16-QAM intensity modulated OFDM downstream and OOK modulated upstream signals," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1545-1548 (2008).

C. Antony, "High extinction switching of SOAs for in-band crosstalk reduction in PON," Electron. Lett. 44, 872-873 (2008).

B. Baekelandt, C. Mélange, J. Bauwelinck, P. Ossieur, T. De Ridder, X. Z. Qiu, J. Vandewege, "OSNR penalty imposed by linear in-band crosstalk caused by interburst residual power in multipoint-to-point networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 587-589 (2008).

T. De Ridder, P. Ossieur, C. Melange, B. Baekelandt, J. Bauwelinck, X. Z. Qiu, J. Vandewege, "10 Gbit/s burst-mode post-amplifier with automatic reset," IEE Elect. Lett. 44, 1371-1373 (2008).

S. Nishihara, "A burst-mode 3R receiver for 10-Gbit/s PON systems with high sensitivity, wide dynamic range, and fast response," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 99-107 (2008).

B. Mroziewicz, "External cavity wavelength tunable semiconductor lasers—A review," Opto-Electron. Rev. 16, 347-366 (2008).

2007 (1)

G. Talli, "Rayleigh noise mitigation in long-reach hybrid DWDM-TDM PONs," J. Opt. Networking 6, 765-775 (2007).

2006 (5)

K. I. Kitayama, X. Wang, N. Wada, "OCDMA over WDM PON: solution path to gigabit-symmetric FTTH," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 1654-1662 (2006).

J. Buus, E. J. Murphy, "Tunable lasers in optical networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 5-10 (2006).

G. Talli, P. D. Townsend, "Hybrid DWDM-TDM long-reach PON for next-generation optical access," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 2827-2834 (2006).

K. Mizutani, J. De Merlier, S. Sudo, K. Sato, K. Kudo, "Liquid crystal mirror-based wavelength-tunable laser module with asynchronous mode cavity," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1299-1301 (2006).

P. Ossieur, T. De Ridder, X.-Z. Qiu, J. Vandewege, "Influence of random dc-offsets on burst-mode receiver sensitivity," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 1543-1550 (2006).

2005 (3)

P. Ossieur, D. Verhulst, Y. Martens, W. Chen, J. Bauwelinck, X. Z. Qiu, J. Vandewege, "A 1.25-Gb/s burst-mode receiver for GPON applications," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 40, 1180-1189 (2005).

A. Banerjee, F. Clarke, H. Song, S. Yang, G. Kramer, K. Kim, B. Mukherjee, "Wavelength-division-multiplexed passive optical network (WDM-PON) technologies for broadband access: A review [Invited]," J. Optical Network. 4, 737-758 (2005).

C. Bock, J. Prat, S. D. Walker, "Hybrid WDM/TDM PON using the AWG FSR and featuring centralized light generation and dynamic bandwidth allocation," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 3981-3988 (2005).

2004 (4)

F. T. An, K. S. Kim, D. Gutierrez, S. Yam, E. Hu, K. Shrikhande, L. G. Kazovsky, "SUCCESS: A next-generation hybrid WDM/TDM optical access network architecture," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, (2004).

A. J. Ward, D. J. Robbins, D. C. J. Reid, N. D. Whitbread, G. Busico, P. J. Williams, J. P. Duck, D. Childs, A. C. Carter, "Realization of phase grating comb reflectors and their application to widely tunable DBR lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2427-2429 (2004).

K. Takabayashi, K. Takada, N. Hashimoto, M. Doi, S. Tomabechi, T. Nakazawa, K. Morito, "Widely (132 nm) wavelength tunable laser using a semiconductor optical amplifier and an acousto-optic tunable filter," IEE Electron. Lett. 40, 1187-1188 (2004).

S. J. Park, C. H. Lee, K. T. Jeong, H. J. Park, J. G. Ahn, K. H. Song, "Fiber-to-the-home services based on wavelength-division-multiplexing passive optical network," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 2582-2591 (2004).

2002 (2)

B. Pezeshki, E. Vail, J. Kubicky, G. Yoffe, S. Zou, J. Heanue, P. Epp, S. Rishton, D. Ton, B. Faraji, M. Emanuel, X. Hong, M. Sherback, V. Agrawal, C. Chipman, T. Razazan, "20-mW widely tunable laser module using DFB array and MEMS selection," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1457-1459 (2002).

