Abstract

To circumvent the challenging issue of Rayleigh noise reduction in wavelength-division-multiplexed passive optical network (WDM-PON), we provide an insight into the source of Rayleigh noise, and confirm that the suppression of carrier Rayleigh backscattering (RB) should be the primary target in the design of Rayleigh noise-resilient upstream receiver module for a transmission reach up to 60 km. Then we propose and demonstrate a novel scheme to effectively suppress the carrier RB in carrier-distributed WDM-PONs. By simply replacing the upstream modulation format of conventional on-off keying (OOK) with differential phase-shift keying (DPSK), the system tolerance to carrier RB is substantially enhanced by 19 dB, as the carrier RB can be considerably rejected by the notch filter-like destructive port of the delay-interferometer (DI) at the optical line terminal (OLT), which is used simultaneously to demodulate the upstream DPSK signal. The dependence of carrier RB suppression on DI's extinction ratio (ER) and optical carrier's line width is also theoretically analyzed. Experimental demonstration of 10-Gb/s upstream signal is achieved with less than 2.5-dB power penalty induced by Rayleigh noise after the transmission in 60-km single mode fiber, without using any amplifier in outside plant. The relation between system margin and the gain of optical network unit (ONU) is also studied.

© 2011 IEEE

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  1. G. K. Chang, A. Chowdhury, Z. S. Jia, H. C. Chien, M. F. Huang, J. J. Yu, G. Ellinas, "Key technologies of WDM-PON for future converged optical broadband access networks [invited]," J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 1, C35-C50 (2009).
  2. N. J. Frigo, P. P. Iannone, P. D. Magill, T. E. Darcie, M. M. Downs, B. N. Desai, U. Koren, T. L. Koch, C. Dragone, H. M. Presby, G. E. Bodeep, "A wavelength-division multiplexed passive optical network with cost-shared components," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1365-1367 (1994).
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  7. I. T. Monroy, E. Tangdiongga, R. Jonker, H. de Waardt, "Interferometric crosstalk reduction by phase scrambling," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 637-646 (2000).
  8. M. Feuer, M. Thomas, L. Lunardi, "Backreflection and loss in single fiber loopback networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1106-1108 (2000).
  9. A. Chiuchiarelli, M. Presi, R. Proietti, G. Contestabile, P. Choudhury, L. Giorgi, E. Ciaramella, "Enhancing resilience to Rayleigh crosstalk by means of line coding and electrical filtering," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 85-87 (2010).
  10. D. Jorgesen, C. F. Marki, S. Esener, "Improved high pass filtering for passive optical networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1144-1146 (2010).
  11. J. Prat, "Rayleigh back-scattering reduction by means of quantized feedback equalization in WDM-PONs," ECOC (2010) paper Th.10.B.3.
  12. P. J. Urban, A. M. J. Koonen, G. D. Khoe, H. de Waardt, "Interferometric crosstalk reduction in an RSOA-based WDM passive optical network," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 4943-4953 (2009).
  13. T. Yoshida, S. Kimura, H. Kimura, K. Kumozaki, T. Imai, "A new single-fiber 10-Gb/s optical loopback method using phase modulation for WDM optical access networks," J. Lightw Technol. 24, 786-796 (2006).
  14. C. W. Chow, G. Talli, P. D. Townsend, "Rayleigh noise reduction in 10-Gb/s DWDM-PONs by wavelength detuning and phase-modulation-induced spectral broadening," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 423-425 (2007).
  15. A. Chowdhury, H.-C. Chien, M.-F. Huang, J. Yu, G.-K. Chang, "Rayleigh backscattering noise-eliminated 115-km long-reach bidirectional centralized WDM-PON with 10-Gb/s DPSK downstream and remodulated 2.5-Gb/s OCS-SCM upstream signal," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 2081-2083 (2008).
  16. C. W. Chow, G. Talli, A. D. Ellis, P. D. Townsend, "Rayleigh noise mitigation in DWDM LR-PONs using carrier suppressed subcarrier- amplitude modulated phase shift keying," Opt. Expr. 16, 1860-1866 (2008).
  17. J. Xu, L. K. Chen, "Optical phase remodulation for 10-Gb/s WDM-PON with enhanced tolerance to Rayleigh noise," OFC/NFOEC (2010) Paper OThG3.
  18. J. Xu, L. K. Chen, C. K. Chan, "Phase-modulation-based loopback scheme for Rayleigh noise suppression in 10-Gb/s carrierdistributed WDM-PONs," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1343-1345 (2010).
  19. M. Fujiwara, J. Kani, H. Suzuki, K. Iwatsuki, "Impact of backre-flection on upstream transmission in WDM single-fiber loopback access networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 740-746 (2006).
  20. K. Y. Cho, Y. J. Lee, H. Y. Choi, A. Murakami, A. Agata, Y. Takushima, Y. C. Chung, "Effects of reflection in RSOA-based WDM PON utilizing remodulation technique," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, (2009).
  21. X. Liu, A. H. Gnauck, X. Wei, J. Y. C. Hsieh, V. Chien, "A thermal optical demodulator for OC-768 DPSK and RZ-DPSK signals," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2610-2612 (2005).
  22. P. Gysel, R. K. Staubli, "Statistical properties of Rayleigh backscattering in single-mode fibers," J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 561-567 (1990).
  23. S. K. Liaw, S. L. Tzeng, Y. J. Hung, "Rayleigh backscattering induced power penalty on bidirectional wavelength-reuse fiber systems," Opt. Commun. 188, 63-67 (2001).
  24. G. Keiser, Optical Fiber Communications (McGraw-Hill, 2000).
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  26. J. Zhang, T. Y. Liow, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, "10 Gbps monolithic silicon FTTH transceiver without laser diode for a new PON configuration," Opt. Expr. 18, 5135-5141 (2010).
  27. S. P. Jung, Y. Takushima, Y. C. Chung, "Transmission of 1.25-Gb/s PSK signal generated by using RSOA in 110-km coherent WDM PON," Opt. Expr. 18, 14871-14877 (2010).
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2010 (5)

