Abstract

We study the phase and amplitude stability of RF signals, generated at different frequencies by heterodyning pairs of modes from the optical spectrum of an active mode-locked laser, and we focus on the dependence of noise on the RF frequency. A specific theoretical model is derived, and the amplitude and timing jitter behaviour of the RF signals are analyzed and experimentally validated. The timing jitter reveals to be constant at any RF generated frequency, making the considered RF generation method suitable for the realization of flexible and highly stable micro- and millimeter-wave coherent radar transceivers. The performance of the considered RF generation architecture are compared with a state-of-the-art RF synthesizer, proving that the optically generated RF signals meet the high stability requirements of the new generation of coherent radar systems, even at extremely high frequencies (EHF).

© 2011 IEEE

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  1. R. Rzemien, "Coherent Radar: Guest Editor's Introduction," John Hopkins APL Tech. Dig. (1997).
  2. Y. K. Chan, S. Y. Lim, "Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) signal generation," Progr. Electromagn. Res. B (2008).
  3. P. Ghelfi, G. Serafino, F. Berizzi, A. Bogoni, "Generation of highly stable microwave signals based on regenerative fiber mode locking laser," Proc. CLEO (2010).
  4. D. von der Linde, "Characterization of noise in continuously operating mode-locked lasers," Appl. Phys. B 39, 201-217 (1986).
  5. K. K. Gupta, D. Novak, H.-F. Liu, "Noise characterization of a regeneratively mode-locked fiber ring laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 70-78 (2000).
  6. D. Eliyahu, R. A. Salvatore, A. Yariv, "Noise characterization of a pulse train generated by actively mode-locked lasers," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 13, 1619-1626 (1996).
  7. U. Keller, K. D. Li, M. Rodwell, D. M. Bloom, "Noise characterization of femtosecond fiber Raman soliton lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 280-288 (1989).
  8. S. Gee, F. Quinlan, S. Ozrahar, P. Delfyett, "Two-mode beat phase noise of actively modelocked lasers," Opt. Exp. 13, 3977-3982 (2005).
  9. C. Y. Lin, F. Grillot, Y. Li, R. Raghunathan, L. F. Lester, "Characterization of timing jitter in a 5 GHz quantum dot passively mode-locked laser," Opt. Exp. 18, 21932-21937 (2010).
  10. C.-Y. Lin, F. Grillot, Y. Li, R. Raghunathan, L. F. Lester, "Microwave Characterization and Stabilization of Timing Jitter in a Quantum-Dot Passively Mode-Locked Laser via External Optical Feedback," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. .
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  13. H. A. Haus, M. Margalit, C. X. Yu, "Quantum noise of a mode-locked laser," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 17, 1240-1256 (2000).
  14. H. A. Haus, A. Mecozzi, "Noise of mode-locked lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 983-996 (1993).
  15. A. Schlatter, S. C. Zeller, R. Paschotta, U. Keller, "Simultaneous measurement of the phase noise on all optical modes of a mode-locked laser," Appl. Phys. B 88, 385-391 (2007).
  16. P.-T. Ho, "Phase an amplitude fluctuations in a mode-locked laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 1806-1813 (1985).
  17. P. Pérez-Millán, A. Wiberg, P. O. Hedekvist, P. A. Andrekson, M. V. Andrés, "Optical demultiplexing of millimeter-wave subcarriers for wireless channel distribution employing dual wavelength FBGs," Opt. Commun. 275, 335-343 (2007).
  18. K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, J. Albert, "Bragg gratings fabricated in monomode photosensitive optical fiber by UV exposure through a phase mask," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1035-1037 (1993).
  19. J. Bao, X. Zhang, K. Chen, W. Zhou, "Spectra of dual overwritten fiber Bragg grating," Opt. Commun. 188, 31-39 (2001).
  20. A. L. Schawlow, C. H. Townes, "Infrared and optical masers," Phys. Rev. 112, 1940-1949 (1958).
  21. C. H. Henry, "Theory of the linewidth of semiconductor lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 259-264 (1982).
  22. L. Banchi, F. Rossi, M. Ferianis, A. Bogoni, L. Potì, P. Ghelfi, "Synchronization of 3 GHz repetition rate harmonically mode-locked fiber laser for optical timing applications," Proc. DIPAC 2007 .
  23. J. A. Scheer, J. L. Kurtz, Coherent Radar Performance Estimation (Artech House, 1993).

2010 (1)

C. Y. Lin, F. Grillot, Y. Li, R. Raghunathan, L. F. Lester, "Characterization of timing jitter in a 5 GHz quantum dot passively mode-locked laser," Opt. Exp. 18, 21932-21937 (2010).

2007 (2)

A. Schlatter, S. C. Zeller, R. Paschotta, U. Keller, "Simultaneous measurement of the phase noise on all optical modes of a mode-locked laser," Appl. Phys. B 88, 385-391 (2007).

P. Pérez-Millán, A. Wiberg, P. O. Hedekvist, P. A. Andrekson, M. V. Andrés, "Optical demultiplexing of millimeter-wave subcarriers for wireless channel distribution employing dual wavelength FBGs," Opt. Commun. 275, 335-343 (2007).

2005 (1)

S. Gee, F. Quinlan, S. Ozrahar, P. Delfyett, "Two-mode beat phase noise of actively modelocked lasers," Opt. Exp. 13, 3977-3982 (2005).

2004 (1)

R. Paschotta, "Noise of mode-locked lasers (Part II): Timing jitter and other fluctuations," Appl. Phys. B 79, 163-173 (2004).