L. Levin, "Mode-hop-free electro-optically tuned diode laser," Optics Letters 27, 237-239 (2002).

1993 (2)

V. Jayaraman, A. Mathur, L. A. Coldren, P. D. Dapkus, "Extended tuning range in sampled grating DBR lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 489-491 (1993).

H. Ishii, Y. Tohmori, Y. Yoshikuni, T. Tamamura, Y. Kondo, "Multiple-phase shift super structure grating DBR lasers for broad wavelength tuning," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 613-615 (1993).

Electron. Lett. (1)

C. Antony, "High extinction switching of SOAs for in-band crosstalk reduction in PON," Electron. Lett. 44, 872-873 (2008).

IEE Elect. Lett. (1)

T. De Ridder, P. Ossieur, C. Melange, B. Baekelandt, J. Bauwelinck, X. Z. Qiu, J. Vandewege, "10 Gbit/s burst-mode post-amplifier with automatic reset," IEE Elect. Lett. 44, 1371-1373 (2008).

IEE Electron. Lett. (1)

K. Takabayashi, K. Takada, N. Hashimoto, M. Doi, S. Tomabechi, T. Nakazawa, K. Morito, "Widely (132 nm) wavelength tunable laser using a semiconductor optical amplifier and an acousto-optic tunable filter," IEE Electron. Lett. 40, 1187-1188 (2004).

IEEE Comm. Mag. (1)

J. Kani, F. Bourgart, A. Cui, A. Rafel, M. Campbell, R. Davey, S. Rodrigues, "Next-generation PON—Part I: Technology roadmap and general requirements," IEEE Comm. Mag. 47, 50-57 (2009).

IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits (1)

P. Ossieur, D. Verhulst, Y. Martens, W. Chen, J. Bauwelinck, X. Z. Qiu, J. Vandewege, "A 1.25-Gb/s burst-mode receiver for GPON applications," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 40, 1180-1189 (2005).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (10)

K. Mizutani, J. De Merlier, S. Sudo, K. Sato, K. Kudo, "Liquid crystal mirror-based wavelength-tunable laser module with asynchronous mode cavity," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1299-1301 (2006).

S. Jatta, B. Kogel, M. Maute, K. Zogal, F. Riemenschneider, G. Bohm, M.-C. Amann, P. Meißner, "Bulk-micromachined VCSEL at 1.55 \mum with 76-nm single-mode continuous tuning range," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1822-1824 (2009).

B. Baekelandt, C. Mélange, J. Bauwelinck, P. Ossieur, T. De Ridder, X. Z. Qiu, J. Vandewege, "OSNR penalty imposed by linear in-band crosstalk caused by interburst residual power in multipoint-to-point networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 587-589 (2008).

B. Pezeshki, E. Vail, J. Kubicky, G. Yoffe, S. Zou, J. Heanue, P. Epp, S. Rishton, D. Ton, B. Faraji, M. Emanuel, X. Hong, M. Sherback, V. Agrawal, C. Chipman, T. Razazan, "20-mW widely tunable laser module using DFB array and MEMS selection," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1457-1459 (2002).

V. Jayaraman, A. Mathur, L. A. Coldren, P. D. Dapkus, "Extended tuning range in sampled grating DBR lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 489-491 (1993).

H. Ishii, Y. Tohmori, Y. Yoshikuni, T. Tamamura, Y. Kondo, "Multiple-phase shift super structure grating DBR lasers for broad wavelength tuning," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 613-615 (1993).

A. J. Ward, D. J. Robbins, D. C. J. Reid, N. D. Whitbread, G. Busico, P. J. Williams, J. P. Duck, D. Childs, A. C. Carter, "Realization of phase grating comb reflectors and their application to widely tunable DBR lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2427-2429 (2004).

C. W. Chow, L. Xu, C. H. Yeh, H. K. Tsang, W. Hofmann, M. C. Amann, "40-Gb/s upstream transmitters using directly modulated 1.55-\mu VCSEL array for high-split-ratio PONs," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 347-350 (2010).

J. Yu, M.-F. Huang, D. Qian, L. Chen, G.-K. Chang, "Centralized lightwave WDM-PON employing 16-QAM intensity modulated OFDM downstream and OOK modulated upstream signals," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1545-1548 (2008).