A. Chiuchiarelli, M. Presi, R. Proietti, G. Contestabile, P. Choudhury, L. Giorgi, E. Ciaramella, "Enhancing resilience to Rayleigh crosstalk by means of line coding and electrical filtering," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 85-87 (2010).

D. Jorgesen, C. F. Marki, S. Esener, "Improved high pass filtering for passive optical networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1144-1146 (2010).

J. Xu, L. K. Chen, C. K. Chan, "Phase-modulation-based loopback scheme for Rayleigh noise suppression in 10-Gb/s carrierdistributed WDM-PONs," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1343-1345 (2010).

J. Zhang, T. Y. Liow, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, "10 Gbps monolithic silicon FTTH transceiver without laser diode for a new PON configuration," Opt. Expr. 18, 5135-5141 (2010).

S. P. Jung, Y. Takushima, Y. C. Chung, "Transmission of 1.25-Gb/s PSK signal generated by using RSOA in 110-km coherent WDM PON," Opt. Expr. 18, 14871-14877 (2010).

2009 (3)

K. Y. Cho, Y. J. Lee, H. Y. Choi, A. Murakami, A. Agata, Y. Takushima, Y. C. Chung, "Effects of reflection in RSOA-based WDM PON utilizing remodulation technique," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, (2009).

P. J. Urban, A. M. J. Koonen, G. D. Khoe, H. de Waardt, "Interferometric crosstalk reduction in an RSOA-based WDM passive optical network," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 4943-4953 (2009).

G. K. Chang, A. Chowdhury, Z. S. Jia, H. C. Chien, M. F. Huang, J. J. Yu, G. Ellinas, "Key technologies of WDM-PON for future converged optical broadband access networks [invited]," J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 1, C35-C50 (2009).

2008 (2)

A. Chowdhury, H.-C. Chien, M.-F. Huang, J. Yu, G.-K. Chang, "Rayleigh backscattering noise-eliminated 115-km long-reach bidirectional centralized WDM-PON with 10-Gb/s DPSK downstream and remodulated 2.5-Gb/s OCS-SCM upstream signal," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 2081-2083 (2008).

C. W. Chow, G. Talli, A. D. Ellis, P. D. Townsend, "Rayleigh noise mitigation in DWDM LR-PONs using carrier suppressed subcarrier- amplitude modulated phase shift keying," Opt. Expr. 16, 1860-1866 (2008).

2007 (2)

C. W. Chow, G. Talli, P. D. Townsend, "Rayleigh noise reduction in 10-Gb/s DWDM-PONs by wavelength detuning and phase-modulation-induced spectral broadening," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 423-425 (2007).