2001 (1)

J. Bao, X. Zhang, K. Chen, W. Zhou, "Spectra of dual overwritten fiber Bragg grating," Opt. Commun. 188, 31-39 (2001).

2000 (2)

H. A. Haus, M. Margalit, C. X. Yu, "Quantum noise of a mode-locked laser," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 17, 1240-1256 (2000).

K. K. Gupta, D. Novak, H.-F. Liu, "Noise characterization of a regeneratively mode-locked fiber ring laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 70-78 (2000).

1996 (1)

D. Eliyahu, R. A. Salvatore, A. Yariv, "Noise characterization of a pulse train generated by actively mode-locked lasers," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 13, 1619-1626 (1996).

1993 (2)

H. A. Haus, A. Mecozzi, "Noise of mode-locked lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 983-996 (1993).

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, J. Albert, "Bragg gratings fabricated in monomode photosensitive optical fiber by UV exposure through a phase mask," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1035-1037 (1993).

1992 (1)

D. R. Hjelme, A. R. Mickelson, "Theory of timing jitter in actively mode-locked lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1594-1606 (1992).

1989 (1)

U. Keller, K. D. Li, M. Rodwell, D. M. Bloom, "Noise characterization of femtosecond fiber Raman soliton lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 280-288 (1989).

1986 (1)

D. von der Linde, "Characterization of noise in continuously operating mode-locked lasers," Appl. Phys. B 39, 201-217 (1986).

1985 (1)

P.-T. Ho, "Phase an amplitude fluctuations in a mode-locked laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 1806-1813 (1985).

1982 (1)

C. H. Henry, "Theory of the linewidth of semiconductor lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 259-264 (1982).

1958 (1)

A. L. Schawlow, C. H. Townes, "Infrared and optical masers," Phys. Rev. 112, 1940-1949 (1958).

Appl. Phys. B (2)

D. von der Linde, "Characterization of noise in continuously operating mode-locked lasers," Appl. Phys. B 39, 201-217 (1986).

R. Paschotta, "Noise of mode-locked lasers (Part II): Timing jitter and other fluctuations," Appl. Phys. B 79, 163-173 (2004).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, J. Albert, "Bragg gratings fabricated in monomode photosensitive optical fiber by UV exposure through a phase mask," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1035-1037 (1993).

Appl. Phys. B (1)

A. Schlatter, S. C. Zeller, R. Paschotta, U. Keller, "Simultaneous measurement of the phase noise on all optical modes of a mode-locked laser," Appl. Phys. B 88, 385-391 (2007).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

D. R. Hjelme, A. R. Mickelson, "Theory of timing jitter in actively mode-locked lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1594-1606 (1992).

K. K. Gupta, D. Novak, H.-F. Liu, "Noise characterization of a regeneratively mode-locked fiber ring laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 70-78 (2000).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (4)

U. Keller, K. D. Li, M. Rodwell, D. M. Bloom, "Noise characterization of femtosecond fiber Raman soliton lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 280-288 (1989).

P.-T. Ho, "Phase an amplitude fluctuations in a mode-locked laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 1806-1813 (1985).

C. H. Henry, "Theory of the linewidth of semiconductor lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 259-264 (1982).

H. A. Haus, A. Mecozzi, "Noise of mode-locked lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 983-996 (1993).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

C.-Y. Lin, F. Grillot, Y. Li, R. Raghunathan, L. F. Lester, "Microwave Characterization and Stabilization of Timing Jitter in a Quantum-Dot Passively Mode-Locked Laser via External Optical Feedback," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. .

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B (1)

D. Eliyahu, R. A. Salvatore, A. Yariv, "Noise characterization of a pulse train generated by actively mode-locked lasers," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 13, 1619-1626 (1996).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B (1)

H. A. Haus, M. Margalit, C. X. Yu, "Quantum noise of a mode-locked laser," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 17, 1240-1256 (2000).

Opt. Exp. (1)

C. Y. Lin, F. Grillot, Y. Li, R. Raghunathan, L. F. Lester, "Characterization of timing jitter in a 5 GHz quantum dot passively mode-locked laser," Opt. Exp. 18, 21932-21937 (2010).

Opt. Commun. (2)

P. Pérez-Millán, A. Wiberg, P. O. Hedekvist, P. A. Andrekson, M. V. Andrés, "Optical demultiplexing of millimeter-wave subcarriers for wireless channel distribution employing dual wavelength FBGs," Opt. Commun. 275, 335-343 (2007).

J. Bao, X. Zhang, K. Chen, W. Zhou, "Spectra of dual overwritten fiber Bragg grating," Opt. Commun. 188, 31-39 (2001).

Opt. Exp. (1)

S. Gee, F. Quinlan, S. Ozrahar, P. Delfyett, "Two-mode beat phase noise of actively modelocked lasers," Opt. Exp. 13, 3977-3982 (2005).

Phys. Rev. (1)

A. L. Schawlow, C. H. Townes, "Infrared and optical masers," Phys. Rev. 112, 1940-1949 (1958).

Other (5)

L. Banchi, F. Rossi, M. Ferianis, A. Bogoni, L. Potì, P. Ghelfi, "Synchronization of 3 GHz repetition rate harmonically mode-locked fiber laser for optical timing applications," Proc. DIPAC 2007 .

J. A. Scheer, J. L. Kurtz, Coherent Radar Performance Estimation (Artech House, 1993).

R. Rzemien, "Coherent Radar: Guest Editor's Introduction," John Hopkins APL Tech. Dig. (1997).

Y. K. Chan, S. Y. Lim, "Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) signal generation," Progr. Electromagn. Res. B (2008).

P. Ghelfi, G. Serafino, F. Berizzi, A. Bogoni, "Generation of highly stable microwave signals based on regenerative fiber mode locking laser," Proc. CLEO (2010).

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