S.-J. Park, Y.-B. Choi, S.-P. Jung, K. Y. Cho, Y. Takushima, Y. C. Chung, "Hybrid WDM/TDMA-PON using self-homodyne and differential coding," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 465-467 (2009).

J. Lightw. Technol. (14)

F. T. An, K. S. Kim, D. Gutierrez, S. Yam, E. Hu, K. Shrikhande, L. G. Kazovsky, "SUCCESS: A next-generation hybrid WDM/TDM optical access network architecture," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, (2004).

C. Bock, J. Prat, S. D. Walker, "Hybrid WDM/TDM PON using the AWG FSR and featuring centralized light generation and dynamic bandwidth allocation," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 3981-3988 (2005).

G. Talli, P. D. Townsend, "Hybrid DWDM-TDM long-reach PON for next-generation optical access," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 2827-2834 (2006).

S. J. Park, C. H. Lee, K. T. Jeong, H. J. Park, J. G. Ahn, K. H. Song, "Fiber-to-the-home services based on wavelength-division-multiplexing passive optical network," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 2582-2591 (2004).

J. J. Zhang, N. Ansari, "Design of WDM PON with tunable lasers: The upstream scenario," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 228-236 (2010).

P. Ossieur, C. Antony, A. M. Clarke, A. Naughton, H.-G. Krimmel, Y. Chang, C. Ford, A. Borghesani, D. G. Moodie, A. Poustie, R. Wyatt, B. Harmon, I. Lealman, G. Maxwell, D. Rogers, D. W. Smith, D. Nesset, R. P. Davey, P. D. Townsend, "A 135 km, 8192-split, carrier distributed DWDM-TDMA PON with 2 × 32 × 10 Gb/s capacity," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 463-473 (2011).

B. Schrenk, G. de Valicourt, J. A. Lazaro, R. Brenot, J. Prat, "Rayleigh scattering tolerant PON assisted by four-wave mixing in SOA-based ONUs," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 3364-3371 (2010).

K. I. Kitayama, X. Wang, N. Wada, "OCDMA over WDM PON: solution path to gigabit-symmetric FTTH," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 1654-1662 (2006).

K. Y. Cho, K. Tanaka, T. Sano, S. P. Jung, J. H. Sang, Y. Takushima, A. Agata, Y. Horiuchi, M. Suzuki, Y. C. Chung, "Long-reach coherent WDM PON employing self-polarization-stabilization technique," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 456-462.

R. P. Davey, D. B. Grossman, M. Rasztovits-Wiech, D. B. Payne, D. Nesset, A. E. Kelly, A. Rafel, S. Appathurai, S.-H. Yang, "Long-reach passive optical networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 273-291 (2009).

J. Buus, E. J. Murphy, "Tunable lasers in optical networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 5-10 (2006).

S. Jain, F. Effenberger, A. Szabo, Z. Feng, A. Forcucci, W. Guo, Y. Luo, R. Mapes, Y. Zhang, V. O'Byrne, "World's first XG-PON field trial," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 524-528 (2011).

S. Nishihara, "A burst-mode 3R receiver for 10-Gbit/s PON systems with high sensitivity, wide dynamic range, and fast response," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 99-107 (2008).

P. Ossieur, T. De Ridder, X.-Z. Qiu, J. Vandewege, "Influence of random dc-offsets on burst-mode receiver sensitivity," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 1543-1550 (2006).

J. Opt. Networking (1)

G. Talli, "Rayleigh noise mitigation in long-reach hybrid DWDM-TDM PONs," J. Opt. Networking 6, 765-775 (2007).

J. Optical Network. (1)

A. Banerjee, F. Clarke, H. Song, S. Yang, G. Kramer, K. Kim, B. Mukherjee, "Wavelength-division-multiplexed passive optical network (WDM-PON) technologies for broadband access: A review [Invited]," J. Optical Network. 4, 737-758 (2005).

Opt. Expr. (1)

D. Lavery, M. Ionescu, S. Makovejs, E. Torrengo, S. J. Savory, "A long-reach ultra-dense 10 Gbit/s WDM-PON using a digital coherent receiver," Opt. Expr. 18, 25855-25860 (2010).

Optics Letters (1)

L. Levin, "Mode-hop-free electro-optically tuned diode laser," Optics Letters 27, 237-239 (2002).

Opto-Electron. Rev. (1)

B. Mroziewicz, "External cavity wavelength tunable semiconductor lasers—A review," Opto-Electron. Rev. 16, 347-366 (2008).