F. Y. Gardes, K. L. Tsakmakidis, D. Thomson, G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, O. Hess, "Micrometer size polarization independent depletion-type photonic modulator in silicon on insulator," Opt. Expr. 15, 5879-5884 (2007).

2006 (2)

M. Fujiwara, J. Kani, H. Suzuki, K. Iwatsuki, "Impact of backre-flection on upstream transmission in WDM single-fiber loopback access networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 740-746 (2006).

T. Yoshida, S. Kimura, H. Kimura, K. Kumozaki, T. Imai, "A new single-fiber 10-Gb/s optical loopback method using phase modulation for WDM optical access networks," J. Lightw Technol. 24, 786-796 (2006).

2005 (1)

X. Liu, A. H. Gnauck, X. Wei, J. Y. C. Hsieh, V. Chien, "A thermal optical demodulator for OC-768 DPSK and RZ-DPSK signals," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2610-2612 (2005).

2001 (1)

S. K. Liaw, S. L. Tzeng, Y. J. Hung, "Rayleigh backscattering induced power penalty on bidirectional wavelength-reuse fiber systems," Opt. Commun. 188, 63-67 (2001).

2000 (3)

M. Feuer, M. Thomas, L. Lunardi, "Backreflection and loss in single-fiber loopback networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1106-1108 (2000).

I. T. Monroy, E. Tangdiongga, R. Jonker, H. de Waardt, "Interferometric crosstalk reduction by phase scrambling," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 637-646 (2000).

M. Feuer, M. Thomas, L. Lunardi, "Backreflection and loss in single fiber loopback networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1106-1108 (2000).

1996 (1)

P. T. Legg, M. Tur, I. Andonovic, "Solution paths to limit interferometric noise induced performance degradation in ASK/direct detection lightwave networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 1943-1953 (1996).

1994 (1)

N. J. Frigo, P. P. Iannone, P. D. Magill, T. E. Darcie, M. M. Downs, B. N. Desai, U. Koren, T. L. Koch, C. Dragone, H. M. Presby, G. E. Bodeep, "A wavelength-division multiplexed passive optical network with cost-shared components," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1365-1367 (1994).

1990 (1)

P. Gysel, R. K. Staubli, "Statistical properties of Rayleigh backscattering in single-mode fibers," J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 561-567 (1990).

1988 (1)

T. H. Wood, R. A. Linke, B. L. Kasper, E. C. Carr, "Observation of coherent Rayleigh noise in single-source bidirectional optical fiber systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 6, 346-352 (1988).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

N. J. Frigo, P. P. Iannone, P. D. Magill, T. E. Darcie, M. M. Downs, B. N. Desai, U. Koren, T. L. Koch, C. Dragone, H. M. Presby, G. E. Bodeep, "A wavelength-division multiplexed passive optical network with cost-shared components," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1365-1367 (1994).

A. Chiuchiarelli, M. Presi, R. Proietti, G. Contestabile, P. Choudhury, L. Giorgi, E. Ciaramella, "Enhancing resilience to Rayleigh crosstalk by means of line coding and electrical filtering," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 85-87 (2010).

A. Chowdhury, H.-C. Chien, M.-F. Huang, J. Yu, G.-K. Chang, "Rayleigh backscattering noise-eliminated 115-km long-reach bidirectional centralized WDM-PON with 10-Gb/s DPSK downstream and remodulated 2.5-Gb/s OCS-SCM upstream signal," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 2081-2083 (2008).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

M. Feuer, M. Thomas, L. Lunardi, "Backreflection and loss in single fiber loopback networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1106-1108 (2000).

D. Jorgesen, C. F. Marki, S. Esener, "Improved high pass filtering for passive optical networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1144-1146 (2010).

M. Feuer, M. Thomas, L. Lunardi, "Backreflection and loss in single-fiber loopback networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1106-1108 (2000).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

C. W. Chow, G. Talli, P. D. Townsend, "Rayleigh noise reduction in 10-Gb/s DWDM-PONs by wavelength detuning and phase-modulation-induced spectral broadening," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 423-425 (2007).

J. Xu, L. K. Chen, C. K. Chan, "Phase-modulation-based loopback scheme for Rayleigh noise suppression in 10-Gb/s carrierdistributed WDM-PONs," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1343-1345 (2010).