Other (31)

D. Anthon, J. D. Berger, J. Drake, S. Dutta, A. Fennema, J. D. Grade, S. Hrinya, F. Ilkov, J. H. Jerman, D. King, H. Lee, A. Tselikov, K. Yasumura, "External cavity diode lasers tuned with silicon MEMS," Optical Fiber Communication Conf. WashingtonDC (2002) Paper TuO7.

T. Mukaihara, Y. Nakagawa, H. Nasu, H. Kambayashi, M. Oike, S. Yoshimi, T. Kurobe, T. Kimoto, K. Muranushi, T. Nomura, A. Kasukawa, "High power, low noise, low power consumption, 25 GHz × 180 ch. thermally tunable DFB laser module integrated with stable wavelength monitor," Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC) RiminiItaly (2003) Paper We4.P.81.

J. O. Westerstrom, G. Sarlet, S. Hammerfeldt, L. Lundqvist, P. Szabo, P. J. Rigole, "State-of-the-art performance of widely tunable modulated grating Y-branch lasers," Optical Fiber Conf. (OFC) Los AngelesCA (2004) Paper TuE2.

K. L. Lee, J. L. Riding, A. V. Tran, R. S. Tucker, "Extended-reach gigabit passive optical network for rural areas using distributed Raman amplifiers," Optical Fiber Conf. (OFC) San DiegoUSA (2008) Paper NME3.

B. Zhu, D. Nesset, "GPON reach extension to 60 km with entirely passive fibre plant using Raman amplification," Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC) ViennaAustria (2009) Paper 8.5.5.

K.-I. Suzuki, M. Fujiwara, T. Imai, N. Yoshimoto, H. Hadama, "128 × 8 split and 60 km long-reach PON transmission using 27 dB-gain hybrid burst-mode optical fiber amplifier and commercial giga-bit PON system," Optical Fiber Conf. (OFC) San DiegoUS (2010) Paper NWB3.

P. Ossieur, T. De Ridder, J. Bauwelinck, C. Melange, B. Baekelandt, X. Z. Qiu, J. Vandewege, G. Talli, C. Antony, P. D. Townsend, C. Ford, "A 10 Gb/s burst-mode receiver with automatic reset generation and burst detection for extended reach PONs," Optical Fiber Conf. (OFC) San Diego (2009) Paper OWH3.

H. G. Krimmel, T. Pfeiffer, B. Deppisch, L. Jentsch, "Hybrid electro-optical feedback gain-stabilized EDFAs for long-reach wavelength-multiplexed passive optical networks," Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC) ViennaAustria (2009) Paper 9.5.3.

J. Kani, N. Yoshimoto, "Next generation PONs: An operator's view," Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC) ViennaAustria (2009) Paper 5.7.4.

E. H. Salas, "A 2.5 Gb/s edge-detecting burst-mode receiver for GPON access networks," Optical Fiber Conf. (OFC) (2006) Paper OThK6.

K. Hara, "A 1.25/10.3-Gbit/s AC-coupled dual-rate burst-mode receiver without reset signals," Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC) BrusselsBelgium (2008) Paper We.2.F.1.

T. De Ridder, P. Ossieur, B. Baekelandt, C. Mélange, J. Bauwelinck, C. Ford, X.-Z. Qiu, J. Vandewege, "A 2.7 V 9.8 Gb/s burst-mode TIA with fast automatic gain locking and coarse threshold extraction," Tech. Dig. ISSCC (2008) pp. 220-221.

H. Rohde, S. Smolorz, E. Gottwald, K. Kloppe, "Next generation optical access: 1 Gbit/s for everyone," Eur. Conf. on Optical Communication (ECOC) ViennaAustria (2009) Paper Tu3.B.1.

S. Smolorz, E. Gottwald, H. Rohde, D. Smith, A. Poustie, "Demonstration of a Coherent UDWDM-PON with real-time processing," Optical Fiber Conf. (OFC) Los Angeles (2011) Postdeadline Paper PDPD4.

D. Qian, N. Cvijetic, J. Hu, T. Wang, "108 Gb/s OFDMA-PON with polarization multiplexing and direct detection," Optical Fiber Conf. (OFC) San Diego, CAUS (2009) Postdeadline Paper PDPD5.

N. Cvijetic, D. Qian, J. Hu, T. Wang, "44-Gb/s/\lambda upstream OFDMA-PON transmission with polarization-insensitive source-free ONUs," Optical Fiber Conf. (OFC) San DiegoUS (2010) Paper OTuO2.

N. Cvijetic, M.-F. Huang, E. Ip, Y.-K. Huang, D. Qian, T. Wang, "1.2 Tb/s symmetric WDM-OFDMA-PON over 90 km straight SSMF and 1:32 passive split with digitally-selective ONUs and coherent receiver OLT," Optical Fiber Conf. (OFC) Los Angeles, CA (2011) Postdeadline Paper PDPD7.

P. P. Iannone, "A 40 Gb/s CWDM-TDM PON with a cyclic CWDM multiplexer/demultiplexer," Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC) ViennaAustria (2009) Paper 8.5.6.

P. P. Iannone, K. Reichmann, K. C. Brinton, J. Nakagawa, T. Cusick, M. Kimber, C. R. Doerr, L. Buhl, M. Cappuzzo, E. Chen, L. Gomez, J. Johnson, A. Kanan, J. Lentz, F. Chang, B. Palsdottir, T. Tokle, L. Spiekman, "Bi-directionally amplified extended reach 40 Gb/s CWDM-TDM PON with burst-mode upstream transmission," Optical Fiber Conf. (OFC) Los Angeles, CA (2011) Postdeadline paper PDPD6.

K. Kanonakis, "Accordance: A novel OFDMA-PON paradigm for ultra-high capacity converged wireline-wireless access networks," Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON) MunichGermany (2010).

10 Gb/s Ethernet Passive Optical Networks (2009) IEEE P802.3av.

10-Gigabit-Capable Passive Optical Network (XGPON): General Requirements (2010) ITU-T G.987.1.

10-Gigabit-Capable Passive Optical Network (XGPON): Physical Media Dependent (PMD) Layer Specification (2010) ITU-T G.987.2.

10-Gigabit-Capable Passive Optical Network (XGPON) Systems: Transmission Convergence Layer Specification (2010) ITU-T G.987.3.

D. W. Smith, "Reducing the optical component cost for future fibre access," Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC) ViennaAustria (2009) Paper 4.7.4.

D. W. Smith, I. Lealman, X. Chen, D. Moodie, P. Cannard, J. Dosanjh, L. Rivers, C. Ford, R. Cronin, T. Kerr, L. Johnston, R. Waller, R. Firth, A. Borghesani, R. Wyatt, A. Poustie, "Colorless 10 Gb/s reflective SOA-EAM with low polarization sensitivity for long-reach DWDM-PON networks," Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC) ViennaAustria (2009) Paper 8.6.3.

J. Prat, J. Lazaro, P. Chanclou, R. Soila, A. M. Gallardo, A. Teixeira, G. M. TosiBeleffi, I. Tomkos, "Results from EU project SARDANA on 10G extended reach WDM PONs," Optical Fiber Conf. San Diego (2010) Paper 0ThG5.

C. H. Wang, F. Y. Smith, C. W. Chow, C. H. Yeh, S. Chi, "Using downstream DPSK signal for upstream OOK signal remodulation with RSOA in hybrid WDM-TDM passive optical networks," Optical Fiber Conf. (OFC) San Diego (2009) Paper JWA73.

C. Antony, "Upstream burst-mode operation of a 100 km reach, 16 × 512 split hybrid DWDM-TDM PON using tuneable external cavity lasers at the ONU-side," Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC) ViennaAustria (2009) Paper 8.5.3.

P. Ossieur, "A symmetric 320 Gb/s capable, 100 km extended reach hybrid DWDM-TDMA PON," Optical Fiber Conf. (OFC) San Diego (2010) Paper NWB1.

C. Antony, P. Ossieur, A. M. Clarke, A. Naughton, H.-G. Krimmel, Y. Chang, C. Ford, A. Borghesani, D. G. Moodie, A. Poustie, R. Wyatt, B. Harmon, I. Lealman, G. Maxwell, D. Rogers, D. W. Smith, D. Nesset, R. P. Davey, P. D. Townsend, "Demonstration of a carrier distributed, 8192-split hybrid DWDM-TDMA PON over 124 km field-installed fibers," Optical Fiber Conf. (OFC) San Diego (2010) Postdeadline paper PDPD8.

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