X. Liu, A. H. Gnauck, X. Wei, J. Y. C. Hsieh, V. Chien, "A thermal optical demodulator for OC-768 DPSK and RZ-DPSK signals," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2610-2612 (2005).

J. Lightw. Technol. (2)

M. Fujiwara, J. Kani, H. Suzuki, K. Iwatsuki, "Impact of backre-flection on upstream transmission in WDM single-fiber loopback access networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 740-746 (2006).

P. J. Urban, A. M. J. Koonen, G. D. Khoe, H. de Waardt, "Interferometric crosstalk reduction in an RSOA-based WDM passive optical network," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 4943-4953 (2009).

J. Opt. Commun. Netw. (1)

G. K. Chang, A. Chowdhury, Z. S. Jia, H. C. Chien, M. F. Huang, J. J. Yu, G. Ellinas, "Key technologies of WDM-PON for future converged optical broadband access networks [invited]," J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 1, C35-C50 (2009).

J. Lightw Technol. (1)

T. Yoshida, S. Kimura, H. Kimura, K. Kumozaki, T. Imai, "A new single-fiber 10-Gb/s optical loopback method using phase modulation for WDM optical access networks," J. Lightw Technol. 24, 786-796 (2006).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

K. Y. Cho, Y. J. Lee, H. Y. Choi, A. Murakami, A. Agata, Y. Takushima, Y. C. Chung, "Effects of reflection in RSOA-based WDM PON utilizing remodulation technique," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, (2009).

J. Lightw. Technol. (3)

I. T. Monroy, E. Tangdiongga, R. Jonker, H. de Waardt, "Interferometric crosstalk reduction by phase scrambling," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 637-646 (2000).

T. H. Wood, R. A. Linke, B. L. Kasper, E. C. Carr, "Observation of coherent Rayleigh noise in single-source bidirectional optical fiber systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 6, 346-352 (1988).

P. T. Legg, M. Tur, I. Andonovic, "Solution paths to limit interferometric noise induced performance degradation in ASK/direct detection lightwave networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 1943-1953 (1996).

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

P. Gysel, R. K. Staubli, "Statistical properties of Rayleigh backscattering in single-mode fibers," J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 561-567 (1990).

Opt. Expr. (1)

J. Zhang, T. Y. Liow, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, "10 Gbps monolithic silicon FTTH transceiver without laser diode for a new PON configuration," Opt. Expr. 18, 5135-5141 (2010).

Opt. Commun. (1)

S. K. Liaw, S. L. Tzeng, Y. J. Hung, "Rayleigh backscattering induced power penalty on bidirectional wavelength-reuse fiber systems," Opt. Commun. 188, 63-67 (2001).

Opt. Expr. (3)

S. P. Jung, Y. Takushima, Y. C. Chung, "Transmission of 1.25-Gb/s PSK signal generated by using RSOA in 110-km coherent WDM PON," Opt. Expr. 18, 14871-14877 (2010).

F. Y. Gardes, K. L. Tsakmakidis, D. Thomson, G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, O. Hess, "Micrometer size polarization independent depletion-type photonic modulator in silicon on insulator," Opt. Expr. 15, 5879-5884 (2007).

C. W. Chow, G. Talli, A. D. Ellis, P. D. Townsend, "Rayleigh noise mitigation in DWDM LR-PONs using carrier suppressed subcarrier- amplitude modulated phase shift keying," Opt. Expr. 16, 1860-1866 (2008).

Other (5)

J. Xu, L. K. Chen, "Optical phase remodulation for 10-Gb/s WDM-PON with enhanced tolerance to Rayleigh noise," OFC/NFOEC (2010) Paper OThG3.

P. J. Urban, H. De Waardt, E. Ciaramella, A. M. J. Koonen, "Reduction of the influence of optical interferometric crosstalk noise in a WDM-PON system with a reflective semiconductor optical amplifier: An overview," Proc. ICTON (2010).

J. Prat, "Rayleigh back-scattering reduction by means of quantized feedback equalization in WDM-PONs," ECOC (2010) paper Th.10.B.3.

D. Derickson, Fiber Optic Test and Measurement (Prentice-Hall, 1998).

G. Keiser, Optical Fiber Communications (McGraw-Hill, 2000).

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